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  • 1.
    Alkstål, Emelie
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Development Studies.
    Doing development right; the Rights-based approach: A comparative case study on NGO accountability2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, a convergence between civil and political human rights non governmental organisations (NGOs) and development NGOs have occurred. The fusion of the two disciplines have led to the construction of so called ‘Rights-Based approaches’ (RBA). One principal concept for RBA’s is the question of accountability. Functional accountability is no longer seen as sufficient and more focus on social accountability have advanced. In previous research NGOs are repeatedly questioned for their level of accountability. This comparative qualitative case study therefore aim to examine how three Swedish based NGOs perceive accountability, with the purpose to contribute to the academic discussion of NGO accountability.

    By using grounded theory and selective coding, this study will contribute with new empirical data to the ongoing development of RBA theory. Empirical data is collected through interviews, NGOs official strategies documents and analysed in relation to the empirically grounded theory. The main findings in this comparative case study is that organisations different backgrounds and values influence how they perceive RBA and accountability, and which methods are used to reconcile with accountability claims. The collected empirical data concludes perceptions of accountability mostly focuses on four interconnected key principles; power relations, democracy, transparency and empowerment.

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  • 2.
    Andersson Schwarz, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Media and Communication Studies.
    De digitala vidderna styrs från ovan2014In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 23 junArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Bekkin, Renat
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, The Study of Religions.
    Leonid Fituni, Irina Abramova: Islam, Global Governance and a New World Order2020In: Central European Journal of International and Security Studies, ISSN 1802-548X, E-ISSN 1805-482X, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 92-97Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Berglund, Jenny
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, The Study of Religions.
    Publicly Funded Islamic Education in Europe and the United States2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Islamic religious education in the United States and Europe has become a subject of intense debate after Muslims raised in the West carried out attacks against their fellow citizens. People worry their governments are doing too little or too much to shape the spiritual beliefs of private citizens. In a new analysis paper, Jenny Berglund explains the differences in publicly funded Islamic education in nine European countries and the United States. 

    Berglund lays out the religious education framework of each country and explains the state policies governing the teaching of Islam in public schools. State involvement, Berglund writes, ranges from sponsoring religious education in public schools to forgoing it entirely. The policies vary according to the national political culture of each country, as well as the historical and religious norms that shape public perceptions and debates over religious education. 

    In Germany and Austria, many public schools teach Islam to Muslims as a subject within a broader religious curriculum in which parents can choose their students’ religious courses. In the United Kingdom and Sweden, public schools teach Islam as an academic subject, and train teachers through comparative religious studies departments in universities. French and U.S. public schools do not teach religion, although students can lean about Islam in subjects such as art, history, or literature.

    Despite the diversity of these approaches, Berglund notes three good practices that apply across the board:

    1. Establishing rigorous academic standards of training for teachers of religious education courses.
    2. Providing factual textbooks informed by academic scholarship, both for Islamic religious education and non-confessional school subjects that teach about Islam. 
    3. Building upon current curricular and pedagological best practices through international exchange and dialogue of scholars.

    By adopting these practices, Berglund argues, governments can further their citizens’ knowledge of important aspects of the human experience and promote inclusive citizenship and respect.

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    Publicly Funded Islamic Education in Europe and the United States
  • 5.
    Björkdahl, Annika
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mannergren Selimovic, Johanna
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Sweden.
    A tale of three bridges: agency and agonism in peace building2016In: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 321-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores agonistic processes of peace, which are situated within and constitutive of different spaces and places. Three contested cities, Sarajevo, Mostar and Visegrad in Bosnia-Herzegovina, provide us with local sites where peace and peace building in various forms 'take place' as people come together in collective action. Through a close reading of three symbolically and materially important bridges in the towns, we reveal meaning-making processes, as agentive subjects struggle around competing claims in the post-conflict everyday world. The collective, situated and fleeting agency that we explore through the Arendtian notion of 'space of appearance' invests space with meaning, belonging and identity. Thus, this article grapples with agonistic peace as it manifests itself in materiality and spatial practices. We use the social and material spaces of the city to locate agency and agonism in peace building as they relate to the conflict legacy in Mostar, Visegrad and Sarajevo in order to advance the critical peace research agenda.

