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  • 1.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Credit stacking in nutrient trading markets for the Baltic Sea2017Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 79, s. 1-7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy loads of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus cause severe damage in many waters in the world. Nutrient trading markets where capped firms can buy and sell nutrient load credits have been established in several countries in order to achieve certain nutrient reduction targets at minimum costs for society. The availability of multifunctional nutrient abatement measures that simultaneously reduce loads of both nutrients, such as wetland construction, raises the issue of credit stacking, i.e. whether a firm constructing the wetland should earn credits for both nutrients. This article examines theoretically and empirically the implications of establishing alternative nutrient trading market designs (markets with and without credit stacking, a market for a bundled payment of nutrients, and separate markets for either nutrient) for total costs and achievement of stipulated nutrient reduction targets for the Baltic Sea. The results show that the total abatement cost of achieving reduction targets of both nutrients is always lowest if a market design with credit stacking is established, that markets without credit stacking result in higher abatement cost and nutrient abatement in excess of the reduction targets, and that none of the single nutrient market systems is able to generate the required abatement of both nutrients. The application to the Baltic Sea shows that the total abatement cost can be 20% higher when credit stacking is not allowed than when it is allowed.

  • 2.
    Hassler, Björn
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Gee, Kira
    Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Zentrum für Material-und Küstenforschung GmbH, Germany.
    Gilek, Michael
    Luttmann, Anne
    Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Germany.
    Morf, Andrea
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saunders, Fred
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Stalmokaite, Igne
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Strand, Helena
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zaucha, Jacek
    Maritime Institute in Gdansk, Poland.
    Collective action and agency in Baltic Sea marine spatial planning: Transnational policy coordination in the promotion of regional coherence2018Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 92, s. 138-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing attention given to marine spatial planning and the widely acknowledged need for transnational policy coordination, regional coherence has not yet improved a great deal in the Baltic Sea region. Therefore, the main objectives in this article are: (a) to map existing governance structures at all levels that influence how domestic marine spatial planning policy strategies are formed, (b) to identify specific challenges to improved regional cooperation and coordination, and (c) to discuss possible remedies. Based on data from in-depth case studies carried out in the BONUS BALTSPACE research project, it is shown that, despite the shared goal of sustainability and efficient resource use in relevant EU Directives, action plans and other policy instruments, domestic plans are emerging in diverse ways, mainly reflecting varying domestic administrative structures, sectoral interests, political prioritisations, and handling of potentially conflicting policy objectives. A fruitful distinction can be made between, on the one hand, regulatory institutions and structures above the state level where decision-making mechanisms are typically grounded in consensual regimes and, on the other hand, bilateral, issue-specific collaboration, typically between adjacent countries. It is argued that, to improve overall marine spatial planning governance, these two governance components need to be brought together to improve consistency between regional alignment and to enhance opportunities for countries to collaborate at lower levels. Issue-specific transnational working groups or workshops can be one way to identify and act upon such potential synergies.

  • 3.
    Kern, Kristine
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Research on Society and Space (IRS), Erkner, Germany / Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The ecosystem approach to management in the Baltic Sea Region: Analyzing regional environmental governance from a spatial perspective2018Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 98, s. 271-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecosystem approach to management (EAM) is a policy principle and management tool of increasing importance in European environmental governance. In the Baltic Sea region (BSR), this approach has developed in line with a progressive environmental management agenda, reaching from hot spot solutions to new holistic agendas. This paper examines the spatial dimensions of the EAM in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR). The analysis is based on an analytical framework which combines regional environmental governance with debates on socio-spatial relations. It is found that the development, implementation, and spread of EAM corresponds with changing socio-spatial relations. Reterritorialisation of both institutional arrangements and policies is needed to solve cross-boundary problems. Place-making such as hot spots and pilot projects (e.g., in maritime spatial planning) are first steps towards the upscaling of local experiments and re-scaling of policies is also needed for the implementation of EAM in a macroregional multi-level setting, stretching from the EU to the local level. Analyzing regional environmental governance from a spatial perspective reveals institutional ambiguities and even institutional voids because the successful implementation of EAM requires new institutional arrangements.

