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  • 1.
    Buch, Charlotta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hunt, Mary C.
    Alexson, Stefan E. H.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching2009In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 388, no 2, p. 355-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

  • 2. Czene, S
    et al.
    Testa, E
    Nygren, Jonas
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Belyaev, I
    Harms-Ringdahl, M
    DNA fragmentation and morphological changes in apoptotic human lymphocytes2002In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 294, no 4, p. 872-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell suspensions enriched in cells at various stages of apoptosis were obtained by separation of irradiated human peripheral blood lymphocytes on density gradients at different post-irradiation times. The state of DNA fragmentation in the cells was determined by comet assay and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. The morphologically distinguishable features of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and cell shrinkage correlated with discrete stages of DNA fragmentation. It was found that greater than or equal to50kbp fragmentation of DNA occurs already in cells of normal density whereas the subsequent DNA fragmentation onto fragments <50 kbp occurs in parallel with cell shrinkage and simultaneous increase in cell density. The observed stages of DNA fragmentation seem to be separated in time that could allow in case of abortive apoptosis formation of chromosomal aberrations.

  • 3. Filling, C
    et al.
    Nordling, E
    Benach, J
    Berndt, Kurt D
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Ladenstein, R
    Jörnvall, H
    Oppermann, U
    Structural role of conserved Asn179 in the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase scaffold2001In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 289, no 3, p. 712-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute a large family of enzymes found in all forms of life. Despite a low level of sequence identity, the three-dimensional structures determined display a nearly superimposable alpha/beta folding pattern. We identified a conserved asparagine residue located within strand betaF and analyzed its role in the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase architecture. Mutagenetic replacement of Asn179 by Ala in bacterial 3 beta /17 beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase yields a folded, but enzymatically inactive enzyme, which is significantly more resistant to denaturation by guanidinium hydrochloride. Crystallographic analysis of the wild-type enzyme at 1.2-Angstrom resolution reveals a hydrogen bonding network, including a buried and well-ordered water molecule connecting strands betaE to betaF, a common feature found in 16 of 21 known three-dimensional structures of the family. Based on these results, we hypothesize that in mammalian 11 beta -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase the essential Asn-linked glycosylation site, which corresponds to the conserved segment, displays similar structural features and has a central role to maintain the SDR scaffold.

  • 4. Fischer, H
    et al.
    Zhang, X U
    O'Brien, K P
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Engvall, E
    C7, a novel nucleolar protein, is the mouse homologue of the Drosophila late puff product L82 and an isoform of human OXR12001In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 281, no 3, p. 795-803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The C7 gene was identified in a project aimed to characterize differential gene expression upon attachment of cells to extracellular matrix proteins in vitro. C7 is the homologue of Drosophila L82, a late puff gene (Stowers et al. (1999) Dev. Biol. 213, 116-130) and human OXR1, a gene, which protects cells against oxidation (Volkert et al. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 14530-14535). All are transcribed into multiple splice forms with a common 3' domain. Additional members of this novel gene family are found in a number of eukaryotic species. In the mouse, the C7 gene is highly and broadly expressed during development in at least 4 splice forms, 3 of which were sequenced. In the adult, the C7 gene is most highly expressed in brain and testis. Antibodies to recombinant C7 protein localized to nucleoli in a variety of cell types, suggesting that C7 may be involved in the formation or function of this important organelle.

  • 5.
    Korayem, Ahmed M.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet / Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.
    Hauling, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet.
    Lesch, Christine
    Stockholms universitet.
    Fabbri, Marco
    University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, Australia.
    Lindgren, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholms universitet.
    Loseva, Olga
    Stockholms universitet.
    Schmidt, Otto
    University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, Australia.
    Dushay, Mitchell S.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Uppsala University.
    Theopold, Ulrich
    Stockholms universitet.
    Evidence for an immune function of lepidopteran silk proteins2007In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 352, no 2, p. 317-322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemolymph coagulation stops bleeding and protects against infection. Clotting factors include both proteins that are conserved during evolution as well as more divergent proteins in different species. Here we show that several silk proteins also appear in the clot of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella. RT-PCR analysis reveals that silk proteins are expressed in immune tissues and induced upon wounding in both Galleria and Ephestia kuehniella, a second pyralid moth. Our results support the idea that silk proteins were co-opted for immunity and coagulation during evolution.

  • 6.
    O'Farrell, Fergal
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    A mis-expression study of factors affecting Drosophila PNS cell identity2008In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 370, no 4, p. 657-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drosophila PNS sense organs arise from single sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells through a series of asymmetric divisions. In a mis-expression screen for factors affecting PNS development, we identified string and dappled as being important for the proper formation of adult external sensory (ES) organs. string is a G2 regulator. dappled has no described function but is implicated in tumorigenesis. The misexpression effect from string was analysed using timed over expression during adult ES-organ and, for comparison, embryonic Chorclotonal (Ch) organ formation. Surprisingly, string mis-expression prior to SOP division gave the greatest effect in both systems. In adult ES-organs, this lead to cell fate transformations producing structural cells, whilst in the embryo organs were lost, hence differences within the lineages exist. Mis-expression of dappled, lead to loss and duplications of entire organs in both systems, potentially affecting SOP specification, in addition to affecting neuronal guidance.