  • 6.
    Brandell, Inga
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science.
    Globalisation, Rentier States, Labour and Democracy: Comparative Perspectives from Algeria and Northern Africa2012In: Organising for Democracy: Nigerian and Comparative Experiences / [ed] Björn Beckman and Y.Z. Ya'u, Stockholm, Sweden and Kano, Nigeria: Stockholm University, 2012, p. 50-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bron Jr, Michal
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Södertörn University Library.
    Wildemeersch, DannyStroobants, Verle
    Active Citizenship and Multiple Identities in Europe: A learning outlook2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 8. Della Porta, Donatella
    Democracy is Not a Spectator Sport!: Spreading Democracy in the Anti-Austerity Movements2015 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
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  • 9.
    Ekström, Josephine
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Possibilities and obstacles regarding under-five mortality: A case study in Babati district, Tanzania2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tanzania is close to reach one of the Millennium Development Goals; to reduce child mortality with two-thirds between 1990 until 2015. This qualitative case study focuses on under-five children’s health in Babati district, situated in the north-west of Tanzania. The empirical data used in this thesis has been collected through interviews with health personnel and mothers during three weeks in February to March 2012. The purpose of the study has been to identify direct and underlying reasons causing child mortality, and to investigate what measures are needed to improve the situation. The most prominent diseases creating death amongst children are pneumonia and malaria, and also diarrheal diseases are common. The prevalence of the diseases differs from wet and dry season, whereas there are more cases of illness and death during the wet season. Malaria and pneumonia are common causes of death during the wet season, and diarrheal diseases are more common during the dry season. Underlying reasons affecting child mortality in Babati district are the lack of infrastructure, such as few well-functioning roads to the main hospitals which affects the rural population in particular. Also the limited access to transport is a vast problem when there is acute illness or childbirth. The clinics available in Babati district are poorly equipped and have a lack of personnel, creating a stressful situation for both healthcare workers and patients. More governmental funds and infrastructure is needed in the area to be able to create a sustainable situation for future children.

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    Josephine Ekström Bachelor's Thesis 2012
  • 10.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Frontier politics: The realm of dreamers2015In: Global Affairs, ISSN 2334-0460, E-ISSN 2334-0479, Vol. 1, no 4-5, p. 365-367Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science. Utrikespolitiska institutet, Sverige.
    Konstruktivism2021In: Internationella relationer / [ed] Jakob Gustavsson; Jonas Tallberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 4, p. 131-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Rymdkolonier - från fantasi till verklighet?2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Cyberspace in Space: Fragmentation, Vulnerability, and Uncertainty2022In: Cyber Security Politics: Socio-Technological Transformations and Political Fragmentation / [ed] Myriam Dunn Cavelty; Andreas Wenger, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 95-107Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the consequences of making cyberspace increasingly reliant on satellites and other types of space infrastructure? And what is the meaning and significance of an interplanetary cyberspace? The chapter addresses these developments specifically concerning infrastructure, militarization, and privatization. The consequences observed are summed up as fragmentation, vulnerability, and uncertainty. Cyberspace in space implies fragmentation in terms of stakeholders and governance, and ultimately in terms of power and accountability. Vulnerability increases as cyberspace becomes satellite-based (space is certainly not a safe environment, and satellites can be attacked by anti-satellite weapons as well as new forms of hacking and denial of service. Uncertainty of is tremendous particularly both in terms of what norms and principles will apply (compare the debate on Internet freedom vs. Internet sovereignty), and whether militarization or civilian and even utopian ideas will prevail.

