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  • 1.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lindblom, Pontus
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Lindqvist, Richard
    Haglund, Mats
    Forsberg, Pia
    Overby, Anna K
    Andreassen, Ashild
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Tick-borne encephalitis virus sequenced directly from questing and blood-feeding ticks reveals quasispecies variance.2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e103264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased distribution of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Scandinavia highlights the importance of characterizing novel sequences within the natural foci. In this study, two TBEV strains: the Norwegian Mandal 2009 (questing nymphs pool) and the Swedish Saringe 2009 (blood-fed nymph) were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized. Interestingly, the sequence of Mandal 2009 revealed the shorter form of the TBEV genome, similar to the highly virulent Hypr strain, within the 3' non-coding region (3'NCR). A different genomic structure was found in the 3'NCR of Saringe 2009, as in-depth analysis demonstrated TBEV variants with different lengths within the poly(A) tract. This shows that TBEV quasispecies exists in nature and indicates a putative shift in the quasispecies pool when the virus switches between invertebrate and vertebrate environments. This prompted us to further sequence and analyze the 3'NCRs of additional Scandinavian TBEV strains and control strains, Hypr and Neudoerfl. Toro 2003 and Habo 2011 contained mainly a short (A)3C(A)6 poly(A) tract. A similar pattern was observed for the human TBEV isolates 1993/783 and 1991/4944; however, one clone of 1991/4944 contained an (A)3C(A)11 poly(A) sequence, demonstrating that quasispecies with longer poly(A) could be present in human isolates. Neudoerfl has previously been reported to contain a poly(A) region, but to our surprise the re-sequenced genome contained two major quasispecies variants, both lacking the poly(A) tract. We speculate that the observed differences are important factors for the understanding of virulence, spread, and control of the TBEV.

  • 2.
    Bertrand, Yann J.
    et al.
    Science and Historical Investigations of Evolution Laboratory of Dubá, Dubá, Czech Republic.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Örebro University.
    Norberg, Peter
    Sahlgrenska University.
    Revisiting Recombination Signal in the Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus: A Simulation Approach2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, article id e0164435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hypothesis of wide spread reticulate evolution in Tick-Borne Encephalitis virus (TBEV) has recently gained momentum with several publications describing past recombination events involving various TBEV clades. Despite a large body of work, no consensus has yet emerged on TBEV evolutionary dynamics. Understanding the occurrence and frequency of recombination in TBEV bears significant impact on epidemiology, evolution, and vaccination with live vaccines. In this study, we investigated the possibility of detecting recombination events in TBEV by simulating recombinations at several locations on the virus' phylogenetic tree and for different lengths of recombining fragments. We derived estimations of rates of true and false positive for the detection of past recombination events for seven recombination detection algorithms. Our analytical framework can be applied to any investigation dealing with the difficult task of distinguishing genuine recombination signal from background noise. Our results suggest that the problem of false positives associated with low detection P-values in TBEV, is more insidious than generally acknowledged. We reappraised the recombination signals present in the empirical data, and showed that reliable signals could only be obtained in a few cases when highly genetically divergent strains were involved, whereas false positives were common among genetically similar strains. We thus conclude that recombination among wild-type TBEV strains may occur, which has potential implications for vaccination with live vaccines, but that these events are surprisingly rare.

  • 3.
    Bertrand, Yann
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Töpel, Mats
    Göteborg University.
    Elväng, Annelie
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health.
    First Dating of a Recombination Event in Mammalian Tick-Borne Flaviviruses2012In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 2, p. e31981-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mammalian tick-borne flavivirus group (MTBFG) contains viruses associated with important human and animal diseases such as encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. In contrast to mosquito-borne flaviviruses where recombination events are frequent, the evolutionary dynamic within the MTBFG was believed to be essentially clonal. This assumption was challenged with the recent report of several homologous recombinations within the Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). We performed a thorough analysis of publicly available genomes in this group and found no compelling evidence for the previously identified recombinations. However, our results show for the first time that demonstrable recombination (i.e., with large statistical support and strong phylogenetic evidences) has occurred in the MTBFG, more specifically within the Louping ill virus lineage. Putative parents, recombinant strains and breakpoints were further tested for statistical significance using phylogenetic methods. We investigated the time of divergence between the recombinant and parental strains in a Bayesian framework. The recombination was estimated to have occurred during a window of 282 to 76 years before the present. By unravelling the temporal setting of the event, we adduce hypotheses about the ecological conditions that could account for the observed recombination.

  • 4.
    Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    CNRS, Paris, France / University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Laukka, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Granjon, Lionel
    CNRS, Paris, France / University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Washington University, St Louis, USA.
    Banziger, Tanja
    Mid Sweden University.
    Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  • 5.
    Björk, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Asplund, Maria E
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Deyanova, Diana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gullström, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The amount of light reaching the leaves in seagrass (Zostera marina) meadows2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 9, article id e0257586Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass meadows, and other submerged vegetated habitats, support a wide range of essential ecological services, but the true extents of these services are in many ways still not quantified. One important tool needed to assess and model many of these services is accurate estimations of the systems´ primary productivity. Such productivity estimations require an understanding of the underwater light field, especially regarding the amount of light that actually reaches the plants' photosynthetic tissue. In this study, we tested a simple practical approach to estimate leaf light exposure, relative to incoming light at the canopy, by attaching light sensitive film at different positions on leaves of Zostera marina, eelgrass, in four seagrass meadows composed of different shoot density and at two different depths. We found that the light reaching the leaves decreased linearly down through the canopy. While the upper parts of the leaves received approximately the same level of light (photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD) as recorded with a PAR meter at the canopy top, the average light that the seagrass leaves were exposed to varied between 40 and 60% of the light on top of the canopy, with an overall average of 48%. We recommend that actual light interception is measured when assessing or modelling light depending processes in submerged vegetation, but if this is not achievable a rough estimation for vegetation similar to Z. marina would be to use a correction factor of 0.5 to compensate for the reduced light due to leaf orientation and internal shading.

