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  • 1.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Bonaglia, Stefano
    Department of Marine Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boström, Christoffer
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Dahl, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Deyanova, Diana
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Fiskebäckskil, Sweden.
    Gagnon, Karine
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Gullström, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Holmer, Marianne
    Department of Biology, Danish Institute for Advanced Study, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Björk, Mats
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Methane Emissions From Nordic Seagrass Meadow Sediments2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 811533Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow coastal soft bottoms are important carbon sinks. Submerged vegetation has been shown to sequester carbon, increase sedimentary organic carbon (C-org) and thus suppress greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The ongoing regression of seagrass cover in many areas of the world can therefore lead to accelerated emission of GHGs. In Nordic waters, seagrass meadows have a high capacity for carbon storage, with some areas being recognized as blue carbon hotspots. To what extent these carbon stocks lead to emission of methane (CH4) is not yet known. We investigated benthic CH4 emission (i.e., net release from the sediment) in relation to seagrass (i.e. Zostera marina) cover and sedimentary C-org content (%) during the warm summer period (when emissions are likely to be highest). Methane exchange was measured in situ with benthic chambers at nine sites distributed in three regions along a salinity gradient from similar to 6 in the Baltic Sea (Finland) to similar to 20 in Kattegat (Denmark) and similar to 26 in Skagerrak (Sweden). The net release of CH4 from seagrass sediments and adjacent unvegetated areas was generally low compared to other coastal habitats in the region (such as mussel banks and wetlands) and to other seagrass areas worldwide. The lowest net release was found in Finland. We found a positive relationship between CH4 net release and sedimentary C-org content in both seagrass meadows and unvegetated areas, whereas no clear relationship between seagrass cover and CH4 net release was observed. Overall, the data suggest that Nordic Zostera marina meadows release average levels of CH4 ranging from 0.3 to 3.0 mu g CH4 m(-2) h(-1), which is at least 12-78 times lower (CO2 equivalents) than their carbon accumulation rates previously estimated from seagrass meadows in the region, thereby not hampering their role as carbon sinks. Thus, the relatively weak CH4 emissions from Nordic Z. marina meadows will not outweigh their importance as carbon sinks under present environmental conditions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Bathmann, Ulrich
    et al.
    Leibniz-Institute for Baltic Sea Research, Warnemünde, Germany.
    Schubert, Hendrik
    University of Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Tuomi, Laura
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Radziejewska, Teresa
    University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.
    Kulinski, Karol
    Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland.
    Chubarenko, Irina
    Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
    Editorial: Living Along Gradients: Past, Present, Future2020Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 801Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is a geologically and evolutionarily young part of the coastal ocean that experienced, in its past, several severe environmental changes. In its present state, the Baltic Sea is characterized by both horizontal and vertical gradients of environmental conditions. As a huge estuary, it shows a west to east/south to north surface salinity gradient from 24 in Kattegat to nearly freshwater in the Bothnian Bay. The vertical salinity and oxygen gradients result in stratification which causes hypoxic and sulfidic anoxic conditions in deep basins. These gradient systems are impacted by natural and anthropogenic changes due to physico-chemical driving forces, varying over time and space. Gradient environments produce an imprint on both the structure and function of the biological systems and influence biogeochemical cycling. Besides, coastal seas in general and the Baltic Sea in particular, experience constant and direct influence from land with consequences to matter and energy cycles, biogeochemical interactions, energy fluxes, and sediment dynamics. “Living along gradients: past, present, future” in the Baltic are today’s very important aspects that rise questions like which of the effects we are detecting occur naturally, and which are driven by human activities. Deciphering past environmental changes and their causes provide keys to understand and simulate possible future scenarios, all of which should rise societal awareness and implementation of appropriate marine and coastal policies. Present-day knowledge on the dynamics of gradient systems, on the processes that affect the coastal sea environment, the results of interaction between coastal seas and society, the detection or reconstruction of past and present changes on time scales from inter-annual to millennial, and future change models are summarized here, with the idea to stimulate scientific exchange on most complex questions, addressing them from different perspectives.

  • 3.
    Krause-Jensen, Dorte
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Gundersen, Hege
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Norway.
    Björk, Mats
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gullström, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Dahl, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Asplund, Maria E.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Boström, Christoffer
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Holmer, Marianne
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Banta, Gary T.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Graversen, Anna Elizabeth Lovgren
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Morten Foldager
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Bekkby, Trine
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Norway.