  • 7.
    O'Farrell, Fergal
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Drosophila Anillin is unequally required during asymmetric cell divisions of the PNS2008In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 369, no 2, p. 407-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During Drosophila embryogenesis, timely and orderly asymmetric cell divisions ensure the correct number of each cell type that make up the sensory organs of the larval PNS. We report a role of scraps, Drosophila Anillin, during these divisions. Anillin, a constitutive member of the contractile ring is essential for cytokinesis in Drosophila and vertebrates. During embryogenesis we find that zygotically transcribed scraps is required specifically for the unequal cell divisions, those in which cytokinesis occurs in an "off-centred" manner, of the pIIb and pIIIb neuronal precursor cells, but not the equal cell divisions of the lineage related precursor cells. Complementation and genetic rescue studies demonstrate this effect results from zygotic scraps and leads to polyploidy, ectopic mitosis, and loss of the neuronal precursor daughter cells. The net result of which is the formation of incomplete sense organs and embryonic lethality.

  • 8.
    Rahman, Mokhlasur
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Rhomboid-7 over-expression results in Opa1-like processing and malfunctioning mitochondria2011In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 414, no 2, p. 315-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rhomboid-7 (rho-7) is a mitochondrial-specific intramembranous protease. The loss-of-function mutation rho-7 results in semi-lethality, while escapers have a reduced lifespan with several neurological disorders [1]. Here we show that general, or CNS-specific expression of rho-7 can rescue the lethality of rho-7. General, or CNS-specific over-expression of rho-7 in otherwise wild-type animals caused semi-lethality, with approximately 50% of the animals escaping this lethality, developing into adults displaying a shortened life span with larval locomotory problem. On a cellular level, over-expression resulted in severe depression of ATP levels and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II mRNA levels, a lowered number of mitochondria in neurons and aggregation of mitochondria in the brain indicating mitochondrial malfunction. Over-expression of rho-7 in developing eye discs resulted in an elevated apoptotic index. In the CNS, elevated levels of rho-7 were accompanied by both isoforms of Opal-like, a dynamin-like GTPase, a mitochondrial component involved in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and function, including apoptosis. Most, but not all, of rho-7 over-expression phenotypes were suppressed by introducing a heterozygous mutation for Opal-like. Our results suggest that rho-7 and Opal-like function in a common molecular pathway affecting mitochondrial function and apoptosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

  • 9.
    Smialowska, Agata
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Karolinska instiutet.
    Djupedal, Ingela
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Wang, Jingwen
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Kylsten, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Swoboda, Peter
    Karolinska instiutet.
    Ekwall, Karl
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Karolinska instiutet.
    RNAi mediates post-transcriptional repression of gene expression in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe2014In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 444, no 2, p. 254-259Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to mammals. Small interfering RNAs are products and mediators of the RNAi pathway and act as specificity factors in recruiting effector complexes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome encodes one of each of the core RNAi proteins, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dcr1, ago1, rdp1). Even though the function of RNAi in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe is established, its role in controlling gene expression is elusive. Here, we report the identification of small RNAs mapped anti-sense to protein coding genes in fission yeast. We demonstrate that these genes are up-regulated at the protein level in RNAi mutants, while their mRNA levels are not significantly changed. We show that the repression by RNAi is not a result of heterochromatin formation. Thus, we conclude that RNAi is involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing in S. pombe.

  • 10. Wu, X.
    et al.
    Jörnvall, H.
    Berndt, Kurt D.
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science. Karolinska Institutet.
    Oppermann, U.
    Codon optimization reveals critical factors for high level expression of two rare codon genes in Escherichia coli: RNA stability and secondary structure but not tRNA abundance2004In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 313, no 1, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression patterns in Escherichia coli of two small archaeal proteins with a natural content of about 30% rare codons were analyzed. The proteins, a histone-like protein from Sulfolobus shibatae (Ssh10), and a glutaredoxin-like protein from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum (mtGrx), were produced with expression plasmids encoding wild-type genes, codon-optimized synthetic, and GST-fusion genes. These constructs were expressed in BL21 (DE3), its LysS derivative, and modified strains carrying copies for rare codon tRNAs or deletions in the RNAseE gene. Both Ssh10 and mtGrx expression levels were constitutively high in BL21(DE3) and its derivatives, with the exception of the LysS phenotype, which prevented high level expression of the Ssh10 wild-type gene. Surprisingly, a codon-optimized mtGrx gene construct displayed undetectable levels of protein production. The translational block observed with the synthetic mtGrx gene could be circumvented by using a synthetic mtGrx-glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion construct or by in vitro translation. Taken together, the results underscore the importance of mRNA levels and RNA stability, but not necessarily tRNA abundance for efficient heterologous protein production in E. coli.

  • 11. Wu, X
    et al.
    Oppermann, M
    Berndt, Kurt D
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Bergman, T
    Jörnvall, H
    Knapp, S
    Oppermann, U
    Thermal unfolding of the archaeal DNA and RNA binding protein Ssh102008In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 373, no 4, p. 482-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reversible thermal unfolding of the archaeal histone-like protein Ssh10b from the extremophile Sulfolobus shibatae was studied using differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Analytical ultracentrifugation and gel filtration showed that Ssh10b is a stable dimer in the pH range 2.5-7.0. Thermal denaturation data fit into a two-state unfolding model, suggesting that the Ssh10 dimer unfolds as a single cooperative unit with a maximal melting temperature of 99.9 degrees C and an enthalpy change of 134 kcal/mol at pH 7.0. The heat capacity change upon unfolding determined from linear fits of the temperature dependence of DeltaH(cal) is 2.55 kcal/(mol K). The low specific heat capacity change of 13 cal/(mol K residue) leads to a considerable flattening of the protein stability curve (DeltaG (T)) and results in a maximal DeltaG of only 9.5 kcal/mol at 320 K and a DeltaG of only 6.0 kcal/mol at the optimal growth temperature of Sulfolobus.

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