  • 6. Cao, Renhai
    et al.
    Jensen, Lasse Dahl Ejby
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Cao, Yihai
    Hypoxia-Induced Retinal Angiogenesis in Zebrafish as a Model to Study Retinopathy2008In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 3, no 7, p. e2748-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanistic understanding and defining novel therapeutic targets of diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been hampered by a lack of appropriate adult animal models. Here we describe a simple and highly reproducible adult fli-EGFP transgenic zebrafish model to study retinal angiogenesis. The retinal vasculature in the adult zebrafish is highly organized and hypoxia-induced neovascularization occurs in a predictable area of capillary plexuses. New retinal vessels and vascular sprouts can be accurately measured and quantified. Orally active anti-VEGF agents including sunitinib and ZM323881 effectively block hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization. Intriguingly, blockage of the Notch signaling pathway by the inhibitor DAPT under hypoxia, results in a high density of arterial sprouting in all optical arteries. The Notch suppression-induced arterial sprouting is dependent on tissue hypoxia. However, in the presence of DAPT substantial endothelial tip cell formation was detected only in optic capillary plexuses under normoxia. These findings suggest that hypoxia shifts the vascular targets of Notch inhibitors. Our findings for the first time show a clinically relevant retinal angiogenesis model in adult zebrafish, which might serve as a platform for studying mechanisms of retinal angiogenesis, for defining novel therapeutic targets, and for screening of novel antiangiogenic drugs.

  • 7.
    Dealtry, Simone
    et al.
    Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Braunschweig, Germany .
    Ding, Guo-Chun
    Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Braunschweig, Germany .
    Weichelt, Viola
    Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Dunon, Vincent
    ivision of Soil and Water Management, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium .
    Schlüter, Andreas
    Center for Biotechnology (CeBiTec), Institute for Genome Research and Systems Biology, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany.
    Martini, María Carla
    BBM (Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular), CCT-CONICET-La Plata, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina .
    Papa, María Florencia Del
    IBBM (Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular), CCT-CONICET-La Plata, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina .
    Lagares, Antonio
    IBBM (Instituto de Biotecnología y Biología Molecular), CCT-CONICET-La Plata, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.
    Amos, Gregory Charles Auton
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Warwick, United Kingdom .
    Wellington, Elizabeth Margaret Helen
    chool of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Warwick, United Kingdom .
    Gaze, William Hugo
    School of Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Warwick, United Kingdom .
    Sipkema, Detmer
    Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands .
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Springael, Dirk
    Division of Soil and Water Management, KU Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Heuer, Holger
    Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Braunschweig, Germany .
    van Elsas, Jan Dirk
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands .
    Thomas, Christopher
    School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, Warwick, United Kingdom .
    Smalla, Kornelia
    Julius Kühn-Institut – Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants (JKI), Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Braunschweig, Germany .
    Cultivation-Independent Screening Revealed Hot Spots of IncP-1, IncP-7 and IncP-9 Plasmid Occurrence in Different Environmental Habitats.2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, article id e89922Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IncP-1, IncP-7 and IncP-9 plasmids often carry genes encoding enzymes involved in the degradation of man-made and natural contaminants, thus contributing to bacterial survival in polluted environments. However, the lack of suitable molecular tools often limits the detection of these plasmids in the environment. In this study, PCR followed by Southern blot hybridization detected the presence of plasmid-specific sequences in total community (TC-) DNA or fosmid DNA from samples originating from different environments and geographic regions. A novel primer system targeting IncP-9 plasmids was developed and applied along with established primers for IncP-1 and IncP-7. Screening TC-DNA from biopurification systems (BPS) which are used on farms for the purification of pesticide-contaminated water revealed high abundances of IncP-1 plasmids belonging to different subgroups as well as IncP-7 and IncP-9. The novel IncP-9 primer-system targeting the rep gene of nine IncP-9 subgroups allowed the detection of a high diversity of IncP-9 plasmid specific sequences in environments with different sources of pollution. Thus polluted sites are "hot spots" of plasmids potentially carrying catabolic genes.

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  • 8.
    Ferreira, Monica E.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Berndt, Kurt D.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Wright, Anthony P. H.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    WD40 Domain Divergence Is Important for Functional Differences between he Fission Yeast Tup11 and Tup12 Co-Repressor Proteins2010In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 6, article id e11009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously demonstrated that subsets of Ssn6/Tup target genes ave distinct requirements for the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologs of he Tup1/Groucho/TLE co-repressor proteins, Tup11 and Tup12. The very igh level of divergence in the histone interacting repression domains f the two proteins suggested that determinants distinguishing Tup11 and up12 might be located in this domain. Here we have combined hylogenetic and structural analysis as well as phenotypic haracterization, under stress conditions that specifically require up12, to identify and characterize the domains involved in up12-specific action. The results indicate that divergence in the epression domain is not generally relevant for Tup12-specific function. nstead, we show that the more highly conserved C-terminal WD40 repeat omain of Tup12 is important for Tup12-specific function. Surface amino cid residues specific for the WD40 repeat domain of Tup12 proteins in ifferent fission yeasts are clustered in blade 3 of the propeller-like tructure that is characteristic of WD40 repeat domains. The Tup11 and up12 proteins in fission yeasts thus provide an excellent model system or studying the functional divergence of WD40 repeat domains.