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    Cyber Security Politics
  • 14.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    International Relations, Digital Security, and Content Analysis: A Constructivist Approach2014In: International Relations and the Global Politics of Science and Technology / [ed] Maximilian Mayer, Mariana Carpes, Ruth Knoblich, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2014, p. 205-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and global diffusion of access to the Internet has—as is the case with most new and game-changing technologies—been accompanied with fears and threat perceptions. This chapter argues, on the one hand, that Constructivist IR theory is particularly suited for addressing and interpreting the threat discourses and identity issues which come in focus in cybersecurity. The ease with which cyber-culprits can hide their identity and location, operating through networks of hijacked computers across the world, makes fear-mongering threat and identity discourses a key issue in cybersecurity. On the other hand, this chapter presents content analysis—a set of quantitative methods focusing on key word searches—as a pertinent or even ubiquitous method for both the study and practice of cybersecurity. Through simple and globally accessible interfaces, the entire Web can be scrutinized using content analysis. Equipped with Constructivist theory and content analysis methods, the IR scholar stands prepared to uncover and better understand the massive discursive world of the Internet.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political science. Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Giacomello, Giampiero
    Universita` di Bologna.
    Who controls the Internet?: Beyond the obstinacy or obsolescence of the state2009In: International Studies Review, ISSN 1521-9488, E-ISSN 1468-2486, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 206-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the Internet being a truly global phenomenon, understanding how this is controlled should yield observations of relevance for the study of global governance more generally. The Internet, and how it is controlled, should therefore be a concern for all students of world politics, and not only for the smaller albeit multidisciplinary community of scholars engaging in ‘‘Internet studies.’’ A first step is to acknowledge that Internet control varies across time, space, and issue-areas. To better understand such complex patterns of governance, we need to go beyond universal generalizations. In an attempt to support the middle-range theorizing, which arguably is needed, this essay introduces and briefly unpacks three analytical questions: What are the key aspects of Internet control? What actors might control what aspects of the Internet? And, finally, under what conditions are different types of actors likely to control various aspects of the Internet?

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  • 16.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Lagerkvist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cyber security in Sweden and China: Going on the Attack?2016In: Conflict in Cyberspace: Theoretical, Strategic and Legal Perspectives / [ed] Kristian Friis; Jens Ringsmose, London: Routledge, 2016, p. 83-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction In recent years Western pundits and politicians have played up the specter of a new digital divide, between opposing democratic and authoritarian information orders, by at times even labeled an Internet cold war 2.0. The term digital divide originally explained unequal access to the Internet and digital information resources inside and between countries (Norris 2001). The new digital divide was not about unequal access to the Internet and digital information resources. It was political in nature due to different conceptions of liberties, freedom of expression, and how information flows should be governed nationally and internationally. Most notably, former US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, in her by now well-known talk in Washington DC on January 21, 2010, emphasized that an “information curtain” had descended between free and closed nations of the world (Clinton 2010). Clinton, invoked and echoed Winston Churchill’s famous words on the iron curtain that came to divide Europe for more than fifty years when she in Washington DC said: “an information curtain now separates the free from the unfree.” Two years later, the International Telecommunication Union’s (ITU) World Conference on International Communications (WCIT-12) meeting, which negotiated a revision to the 1988 international telecommunications regulations (ITR), broke down on vague wordings on Internet governance in the final resolution on December 14, 2012. Subsequently, The Economist magazine ran the headline “A digital cold war?” (Dubai 2012). However, the leaks by Edward Snowden in June 2013 radically changed the nature of the debate on Internet freedom and Internet security, although black-and-white dichotomies between the “free world” and the “unfree world” remain remarkably persistent, even after Snowden, a former employee with a contractor of the National Security Agency of the United States, revealed the enormous extent of surveillance and monitoring of individual citizens worldwide and in the USA. As statements by US congressmen about Chinese spyware infiltrating the mobile phones of Hong Kong activists illustrate, hypocrisy and myth making about “good” and “evil” surveillance is very much alive (Farrell and Finnemore 2013). Internet governance issues, however, are not black-and-white uncomplicated issues on either side of the imagined cyber curtain separating the free from the unfree (cf. Stalla-Bourdin et al. 2014). Russia, China and Iran are autocratic but not totalitarian countries. They showcase complex authoritarian-capitalist settings, which in the cases of Russia and Iran entail constrained but, nevertheless, electoral politics. Unlike totalitarian North Korea, these countries are not isolated from the rest of the world, but are deeply involved in social and economic globalization. And in China, interestingly, the state cannot fully trust private commercial companies to fully comply with the party-state’s intent to censor and monitor citizens’ communication over social networks. The remainder of this chapter discusses Swedish and Chinese cyber-security strategy, focusing on threat perceptions, cyber-security methods and organization. Why compare Sweden and China? The main reason is that while both have relatively advanced information societies and cyber-security measures, they represent on the one hand a parliamentary democracy, and on the other an autocratic political system. While many other democracies and autocracies could have been chosen, Sweden and China are particularly interesting given their difference in size and position in the global system. Also, while the USA is a leading cyber power, and thus in a sense a major geopolitical counterpart of China, we are not here analyzing the balance of cyber power, but are mainly interested in differences and similarities between democracy and autocracy concerning cyber security. And while US cyber-security policies have been extensively discussed elsewhere (Mueller and Kuehn 2013; Dunn Cavelty 2008), there is hardly any studies on Swedish cyber security (for exceptions, see Eriksson 2001a, 2001b, 2004). Moreover, our particular expertise on Swedish and Chinese cyber politics is a pragmatic reason for studying these rather than any other countries. It should also be made clear that we conceive of cyber security in a broad sense. Cyber security, as we understand it, includes defensive measures against cyber attacks such as firewalls and CERT (Computer Emergency Response Team) functions, offensive measures such as computer hacking and denial of service attacks, and cyber surveillance and cyber espionage (Andreasson 2012; Dunn Cavelty 2008).