  • 4.
    Knudsen, Olav F.
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Hassler, Björn
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper, Miljövetenskap.
    IMO legislation and its implementation: Accident risk, vessel deficiencies and national administrative practices2011Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 201-207Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article takes as its point of departure the apparently contradictory findings in recent research about accident rates in shipping and IMO implementation records. It is argued here that although IMO conventions have probably greatly improved shipping safety, they cannot credibly be held to be the chief cause of reduced accident rates as claimed in a recent Marine Policy article, when the documented failures of flag state and port state implementation continue to leave vessels sailing with grave deficiencies. The present analysis posits and corroborates a cluster of linked tendencies that jointly undermine IMO implementation. The core problem is IMO’s weak connection to the national maritime administrations, leading to broadly discretionary practices, exacerbated by language difficulties. Adding new rules is no panacea, as new rules in some cases negatively affect the functioning of existing regulations, and sometimes seem motivated mainly to show political alertness. The structural weakness of the IMO/member state link is the core implementation problem that urgently needs to be dealt with if marine safety is to be improved. The concluding section proposes a reform to bring the IMO out of this conundrum and ensure effective implementation.

  • 5.
    Luthman, Ola
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Jonell, M.
    Stockholm University.
    Troell, M.
    Stockholm University / Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Governing the salmon farming industry: Comparison between national regulations and the ASC salmon standard2019Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 106, artikel-id 103534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmed salmon has become an important export commodity for many countries and regions. The expanding salmon aquaculture industry has, due to its rapid increase, resulted in environmental concerns, most notably relating to the interaction with wildlife, effects of effluents and discharges in local ecosystems, in some regions overuse of antibiotics and development of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and high dependence on fish resources in feeds. As a response to these concerns, the industry has strengthened their efforts to improve practices and private led sustainability initiatives, including certification and eco-labelling, has become increasingly important. This study examines the differences between salmon farming governance policies in the four largest salmon producing regions; Norway, Chile, Scotland (UK) and British Columbia (Canada) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council's (ASC) salmon standard. The purpose of the study is to clarify how the standard from a well-established eco-certification program compares to national or regional conventional standards, using additionality as measuring method. The paper concludes that at present the ASC standard has mainly three strong advantages over existing regional/national standards and these relate to; escape numbers allowed, antibiotic usage and fish resources in feed. Changing these three main divergences in the national/regional regulations would significantly improve some of the main sustainability issues with uncertified salmon farming. The study also finds that the potential additionality of the ASC standard can differ between regions, with the highest difference in Chile and lowest in Norway.

  • 6.
    Wallner-Hahn, Sieglind
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Molander, Fia
    Stockholm University.
    Gallardo, Gloria
    Uppsala universitet.
    Villasante, Sebastian
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Eklöf, Johan S.
    Stockholm University.
    Jiddawi, Narriman S.
    University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Tanzania.
    de la Torre-Castro, Maricela
    Stockholm University.
    Destructive gear use in a tropical fishery: Institutional factors influencing the willingness- and capacity to change2016Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 72, s. 199-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to empirically assess institutional aspects shaping fishers’ behavior leading to unsustainable resource use, by using the example of destructive drag-net fishing in Zanzibar, Tanzania. A broad institutional approach was used to specifically assess institutional factors influencing the fishers’ reasons for the current use of destructive drag-nets as well as their willingness- and economic capacity to change to less destructive gears. Different regulative, normative, cultural-cognitive and economic factors (tradition, group-belonging, social acceptance, common practice, identity of drag-net users and weak economic capacity) were identified as critical elements influencing the current use of destructive gears, as well as obstructing changes to other gears. Hence, the importance of addressing all of these factors, matching to the different contexts, rather than focusing on fast-moving regulative measures, is emphasized to increase chances of management success. More promising approaches would be resource allocations to more sustainable fishing gears, well-managed gear exchange programs, as well as alterations of slow-moving normative and cultural factors, e.g. awareness raising on the advantages of more sustainable fishing gears, their traditional and cultural values, information on the actual income they generate, as well as education and an exchange of traditional knowledge on how to use them.

1 - 6 av 6
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