  • 9.
    Garrison, Julie A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Motwani, Nisha H.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Broman, Elias
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nascimento, Francisco J. A.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Molecular diet analysis enables detection of diatom and cyanobacteria DNA in the gut of Macoma balthica2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 11, article id e0278070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detritivores are essential to nutrient cycling, but are often neglected in trophic networks, due to difficulties with determining their diet. DNA analysis of gut contents shows promise of trophic link discrimination, but many unknown factors limit its usefulness. For example, DNA can be rapidly broken down, especially by digestion processes, and DNA provides only a snapshot of the gut contents at a specific time. Few studies have been performed on the length of time that prey DNA can be detected in consumer guts, and none so far using benthic detritivores. Eutrophication, along with climate change, is altering the phytoplankton communities in aquatic ecosystems, on which benthic detritivores in aphotic soft sediments depend. Nutrient-poor cyanobacteria blooms are increasing in frequency, duration, and magnitude in many water bodies, while nutrient-rich diatom spring blooms are shrinking in duration and magnitude, creating potential changes in diet of benthic detritivores. We performed an experiment to identify the taxonomy and quantify the abundance of phytoplankton DNA fragments on bivalve gut contents, and how long these fragments can be detected after consumption in the Baltic Sea clam Macoma balthica. Two common species of phytoplankton (the cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena or the diatom Skeletonema marinoi) were fed to M. balthica from two regions (from the northern and southern Stockholm archipelago). After removing the food source, M. balthica gut contents were sampled every 24 hours for seven days to determine the number of 23S rRNA phytoplankton DNA copies and when the phytoplankton DNA could no longer be detected by quantitative PCR. We found no differences in diatom 18S rRNA gene fragments of the clams by region, but the southern clams showed significantly more cyanobacteria 16S rRNA gene fragments in their guts than the northern clams. Interestingly, the cyanobacteria and diatom DNA fragments were still detectable by qPCR in the guts of M. balthica one week after removal from its food source. However, DNA metabarcoding of the 23S rRNA phytoplankton gene found in the clam guts showed that added food (i.e. N. spumigena and S. marinoi) did not make up a majority of the detected diet. Our results suggest that these detritivorous clams therefore do not react as quickly as previously thought to fresh organic matter inputs, with other phytoplankton than large diatoms and cyanobacteria constituting the majority of their diet. This experiment demonstrates the viability of using molecular methods to determine feeding of detritivores, but further studies investigating how prey DNA signals can change over time in benthic detritivores will be needed before this method can be widely applicable to both models of ecological functions and conservation policy.

  • 10.
    Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Soerensen, Anne L
    Stockholm University.
    Motwani, Nisha H.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Mercury-methylating bacteria are associated with copepods: A proof-of-principle survey in the Baltic Sea2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 3, article id e0230310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin that biomagnifies in marine food webs. Inorganic mercury (Hg) methylation is conducted by heterotrophic bacteria inhabiting sediment or settling detritus, but endogenous methylation by the gut microbiome of animals in the lower food webs is another possible source. We examined the occurrence of the bacterial gene (hgcA), required for Hg methylation, in the guts of dominant zooplankters in the Northern Baltic Sea. A qPCR assay targeting the hgcA sequence in three main clades (Deltaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Archaea) was used in the field-collected specimens of copepods (Acartia bifilosa, Eurytemora affinis, Pseudocalanus acuspes and Limnocalanus macrurus) and cladocerans (Bosmina coregoni maritima and Cercopagis pengoi). All copepods were found to carry hgcA genes in their gut microbiome, whereas no amplification was recorded in the cladocerans. In the copepods, hgcA genes belonging to only Deltaproteobacteria and Firmicutes were detected. These findings suggest a possibility that endogenous Hg methylation occurs in zooplankton and may contribute to seasonal, spatial and vertical MeHg variability in the water column and food webs. Additional molecular and metagenomics studies are needed to identify bacteria carrying hgcA genes and improve their quantification in microbiota.

  • 11.
    Hench, Jürgen
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Henriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Instiututet.
    Abou-Zied, Akram M
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Lüppert, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Instiutetet.
    Dethlefsen, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Mukherjee, Krishanu
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Intitutet.
    Tong, Yong Guang
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Intitutet.
    Tang, Lois
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Gangishetti, Umesh
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Baillie, David L
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
    Bürglin, Thomas R
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    The Homeobox Genes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Insights into Their Spatio-Temporal Expression Dynamics during Embryogenesis2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0126947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Homeobox genes play crucial roles for the development of multicellular eukaryotes. We have generated a revised list of all homeobox genes for Caenorhabditis elegans and provide a nomenclature for the previously unnamed ones. We show that, out of 103 homeobox genes, 70 are co-orthologous to human homeobox genes. 14 are highly divergent, lacking an obvious ortholog even in other Caenorhabditis species. One of these homeobox genes encodes 12 homeodomains, while three other highly divergent homeobox genes encode a novel type of double homeodomain, termed HOCHOB. To understand how transcription factors regulate cell fate during development, precise spatio-temporal expression data need to be obtained. Using a new imaging framework that we developed, Endrov, we have generated spatio-temporal expression profiles during embryogenesis of over 60 homeobox genes, as well as a number of other developmental control genes using GFP reporters. We used dynamic feedback during recording to automatically adjust the camera exposure time in order to increase the dynamic range beyond the limitations of the camera. We have applied the new framework to examine homeobox gene expression patterns and provide an analysis of these patterns. The methods we developed to analyze and quantify expression data are not only suitable for C. elegans, but can be applied to other model systems or even to tissue culture systems.

  • 12.
    Inoue, Y.
    et al.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Howard, A. G.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Qin, B.
    Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA.
    Yazawa, A.
    Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Gordon-Larsen, P.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    The association between family members’ migration and cognitive function among people left behind in China2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 9, article id e0222867Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While internal migration is widely occurring in countries across the world and older people are more likely to be left behind by family members who out-migrated to other locations, little attention has been paid to the cognitive health of those people who have been left behind (PLB). Understanding how these demographic patterns relate to older persons’ cognitive health may inform efforts to reduce the disease burden due to cognitive decline. Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey in 1997, 2000 and 2004. Participants aged 55 to 93 who participated in a cognitive function screening test (score range: 0–31) in two or more waves and provided information on family members’ migration (n = 1,267) were included in the analysis. A mixed linear model was used to investigate the association between being left behind by any members who had not resided in the household for at least 6 months at baseline and cognitive function. Approximately 10% of the participants had been left behind by family members who migrated out of their communities. A significant interaction was observed in relation to cognitive function between being left behind and the number of years from the first test. Specifically, there was a less steep decline in cognitive function of PLB compared to people not left behind. This longitudinal study showed that PLB tended to have a higher cognitive function compared to those not left behind due to their relatively stable transition in cognitive function during the study period.