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Newlove-Eriksson, Lindy M:
    Försvarshögskolan; KTH.
    Theorizing Technology in International Relations: Prevailing Perspectives and New Horizons2021In: Technology and International Relations: The New Horizon in Global Power / [ed] Giampiero Giacomello; Franscesco Niccolò Moro; Marco Valigi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2021, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents an introduction to and brief overview of the study of technology and international relations, including a discussion of research gaps and new horizons. In particular, this contribution addresses whether and how prevailing theoretical approaches have been able to analyze the relationship between technological and international political change. This includes how the personal, social, societal, and, to an extent, also biological worlds are becoming increasingly interconnected through new technologies – what has been referred to as the ‘fourth industrial revolution’ (Newlove-Eriksson and Eriksson, 2021; Schwab, 2017). How then is technology addressed within the field of international relations (IR)? Given the considerable attention IR literature pays to globalization and global structural change – core themes of contemporary IR – it might be expected that the role of technology in world politics would be a major focus. What would global politics and globalization be if the rapid development and diffusion of global information and communications technologies (ICTs) were not taken into account? It would seem, nonetheless, that technology has received rather mixed and selective attention within IR.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Johan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Reischl, Gunilla
    Swedish Institute of International Affairs.
    Worlds apart, worlds together: Converging and diverging frames in climate and energy governance2019In: Globalizations, ISSN 1474-7731, E-ISSN 1474-774X, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that past research has overlooked how the way problems and solutions are framed contribute to a prevailing gap in the global governance of climate and energy. Empirically, this paper investigates the frames of energy and climate change as expressed in key documents from the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and International Energy Agency (IEA). Partly in contrast to past research, this paper finds (1) that there is a growing similarity in how the IPCC and IEA frame climate and energy; (2) that the IEA has gone from ignoring to acknowledging climate change and the transformation to a low-carbon energy system; and (3) that there is a prevailing difference in emphasis, whereas the IPCC only marginally discuss energy, while the IEA is still mainly talking about energy needs and fossil fuels even if climate change and renewables have entered their agenda.

