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  • 1. Aaboen, Lise
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    von Koch, Christopher
    Löfsten, Hans
    Corporate governance and performance of small high-tech firms in Sweden2006In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 26, no 8, p. 955-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach uses data from a sample of 183 small high-tech firms, new, technology-based firms (small high-tech firms) in Sweden (54 variables under the headings of work experience, board and advice, financing, motivation-performance priorities, technological innovation and strategy). This study identifies some core areas of importance in corporate governance. Few managers in this study had a strong background and experience of finance and the preparation of business. Only 64 per cent of the managers have had previous work experience before starting the firm. The survey makes it clear that the small high-tech firms are likely to have a strong link with banking institutions. The consequence of these links is that most of the firm's capital supply is from banks, and that there are strong ownership links between banks and industry. The background of the founder does seem to have had an effect on the problem of financing and ownership issues. It is private sector organizations (banks) and families that are most frequently consulted by small high-tech firms (However, low means). It is also the private and public sector organizations, in connection with external board membership, regional development agencies and banks that are most frequently consulted. In the future, it is reasonable to search for factor patterns that can begin to explain and predict the direction of corporate governance in small new technology-based firms.

  • 2.
    Borg, Erik A
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4.
    Knowledge, Information and Intellectual Property: implications for marketing relationships2001In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 515-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge and information have become an essential asset determining the profitability of technology-intensive enterprises. In knowledge-based industries, knowledge and information can be marketed to potential partners or clients separately from the products and services that are based on the application of specific knowledge. In the new, global computer-intensive economy, the knowledge base of the economy can determine the approval of an enterprise as a producer of future solutions. This means that it is crucial that enterprises identify and develop their knowledge base, not least in their market relationships. Knowledge emerges in network relationships between an enterprise and its surrounding organisations, and can be legally protected as intellectual property (IP). A clearer notion of the way IP can be analysed may improve the economic outcome of investments in innovation. Relationship marketing clearly has a role in the marketing of technological innovation and product development. A high-tech enterprise faces several decisions influencing its position in the market when developing its knowledge base. Key decisions determining the relationships established in a knowledge-intensive market include (i) make or buy decisions; (ii) organisational association or isolation; (iii) the innovation or adaptation of new technology; (iv) the protection or exploitation of knowledge; (v) public or private research funding; (vi) safeguarding or sharing of IP; and (vii) pioneering advantages or disadvantages.

  • 3. Dettwiler, Paul
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Löfsten, Hans
    Utility of location: A comparative survey between small new technology-based firms located on and off Science Parks - Implications for facilities management2006In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 506-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to highlight the role of facilities management (FM) for new technology-based firms (NTBFs) that are located on respectively off Science Parks. It incorporates FM as a contributory background element in the enhancement of the entrepreneurial environment, which is one explanatory factor of the superior performance and growth of NTBFs located inside Science Parks. Differences in location preferences between on and off park NTBFs are brought into evidence in this paper by means of an extensive quantitative survey. This resulted in the finding that the proximity to university is especially significant among NTBFs inside parks. Furthermore, infrastructure has high significance in both groups whereas significance of facilities cost differs in range of significance. In a model it is argued that FM indirectly contributes to beneficial scenarios for interaction, interfirm relations and networks that can be found particularly in Science Parks. A discussion and a set of hypotheses in the conclusive part link FM and location, issues to the performance for NTBFs.

  • 4. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Determinants for an entrepreneurial milieu: Science Parks and business policy in growing firms2003In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the "added value" of a Science Park location there is need for detailed research exploring the characteristics and performance of firms located on and off Science Parks. The analysis distinguishes between new technology-based firms on and off Science Parks (273 firms) in Sweden during 1996-1998 in an effort to identify any element of added value which the park provides for the new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The problem of obtaining finance is one of the major difficulties faced by NTBFs (Latent construction: Resources 1). Self-financing is the dominant characteristic of funding in the small-firms sector. The attitudes and motivation of the firm founders and managers is another key factor in the ability to raise funds and achieve high growth and profitability. Information on the location of customers shows whether firms are linked to local, national or international markets, and thus their potential for growth (Latent construction: market innovation). One significant variable is geographical markets (global market). NTBFs (on-Park) have much wider market distribution throughout Sweden and abroad than is typical for small firms.

  • 5. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    Environmental hostility, strategic orientation and the importance of management accounting: an empirical analysis of new technology-based firms2005In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 725-738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports empirical analysis of two research propositions which arise from different variables from the contingency theory of management accounting. The approach uses data from a sample of 183 new technology-based firms (NTBFs) in Sweden. The contingency variables were considered under the headings of environmental hostility, and strategic orientation. While we might have expected to see here some evidence of correlations between variables of environmental hostility-management accounting and between strategic orientation-management accounting, only a few variables are apparent for the sample available. We note that the importance of standard methods in management accounting (general, costing, budgeting, investment calculation) does not seen to be precipitated by the contingencies such as environmental hostility and strategic orientation. Previous research has identified technology as one of the most important contingency factors. However, our technology variables will not seem to have an impact on the importance of management accounting practices in the NTBFs. We also conclude that the correlation analysis indicates that earlier work experience and different types of management problems in small high-tech firms is of importance for development of the cost management approach.

  • 6. Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Lindelöf, Peter
    R&D networks and product innovation patterns: academic and non-academic new technology-based firms on Science Parks2005In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 1025-1037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research has explored the R&D networks and product innovation patterns made by the NTBFs (University spin offs, USOs and corporate spin-offs, CSOs) located on Science Parks. It seems resonable to believe that firms established by those with an academic background might be expected both to perform differently and respond to different incentives from those founded by personnel from the industry. The two research propositions were empirically tested on the basis of 134 new technology-based firms (NTBFs) on Science Parks in Sweden, USOs from the academy (74 small firms) and CSOs from the private sector (60 small firms). There were no significant differences regarding growth (sales) and profitability (profit margin) between the two groups. In order to separate the performance due to the firms capability and the impact of the environment, a control variable was created. This paper, building on the resource-based theory and empirical evidence, argues that NTBFs have an interest in co-operation between the university and the Science Park firms. The survey makes it clear that the proportion of USOs and CSOs on Science Parks with links with universities is comparatively high. Seventy percent of USOs cooperates with universities and 59 percent of the CSOs. This is surprisingly high percentages of the CSOs. One finding from this research is that USOs are not able to channel investments into greater R&D outputs (Patents) than comparable firms.

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