  • 13.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yazawa, Aki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Shirai, Kokoro
    University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
    Amemiya, Airi
    National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Naoki
    University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kondo, Katsunori
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan / Nihon Fukushi University, Aichi, Japan / National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan.
    Ojima, Toshiyuki
    Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka, Japan.
    Hanazato, Masamichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Suzuki, Norimichi
    Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.
    Fujiwara, Takeo
    Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Neighborhood Characteristics and Cardiovascular Risk among Older People in Japan: Findings from the JAGES Project2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 10, article id e0164525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men.

  • 14.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History.
    Peckmann, Jörn
    University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Tehler, Anders
    wedish Museum of Natural History.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University.
    Bach, Wolfgang
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Behrens, Katharina
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Reitner, Joachim
    Georg-August University, Göttingen, Germany.
    Böttcher, Michael E.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Warnemünde, Germany.
    Norbäck Ivarsson, Lena
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Zygomycetes in Vesicular Basanites from Vesteris Seamount, Greenland Basin - A New Type of Cryptoendolithic Fungi2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e0133368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungi have been recognized as a frequent colonizer of subseafloor basalt but a substantial understanding of their abundance, diversity and ecological role in this environment is still lacking. Here we report fossilized cryptoendolithic fungal communities represented by mainly Zygomycetes and minor Ascomycetes in vesicles of dredged volcanic rocks (basanites) from the Vesteris Seamount in the Greenland Basin. Zygomycetes had not been reported from subseafloor basalt previously. Different stages in zygospore formation are documented in the studied samples, representing a reproduction cycle. Spore structures of both Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes are mineralized by romanechite-like Mn oxide phases, indicating an involvement in Mn(II) oxidation to form Mn(III, VI) oxides. Zygospores still exhibit a core of carbonaceous matter due to their resistance to degradation. The fungi are closely associated with fossiliferous marine sediments that have been introduced into the vesicles. At the contact to sediment infillings, fungi produced haustoria that penetrated and scavenged on the remains of fragmented marine organisms. It is most likely that such marine debris is the main carbon source for fungi in shallow volcanic rocks, which favored the establishment of vital colonies.

  • 15.
    Janzén, Therese
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Petersson, Mona
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Factors responsible for Ixodes ricinus presence and abundance across a natural-urban gradient.2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 5, article id e0285841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better understand the spatial distribution of the common tick Ixodes ricinus, we investigated how local site factors and landscape characteristics influence tick presence and abundance in different greenspaces along the natural-urban gradient in Stockholm County, Sweden. Ticks and field data were collected in 2017 and 2019 and analyzed in relation to habitat type distributions estimated from land cover maps using geographical information system (GIS). A total of 1378 (992 larvae, 370 nymphs, 13 females, and 3 males) questing ticks were collected from 295 sampling plots in 47 different greenspaces. Ticks were present in 41 of the 47 greenspaces and our results show that both local site features such as vegetation height, and landscape characteristics like the amount of mixed coniferous forest, significantly affect tick abundance. Tick abundance was highest in rural areas with large natural and seminatural habitats, but ticks were also present in parks and gardens in highly urbanized areas. Greenspaces along the natural-urban gradient should be included in surveillance for ticks and tick-borne diseases, including highly urbanized sites that may be perceived by the public as areas with low risk for tick encounters.

  • 16.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larm, Peter
    The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Johan
    The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    The factor structure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire in a national sample of Swedish adolescents: Comparing 3 and 5-factor models.2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0265481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most common screening instruments for emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents. Although exploratory factor analyses support the originally proposed 5-factor structure of SDQ as well as a 3-factor model, the evidence from confirmatory factor analyses is more mixed. Some of the difficulties items in SDQ are positively worded and it has been proposed that this leads to method effects, i.e. these items share variance that is due to the method used rather than to a substantive construct. Also, there seems to be minor factors in some subscales. This study tests a series of 3- and 5- factor models pertaining to the factor structure of SDQ, also considering method effects and minor factors. The sample consists of a nationally representative cohort of Swedish adolescents born in 2001 (n = 5549). Results show a relatively better fit of the 5-factor model compared with the 3-factor model although neither of these had a satisfactory fit. Model fit was improved when specifying cross-loadings of the positively worded difficulties items on the prosocial scale as well as minor factors on the hyperactivity scale. Although no model provided a completely satisfactory fit to the data, the results show that the 5-factor model performs better than the 3-factor model and has an acceptable fit. We conclude that for the purposes of epidemiological research, SDQ has acceptable factorial validity, provided that researchers consider method effects and minor factors.

  • 17.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    et al.
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Psychotic-Like Experiences and Nonsuidical Self-Injury in England: Results from a National Survey2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0145533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in the general adult population. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the association using nationally-representative data from England.

    METHODS: Data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of 7403 adults aged ≥16 years. Five forms of PLEs (mania/hypomania, thought control, paranoia, strange experience, auditory hallucination) were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire. The association between PLEs and NSSI was assessed by multivariable logistic regression. Hierarchical models were constructed to evaluate the influence of alcohol and drug dependence, common mental disorders, and borderline personality disorder symptoms on this association.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of NSSI was 4.7% (female 5.2% and male 4.2%), while the figures among those with and without any PLEs were 19.2% and 3.9% respectively. In a regression model adjusted for sociodemographic factors and stressful life events, most types of PLE were significantly associated with NSSI: paranoia (OR 3.57; 95%CI 1.96-6.52), thought control (OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.05-5.74), strange experience (OR 3.13; 95%CI 1.99-4.93), auditory hallucination (OR 4.03; 95%CI 1.56-10.42), and any PLE (OR 2.78; 95%CI 1.88-4.11). The inclusion of borderline personality disorder symptoms in the models had a strong influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI as evidenced by a large attenuation in the ORs for PLEs, with only paranoia continuing to be significantly associated with NSSI. Substance dependence and common mental disorders had little influence on the association between PLEs and NSSI.