  • 19.
    Friberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Introduction to the thematic issue ‘Moral Economy: New Perspectives'2015In: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, E-ISSN 1744-9634, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 143-146Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Friberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Götz, NorbertSödertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Moral Economy: New Perspectives2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Abolition, Bible, Relief: The Origins of Global Civil Society2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paper analyses the voluntary action of the London-based Committee for Relieving the Distresses in Germany and Other Parts of the Continent, a set of humanitarian relief campaigns in the years 1805-1815, and its connections with the advocacy work of the anti-slavery movement and that of the British and Foreign Bible Society. While advocacy is a well-known dimension of early transnational civil society, early humanitarian relief services across borders are virtually unknown to research. This paper argues that advocacy and service were always interrelated and co-evolved as the two principal dimensions of global civil society already at the turn from the seventeenth to the twentieth century.

  • 22.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Asymmetry in Civil Society Development and Its Implications for Archival Preservation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik2015In: Das Politische Skandinavien: Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Politik & Kultur / [ed] Bernd Henningsen, Sven Jochem, Siegfried Frech, Schwalbach: Wochenschau , 2015, p. 241-257Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Civil Society and NGO: Far from Unproblematic Concepts2011In: The Ashgate Research Companion to Non-State Actors / [ed] Bob Reinalda, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, p. 185-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Deliberative Diplomacy: The Nordic Approach to Global Governance and Societal Representation at the United Nations2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ascendency of executive power in the presence of weak parliamentary and societal control has given rise to a need for deliberative forms of diplomacy in international relations. As Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden regularly include members of parliament, party representatives, and representatives of civil society in their delegations to the General Assembly of the United Nations, does this imply that a Nordic model exists? This book reviews the practice of these countries and finds that the role of societal representatives has diminished from participating members of delegations to mere observers. The Nordic examples illuminate the difficulties of achieving international governance through the practice of deliberative democracy.

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  • 26.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Der repräsentierte Staat: Das Tauziehen um die dänische UN-Delegation Mitte der 1960er Jahre2010In: Regna firmat pietas: Staat und Staatlichkeit im Ostseeraum: Festgabe zum 60. Geburtstag von Jens E. Olesen / [ed] Martin Krieger and Joachim Krüger, Greifswald: Universität , 2010, p. 419-432Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Distressed Germans – British Benefactors: Collective Identities at the Time of the Napoleonic Wars2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Early Transnational Civil Society: The Committees for Relieving the Distresses in Germany and Other Parts of the Continent, 1805–18162011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Early Transnational Philanthropy: Global Civil Society and the Committees for Relieving the Distresses in Germany and Other Parts of the Continent, 1805–18162012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    From Neutrality to Membership: Sweden and the United Nations, 1941 to 19462016In: Contemporary European History, ISSN 0960-7773, E-ISSN 1469-2171, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 75-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's relationship with the United Nations fluctuated considerably between 1941 and 1946. This article examines how the Nordic country's own security interests were sometimes viewed as compatible and sometimes at odds with membership of the United Nations. The discussions surrounding Sweden's accession to the United Nations and actions of its first delegates to the international organisation are explored at length. So too is the discrepancy between Sweden's reputation for neutrality and its enthusiastic support for the United Nations, on the one hand, and its internal debates and policy decisions during the 1940s, on the other. Finally, the article explores the ways in which Sweden used the United Nations as an arena in which to manifest both its indifference to security alignment and its exceptionalism in world affairs.

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  • 31.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    ‘Moral Economy’: Its Conceptual History and Analytical Prospects2015In: Journal of Global Ethics, ISSN 1744-9626, E-ISSN 1744-9634, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 147-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article challenges E.P. Thompson’s definition of ‘moral economy’ as a traditionalconsensus of crowd rights that were swept away by market forces. Instead, it suggests thatthe concept has the potential of improving the understanding of modern civil society. Moraleconomy was a term invented in the eighteenth century to describe many things.Thompson’s approach reflects only a minor part of this conceptual history. Hisunderstanding of moral economy is conditioned by a dichotomous view of history and bythe acceptance of a model according to which modern economy is not subject to moralconcerns. It is on principle problematic to confine a term conjoining two concepts asgeneral as ‘moral’ and ‘economy’ to a specific historical and social setting. Recentapproaches that frame moral economy as an emotively defined order of morals are alsomisleading since they do not address economic issues in the way they are commonlyunderstood. The most promising current approaches appear to be those that consider themoral economy of welfare, humanitarianism, and civil society. The concept of moraleconomy may help us to clarify alternative ways of ‘utility maximisation’ through theconstruction of altruistic meaning for economic transactions.