    Frigstad, Helene
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Norway.
    Skjellum, Solrun Figenschau
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Norway.
    Thormar, Jonas
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Gyldenkærne, Steen
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Howard, Jennifer
    Conservation International, Arlington, USA.
    Pidgeon, Emily
    Conservation International, Arlington, USA.
    Ragnarsdottir, Sunna Björk
    Icelandic Institute of Natural History, Iceland.
    Mols-Mortensen, Agnes
    TARI Faroe Seaweed, Faroe Islands; Fiskaaling, Faroe Islands.
    Hancke, Kasper
    Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Norway.
    Nordic Blue Carbon Ecosystems: Status and Outlook2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 847544Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetated coastal and marine habitats in the Nordic region include salt marshes, eelgrass meadows and, in particular, brown macroalgae (kelp forests and rockweed beds). Such habitats contribute to storage of organic carbon (Blue Carbon - BC) and support coastal protection, biodiversity and water quality. Protection and restoration of these habitats therefore have the potential to deliver climate change mitigation and co-benefits. Here we present the existing knowledge on Nordic BC habitats in terms of habitat area, C-stocks and sequestration rates, co-benefits, policies and management status to inspire a coherent Nordic BC roadmap. The area extent of BC habitats in the region is incompletely assessed, but available information sums up to 1,440 km(2) salt marshes, 1,861 (potentially 2,735) km(2) seagrass meadows, and 16,532 km(2) (potentially 130,735 km(2), including coarse Greenland estimates) brown macroalgae, yielding a total of 19,833 (potentially 134,910) km(2). Saltmarshes and seagrass meadows have experienced major declines over the past century, while macroalgal trends are more diverse. Based on limited salt marsh data, sediment C-stocks average 3,311 g C-org m(-2) (top 40-100 cm) and sequestration rates average 142 g C-org m(-2) yr(-1). Eelgrass C-stocks average 2,414 g C-org m(-2) (top 25 cm) and initial data for sequestration rates range 5-33 g C-org m(-2), quantified for one Greenland site and one short term restoration. For Nordic brown macroalgae, peer-reviewed estimates of sediment C-stock and sequestration are lacking. Overall, the review reveals substantial Nordic BC-stocks, but highlights that evidence is still insufficient to provide a robust estimate of all Nordic BC-stocks and sequestration rates. Needed are better quantification of habitat area, C-stocks and fluxes, particularly for macroalgae, as well as identification of target areas for BC management. The review also points to directives and regulations protecting Nordic marine vegetation, and local restoration initiatives with potential to increase C-sequestration but underlines that increased coordination at national and Nordic scales and across sectors is needed. We propose a Nordic BC roadmap for science and management to maximize the potential of BC habitats to mitigate climate change and support coastal protection, biodiversity and additional ecosystem functions.

  • 4.
    van Wirdum, Falkje
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Andrén, Elinor
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Wienholz, D.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kotthoff, U.
    University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Moros, M.
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany.
    Fanget, A. -S
    University of Perpignan, Perpignan, France.
    Seidenkrantz, M. -S
    Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Andrén, Thomas
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic forcing has led to an increased extent of hypoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea during recent decades. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is naturally prone to the development of hypoxic conditions due to its geographical, hydrographical, geological, and climate features. Besides the current spreading of hypoxia, the Baltic Sea has experienced two extensive periods of hypoxic conditions during the Holocene, caused by changing climate conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4.8 cal ka BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1–0.7 cal ka BP). We studied the variations in surface and bottom water salinity and primary productivity and their relative importance for the development and termination of hypoxia by using microfossil and geochemical data from a sediment core retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Our findings demonstrate that increased salinity was of major importance for the development of hypoxic conditions during the HTM. In contrast, we could not clearly relate the termination of this hypoxic period to salinity changes. The reconstructed high primary productivity associated with the hypoxic period during the MCA is not accompanied by considerable increases in salinity. Our proxies for salinity show a decreasing trend before, during and after the MCA. Therefore, we suggest that this period of hypoxia is primarily driven by increasing temperatures due to the warmer climate. These results highlight the importance of natural climate driven changes in salinity and primary productivity for the development of hypoxia during a warming climate.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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