    CONCLUSIONS: Borderline personality disorder symptoms may be an important factor in the link between PLEs and NSSI. Future studies on PLEs and NSSI should take these symptoms into account.

  • 18.
    Kullenberg, Christopher
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rauden, Frauke
    University of Gothenburg.
    Björkvall, Anders
    Örebro University.
    Brounéus, Fredrik
    VA (Public & Science), Stockholm.
    Avellan-Hultman, Anders
    Järlehed, Johan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Van Meerbergen, Sara
    Stockholm University.
    Nord, Andreas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lykke Nielsen, Helle
    University of Gothenburg / University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Rosendal, Tove
    University of Gothenburg.
    Tomasson, Lotta
    VA (Public & Science), Stockholm.
    Westberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University.
    What are analog bulletin boards used for today?: Analysing media uses, intermediality and technology affordances in Swedish bulletin board messages using a citizen science approach2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 1-21, article id e0202077Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Kärblane, Kairi
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia / Competence Centre for Cancer Research, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Gerassimenko, Jelena
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia / Competence Centre for Cancer Research, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Nigul, Lenne
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Piirsoo, Alla
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Smialowska, Agata
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Vinkel, Kadri
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institutet.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Truve, Erkki
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia / Competence Centre for Cancer Research, Tallinn, Estonia .
    Sarmiento, Cecilia
    Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia / Competence Centre for Cancer Research, Tallinn, Estonia .
    ABCE1 Is a Highly Conserved RNA Silencing Suppressor2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e0116702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1) is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  • 20.
    König, Malin A E
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Wiklund, Christer
    Stockholm University.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    Among-Population Variation in Tolerance to Larval Herbivory by Anthocharis cardamines in the Polyploid Herb Cardamine pratensis2014In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 6, p. e99333-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plants have two principal defense mechanisms to decrease fitness losses to herbivory: tolerance, the ability to compensate fitness after damage, and resistance, the ability to avoid damage. Variation in intensity of herbivory among populations should result in variation in plant defense levels if tolerance and resistance are associated with costs. Yet little is known about how levels of tolerance are related to resistance and attack intensity in the field, and about the costs of tolerance. In this study, we used information about tolerance and resistance against larval herbivory by the butterfly Anthocharis cardamines under controlled conditions together with information about damage in the field for a large set of populations of the perennial plant Cardamine pratensis. Plant tolerance was estimated in a common garden experiment where plants were subjected to a combination of larval herbivory and clipping. We found no evidence of that the proportion of damage that was caused by larval feeding vs. clipping influenced plant responses. Damage treatments had a negative effect on the three measured fitness components and also resulted in an earlier flowering in the year after the attack. Tolerance was related to attack intensity in the population of origin, i.e. plants from populations with higher attack intensity were more likely to flower in the year following damage. However, we found no evidence of a relationship between tolerance and resistance. These results indicate that herbivory drives the evolution for increased tolerance, and that changes in tolerance are not linked to changes in resistance. We suggest that the simultaneous study of tolerance, attack intensity in the field and resistance constitutes a powerful tool to understand how plant strategies to avoid negative effects of herbivore damage evolve.

  • 21. Massinen, Satu
    et al.
    Hokkanen, Marie-Estelle
    Matsson, Hans
    Tammimies, Kristiina
    Tapia-Paez, Isabel
    Dahlstrom-Heuser, Vanina
    Kuja-Panula, Juha
    Burghoorn, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Jeppsson, Kristian E.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam
    Toftgard, Rune
    Castren, Eero
    Kere, Juha
    Increased Expression of the Dyslexia Candidate Gene DCDC2 Affects Length and Signaling of Primary Cilia in Neurons2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 6, p. e20580-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DCDC2 is one of the candidate susceptibility genes for dyslexia. It belongs to the superfamily of doublecortin domain containing proteins that bind to microtubules, and it has been shown to be involved in neuronal migration. We show that the Dcdc2 protein localizes to the primary cilium in primary rat hippocampal neurons and that it can be found within close proximity to the ciliary kinesin-2 subunit Kif3a. Overexpression of DCDC2 increases ciliary length and activates Shh signaling, whereas downregulation of Dcdc2 expression enhances Wnt signaling, consistent with a functional role in ciliary signaling. Moreover, DCDC2 overexpression in C. elegans causes an abnormal neuronal phenotype that can only be seen in ciliated neurons. Together our results suggest a potential role for DCDC2 in the structure and function of primary cilia.

  • 22.
    Menichetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Touzot, Laura
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, Lyon, France .
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Department of Economics, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan.
    Interactions between a population of fallow deer (Dama dama), humans and crops in a managed composite temperate landscape in southern Sweden: Conflict or opportunity?2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0215594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes composed of agricultural land mixed with forest are desirable since they provide a wide range of diversified ecosystem services, unlike specialized agricultural landscapes, but that creates a trade-off between these land uses since wildlife usually feed on crops and reduce yields. In Nordic countries, where human population density is low and game hunting can be a viable economic alternative, mixed landscape systems are particularly interesting. To evaluate the economic sustainability of such systems we need to quantify wildlife damage to crops. One important species, being popular among Swedish hunters and therefore economically valuable, is fallow deer (Dama dama). Our objective was to evaluate the economic sustainability of mixed landscape systems including cultivated fields and commercial hunting of fallow deer. We studied the effects of excluding fallow deer by using 86 exclosures and adjacent plots in winter wheat and oat fields in south-west Sweden. We analyzed yield losses and interactions between spatial and temporal grazing patterns, anthropogenic landscape features, and topological characteristics of the landscape. We found that animals avoided exposed spots, irrespective of distance from human activity. We also found a seasonal grazing pattern related to the different growing periods of winter wheat (more grazed, emerging in autumn) and spring oat (less grazed, emerging in spring). We then compared the costs of crop damage against the commercial value of fallow deer hunting. The damage amounted to 375 ±196 € ha-1 for wheat and 152 ±138 € ha-1 for oat, corresponding to a total cost per animal of 82.7 ±81.0 €, while each animal had an estimated market value of approximately 100 €. Therefore the value of fallow deer presence compensated for the associated cost of crop damage. Profit could be further improved in this case by adopting additional management strategies. In general our study confirmed the economic feasibility of this particular mixed land management.

