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  • 1. Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    "She" and "He" in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

  • 2.
    Lindqvist, A.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Renström, E. A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Reducing a Male Bias in Language?: Establishing the Efficiency of Three Different Gender-Fair Language Strategies2019In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different strategies of gender-fair language have been applied to reduce a male bias, which means the implicit belief that a word describing an undefined person describes a man. This male bias might be caused by the words themselves in terms of generic masculine or masculine forms or by androcentrism (the conflation of men with humanity). In two experiments, we tested how different gender-fair strategies used as labels of an unknown social target (an applicant in a recruitment situation) could eliminate the male bias. The three types of gender-fair strategies tested were: (a) paired forms (he/she), (b) traditional neutral words (e.g., singular they, “the applicant”), or (c) gender-neutral third-person pronouns actively created to challenge the binary gender system (ze, Swedish hen). The two experiments were performed in Swedish with 417 undergraduates in Sweden and in English with 411 U.S. participants recruited online. In Swedish, the third-person gender-neutral pronoun singular (hen) was used. In English, several forms of such gender-neutral pronouns have been suggested (e.g., ze). In both experiments, results indicated that paired forms and actively created gender-neutral pronouns eliminated the male bias, whereas traditional neutral words contained a male bias. Thus, gender-fair language strategies should avoid using traditional words. Consequences of using paired forms and creating new gender-neutral words are discussed. We argue that an actively created gender-neutral pronoun is of highest value because it is more inclusive. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 3. Tulviste, Tiia
    et al.
    Kuur, Marju
    "Hands off the car, it's mine!" and "The teacher will be angry if we don't play nicely": Gender-related preferences in the use of moral rules and social conventions in preschoolers' dyadic play2005In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 53, no 1-2, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the moral and conventional rules in 40 same-sex and same-age 4- and 5-year-old preschoolers' dyads during their play interaction. Significant gender differences were found both in the dominant social domain and in the prevailing types of rules within each domain. Boys referred to moral rules more often than girls did. In the category of moral rules, boys were significantly more likely to bring up justice and rights issues than girls were. In the category of conventional rules, girls focused on miscellaneous and general conventions and boys on the destruction of property. Moral rules were applied more frequently in conflict situations. Regardless of gender, the rules of justice were the most likely moral rules to engender conflicts.

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