  • 23.
    Munoz-Alarcon, Andres
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Pavlovic, Maja
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institute.
    Wismar, Jasmine
    Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Schmitt, Bertram
    Max-Planck-Institut für Hirnforschung, Frankfurt, Germany.
    Eriksson, Maria
    Karolinska Institute.
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Characterization of lamin Mutation Phenotypes in Drosophila and Comparison to Human Laminopathies2007In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 6, p. e532-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that make up the nuclear lamina, a matrix underlying the nuclear membrane in all metazoan cells that is important for nuclear form and function. Vertebrate A-type lamins are expressed in differentiating cells, while B-type lamins are expressed ubiquitously. Drosophila has two lamin genes that are expressed in A-and B-type patterns, and it is assumed that similarly expressed lamins perform similar functions. However, Drosophila and vertebrate lamins are not orthologous, and their expression patterns evolved independently. It is therefore of interest to examine the effects of mutations in lamin genes. Mutations in the mammalian lamin A/C gene cause a range of diseases, collectively called laminopathies, that include muscular dystrophies and premature aging disorders. We compared the sequences of lamin genes from different species, and we have characterized larval and adult phenotypes in Drosophila bearing mutations in the lam gene that is expressed in the B-type pattern. Larvae move less and show subtle muscle defects, and surviving lam adults are flightless and walk like aged wild-type flies, suggesting that lam phenotypes might result from neuromuscular defects, premature aging, or both. The resemblance of Drosophila lam phenotypes to human laminopathies suggests that some lamin functions may be performed by differently expressed genes in flies and mammals. Such still-unknown functions thus would not be dependent on lamin gene expression pattern, suggesting the presence of other lamin functions that are expression dependent. Our results illustrate a complex interplay between lamin gene expression and function through evolution.

  • 24. Nilsson, Ola B.
    et al.
    Adedoyin, Justus
    Rhyner, Claudio
    Neimert-Andersson, Theresa
    Grundström, Jeanette
    Berndt, Kurt D
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Crameri, Reto
    Grönlund, Hans
    In vitro evolution of allergy vaccine candidates, with maintained structure, but reduced B cell and T cell activation capacity2011In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, article id e24558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allergy and asthma to cat (Felis domesticus) affects about 10% of the population in affluent countries. Immediate allergic symptoms are primarily mediated via IgE antibodies binding to B cell epitopes, whereas late phase inflammatory reactions are mediated via activated T cell recognition of allergen-specific T cell epitopes. Allergen-specific immunotherapy relieves symptoms and is the only treatment inducing a long-lasting protection by induction of protective immune responses. The aim of this study was to produce an allergy vaccine designed with the combined features of attenuated T cell activation, reduced anaphylactic properties, retained molecular integrity and induction of efficient IgE blocking IgG antibodies for safer and efficacious treatment of patients with allergy and asthma to cat. The template gene coding for rFel d 1 was used to introduce random mutations, which was subsequently expressed in large phage libraries. Despite accumulated mutations by up to 7 rounds of iterative error-prone PCR and biopanning, surface topology and structure was essentially maintained using IgE-antibodies from cat allergic patients for phage enrichment. Four candidates were isolated, displaying similar or lower IgE binding, reduced anaphylactic activity as measured by their capacity to induce basophil degranulation and, importantly, a significantly lower T cell reactivity in lymphoproliferative assays compared to the original rFel d 1. In addition, all mutants showed ability to induce blocking antibodies in immunized mice.The approach presented here provides a straightforward procedure to generate a novel type of allergy vaccines for safer and efficacious treatment of allergic patients.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Karin H
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Sandra
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindström, Kai
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson Sköld, Helen
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dark eyes in female sand gobies indicate readiness to spawn2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0177714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animals, colorful and conspicuous ornaments enhance individual attractiveness to potential mates, but are typically tempered by natural selection for crypsis and predator protection. In species where males compete for females, this can lead to highly ornamented males competing for mating opportunities with choosy females, and vice versa. However, even where males compete for mating opportunities, females may exhibit conspicuous displays. These female displays are often poorly understood and it may be unclear whether they declare mating intent, signal intrasexual aggression or form a target for male mate preference. We examined the function of the conspicuous dark eyes that female sand gobies temporarily display during courtship by experimentally testing if males preferred to associate with females with artificially darkened eyes and if dark eyes are displayed during female aggression. By observing interactions between a male and two females freely associating in an aquarium we also investigated in which context females naturally displayed dark eyes. We found that dark eyes were more likely to be displayed by more gravid females than less gravid females and possibly ahead of spawning, but that males did not respond behaviorally to dark eyes or prefer dark-eyed females. Females behaving aggressively did not display dark eyes. We suggest that dark eyes are not a signal per se but may be an aspect of female mate choice, possibly related to vision.

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  • 26.
    Opel, Michael
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Lando, David
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Bonilla, Carolina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Trewick, Sarah C.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Boukaba, Abdelhalim
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Walfridsson, Julian
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Cauwood, James
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Werler, Petra J. H.
    University of Sussex, Falmer, Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Antony M.
    University of Sussex, Falmer, Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Kouzarides, Tony
    Gurdon Institute and Department of Pathology, Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Murzina, Natalia V.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Allshire, Robin C.
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Laue, Ernest D.
    University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Genome-Wide Studies of Histone Demethylation Catalysed by the Fission Yeast Homologues of Mammalian LSD12007In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 4, article id e386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to gain a more global view of the activity of histone demethylases, we report here genome-wide studies of the fission yeast SWIRM and polyamine oxidase (PAO) domain homologues of mammalian LSD1. Consistent with previous work we find that the two S. pombe proteins, which we name Swm1 and Swm2 (after SWIRM1 and SWIRM2), associate together in a complex. However, we find that this complex specifically demethylates lysine 9 in histone H3 (H3K9) and both up-and down-regulates expression of different groups of genes. Using chromatin-immunoprecipitation, to isolate fragments of chromatin containing either H3K4me2 or H3K9me2, and DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip), we have studied genome-wide changes in patterns of histone methylation, and their correlation with gene expression, upon deletion of the swm1(+) gene. Using hyper-geometric probability comparisons we uncover genetic links between lysine-specific demethylases, the histone deacetylase Clr6, and the chromatin remodeller Hrp1. The data presented here demonstrate that in fission yeast the SWIRM/PAO domain proteins Swm1 and Swm2 are associated in complexes that can remove methyl groups from lysine 9 methylated histone H3. In vitro, we show that bacterially expressed Swm1 also possesses lysine 9 demethylase activity. In vivo, loss of Swm1 increases the global levels of both H3K9me2 and H3K4me2. A significant accumulation of H3K4me2 is observed at genes that are up-regulated in a swm1 deletion strain. In addition, H3K9me2 accumulates at some genes known to be direct Swm1/2 targets that are down-regulated in the swm1 Delta strain. The in vivo data indicate that Swm1 acts in concert with the HDAC Clr6 and the chromatin remodeller Hrp1 to repress gene expression. In addition, our in vitro analyses suggest that the H3K9 demethylase activity requires an unidentified post-translational modification to allow it to act. Thus, our results highlight complex interactions between histone demethylase, deacetylase and chromatin remodelling activities in the regulation of gene expression.

  • 27.
    Ranganathan, Shyam
    et al.
    Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, USA .
    Nicolis, Stamatios C
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bali Swain, Ranjula
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sumpter, David J T
    Uppsala University.
    Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers.

  • 28.
    Rydland, Håvard T
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Fjær, Erlend L
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
    Eikemo, Terje A
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway / Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Huijts, Tim
    Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
    Bambra, Clare
    Newcastle University, Newcastle, United Kingdom.
    Wendt, Claus
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Kulhánová, Ivana
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Dibben, Chris
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Kalėdienė, Ramunė
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut de Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. A comparison of European healthcare systems2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, article id e0234135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Educational inequalities in health and mortality in European countries have often been studied in the context of welfare regimes or political systems. We argue that the healthcare system is the national level feature most directly linkable to mortality amenable to healthcare. In this article, we ask to what extent the strength of educational differences in mortality amenable to healthcare vary among European countries and between European healthcare system types.

    METHODS: This study uses data on mortality amenable to healthcare for 21 European populations, covering ages 35-79 and spanning from 1998 to 2006. ISCED education categories are used to calculate relative (RII) and absolute inequalities (SII) between the highest and lowest educated. The healthcare system typology is based on the latest available classification. Meta-analysis and ANOVA tests are used to see if and how they can explain between-country differences in inequalities and whether any healthcare system types have higher inequalities.

    RESULTS: All countries and healthcare system types exhibited relative and absolute educational inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. The low-supply and low performance mixed healthcare system type had the highest inequality point estimate for the male (RII = 3.57; SII = 414) and female (RII = 3.18; SII = 209) population, while the regulation-oriented public healthcare systems had the overall lowest (male RII = 1.78; male SII = 123; female RII = 1.86; female SII = 78.5). Due to data limitations, results were not robust enough to make substantial claims about typology differences.

    CONCLUSIONS: This article aims at discussing possible mechanisms connecting healthcare systems, social position, and health. Results indicate that factors located within the healthcare system are relevant for health inequalities, as inequalities in mortality amenable to medical care are present in all healthcare systems. Future research should aim at examining the role of specific characteristics of healthcare systems in more detail.

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  • 29.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain / CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 1, article id e0191651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  • 30.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of London.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Roberts, Bayard
    University of London.
    Richardson, Erica
    University of London.
    Abbott, Pamela
    University of Aberdeen.
    Tumanov, Sergei
    Lomonosov Moscow State University.
    McKee, Martin
    University of London.
    Loneliness: Its Correlates and Association with Health Behaviours and Outcomes in Nine Countries of the Former Soviet Union2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, article id e67978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Background: Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) - a region where loneliness has been little studied to date.

    Methods: Using data from 18,000 respondents collected during a cross-sectional survey undertaken in nine FSU countries Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine - in 2010/11, country-wise logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine: the factors associated with feeling lonely; the association between feeling lonely and alcohol consumption, hazardous drinking and smoking; and whether feeling lonely was linked to poorer health (i.e. poor self-rated health and psychological distress).

    Results: The prevalence of loneliness varied widely among the countries. Being divorced/widowed and low social support were associated with loneliness in all of the countries, while other factors (e.g. living alone, low locus of control) were linked to loneliness in some of the countries. Feeling lonely was connected with hazardous drinking in Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Russia but with smoking only in Kyrgyzstan. Loneliness was associated with psychological distress in all of the countries and poor self-rated health in every country except Kazakhstan and Moldova.

    Conclusions: Loneliness is associated with worse health behaviours and poorer health in the countries of the FSU. More individual country-level research is now needed to formulate effective interventions to mitigate the negative effects of loneliness on population well-being in the FSU.

  • 31.
    Svärd, Veronica
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Berglund, E.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Björk Brämberg, E.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, N.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Engblom, M.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Friberg, E.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Coordinators in the return-to-work process: Mapping their work models2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: In recent decades, many countries have implemented return-to-work coordinators to combat high rates of sickness absence and insufficient collaboration in the return-to-work process. The coordinators should improve communication and collaboration between stakeholders in the return-to-work process for people on sickness absence. How they perform their daily work remains unexplored, and we know little about to what extent they collaborate and perform other work tasks to support people on sickness absence. This study examines which work models return-to-work coordinators use in primary healthcare, psychiatry and orthopaedics in Sweden. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all 82 coordinators in one region (89% response rate) with questions about the selection of patients, individual patient support, healthcare collaboration, and external collaboration. Random forest classification analysis was used to identify the models. RESULTS: Three work models were identified. In model A, coordinators were more likely to select certain groups of patients, spend more time in telephone than in face-to-face meetings, and collaborate fairly much. In Model B there was less patient selection and much collaboration and face-to-face meetings. Model C involved little patient selection, much telephone contact and very little collaboration. Model A was more common in primary healthcare, model C in orthopaedics, while model B was distributed equally between primary healthcare and psychiatry. CONCLUSION: The work models correspond differently to the coordinator's assignments of supporting patients and collaborating with healthcare and other stakeholders. The differences lie in how much they actively select patients, how much they collaborate, and with whom. Their different distribution across clinical contexts indicates that organisational demands influence how work models evolve in practice. 

  • 32.
    Teng, Andrea
    et al.
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Blakely, Tony
    University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; University of Otago Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
    Atkinson, June
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Kalėdienė, Ramunė
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). The National Institute for Health Development, Estonia, Sweden.
    Martikainen, Pekka T
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Rychtaříková, Jitka
    Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Changing social inequalities in smoking, obesity and cause-specific mortality: Cross-national comparisons using compass typology2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 7, article id e0232971Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In many countries smoking rates have declined and obesity rates have increased, and social inequalities in each have varied over time. At the same time, mortality has declined in most high-income countries, but gaps by educational qualification persist-at least partially due to differential smoking and obesity distributions. This study uses a compass typology to simultaneously examine the magnitude and trends in educational inequalities across multiple countries in: a) smoking and obesity; b) smoking-related mortality and c) cause-specific mortality.

    METHODS: Smoking prevalence, obesity prevalence and cause-specific mortality rates (35-79 year olds by sex) in nine European countries and New Zealand were sourced from between 1980 and 2010. We calculated relative and absolute inequalities in prevalence and mortality (relative and slope indices of inequality, respectively RII, SII) by highest educational qualification. Countries were then plotted on a compass typology which simultaneously examines trends in the population average rates or odds on the x-axis, RII on the Y-axis, and contour lines depicting SII.

    FINDINGS: Smoking and obesity. Smoking prevalence in men decreased over time but relative inequalities increased. For women there were fewer declines in smoking prevalence and relative inequalities tended to increase. Obesity prevalence in men and women increased over time with a mixed picture of increasing absolute and sometimes relative inequalities. Absolute inequalities in obesity increased for men and women in Czech Republic, France, New Zealand, Norway, for women in Austria and Lithuania, and for men in Finland. Cause-specific mortality. Average rates of smoking-related mortality were generally stable or increasing for women, accompanied by increasing relative inequalities. For men, average rates were stable or decreasing, but relative inequalities increased over time. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and external injury rates generally decreased over time, and relative inequalities increased. In Eastern European countries mortality started declining later compared to other countries, however it remained at higher levels; and absolute inequalities in mortality increased whereas they were more stable elsewhere.

    CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco control remains vital for addressing social inequalities in health by education, and focus on the least educated is required to address increasing relative inequalities. Increasing obesity in all countries and increasing absolute obesity inequalities in several countries is concerning for future potential health impacts. Obesity prevention may be increasingly important for addressing health inequalities in some settings. The compass typology was useful to compare trends in inequalities because it simultaneously tracks changes in rates/odds, and absolute and relative inequality measures.

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  • 33.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. KTH & Stockholm University.
    Plathan, Josefin
    Stockholm University.
    Poole, Anthony M
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e74983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature.

    We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea.

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    Thureborn et al 2013
  • 34.
    Yazawa, Aki
    et al.
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Li, Dandan
    Hainan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Du, Jianwei
    Hainan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Haikou, Hainan, China.
    Watanabe, Chiho
    University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    The Effects of Season of Birth on the Inflammatory Response to Psychological Stress in Hainan Island, China.2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, article id e0139602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Season of birth (SOB) has been investigated as one of the environmental factors that might epigenetically determine the physiology of individuals. This study investigated the role of SOB in the association between Quality of Life (QOL), a proxy of psychological stress status, and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration (i.e., inflammatory status) among 1,085 adults (aged 20-57 years old) in Hainan Island, China. High sensitivity CRP concentration was measured in dried blood spot samples, while the abbreviated version of the World Health Organization's QOL questionnaire was used to gather information on six QOL domains. Analysis stratified by three historically distinct age groups revealed a significant association between CRP concentration, SOB, QOL and an interaction between SOB and QOL among the youngest and oldest groups. In the oldest group, those born in the dry season had a higher CRP concentration with worse QOL whereas in the youngest group, there was a higher CRP concentration with better QOL. Annual per capita rice production, a proxy of population nutritional status in the year of birth, was found to predict CRP concentration only among the second oldest group. These findings suggest that the early environment might affect the immune response to psychological stress in adulthood and that its effect may differ by the time period in which people were born.

  • 35.
    Östergren, Olof
    et al.
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Olle
    Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS), Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Artnik, Barbara
    University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Borrell, Carme
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica
    Agència de Salut Pública de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    de Gelder, Rianne
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Educational expansion and inequalities in mortality - A fixed-effects analysis using longitudinal data from 18 European populations2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 8, article id e0182526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to empirically evaluate whether widening educational inequalities in mortality are related to the substantive shifts that have occurred in the educational distribution.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on education and mortality from 18 European populations across several decades were collected and harmonized as part of the Demetriq project. Using a fixed-effects approach to account for time trends and national variation in mortality, we formally test whether the magnitude of relative inequalities in mortality by education is associated with the gender and age-group specific proportion of high and low educated respectively.

    RESULTS: The results suggest that in populations with larger proportions of high educated and smaller proportions of low educated, the excess mortality among intermediate and low educated is larger, all other things being equal.

    CONCLUSION: We conclude that the widening educational inequalities in mortality being observed in recent decades may in part be attributed to educational expansion.

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