  • 32.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Neutralität und Kooperation, Engagement und Intervention: Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik2014In: Der Burger im Staat, ISSN 0007-3121, Vol. 64, no 2-3, p. 176-182Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    Die Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik der im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert entstandenen skandinavischen Nationalstaaten hat unterschiedliche Phasen durchlaufen. Eine in den 1930er Jahren zunächst noch gemeinsam verfolgte Neutralitätspolitik blieb angesichts der machtpolitischen Konstellationen während des Zweiten Weltkriegs erfolglos. Nach 1945 waren die nordeuropäischen Länder bestrebt, ihre Souveränität zu wahren und sich im beginnenden Kalten Krieg zu positionieren. 1948 wurde eine skandinavische Verteidigungsunion erwogen, die letztlich an den Differenzen der nordischen Staaten scheiterte. Dänemark, Norwegen und Island wurden Gründungsmitglieder der NATO, während Schweden seine neutralitätspolitische Tradition fortführte und Finnland aufgrund der Grenzlage zur UdSSR einen pragmatischen Kurs verfolgte. Um die unterschiedlichen sicherheitspolitischen Orientierungen zu kompensieren, wurde 1952 der Nordische Rat gegründet. In den 1960er Jahren wurde der Kurs einer aktiven und in internationaler Hinsicht stärker politisierten Außenpolitik eingeschlagen. In der Europapolitik hingegen zeigten sich die nordischen Länder eher zögerlich. Ambivalent gestaltete sich auch die Kooperation mit den baltischen Ländern Estland, Lettland und Litauen. Die seit 2005 zu beobachtende Renaissance der nordischen Zusammenarbeit vermag die Heterogenität der von den skandinavischen Staaten verfolgten Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik nicht zu überdecken.

  • 33.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    One Per Cent for Development: Rationales of Swedish Donorship2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has been one of the major providers of development aid to Third World countries, measured in per cent of the gross national income (GNI). Since the mid-1970s the country has always surpassed the 0.7 per cent goal propagated by the United Nations and sometimes exceeded the own, more ambitious goal of one per cent. The paper examines a variety of explanations for this extraordinary donor behavior and concludes that it may best be explained by ideological and strategic considerations made public by Swedish decision makers on both the national and the global level. Development aid has been an investment in international prestige and influence and, during the Cold War, also a marker of Swedish non-alignment in security policy matters. At the same time, the consonance of having a comprehensive domestic welfare system alongside the idea that international assistance should be given to those in need has given the country a consistent image. Domestically, development aid has been an issue that created an opportunity for social democrats to characterize the centre-right parties as divided on a foreign policy issue.

  • 34.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Parliamentary Diplomacy, the Nordic Countries and the United Nations2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Patron, Kin, and Fellow Believer: Transnational Relief for Ireland 1845–18512014In: On conference websit, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The famine of the 1840s is a historical landmark, a lieux de memoire not only of Irish, but of European and transatlantic history. Like writing on the wall it bears witness to the malfunction of the then hegemonic liberal doctrine and to the ignorance of the mightiest power of the time – the British Empire. Whereas these issues are recurrent subjects for discussion, the voluntary relief effort at the time has been little studied. This paper argues that this effort highlights the transnational capacity of civil society at the time and it shows the ambiguity of voluntary transnationalism with roots in imperial and diaspora constellations and in a wider context of religious and humanitarian driving forces.

  • 36.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Political History as Transnational History2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Public Accounting in the Committees for Relieving the Distresses in Germany and Other Parts of the Continent, 1805–18162012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines one of the earliest transnational voluntary relief efforts, the British campaign for relieving the distresses in Germany, other parts of the continent, and Sweden 1805–1816. The focus is directed on accounting for (a) the subscription paid by individual donors, (b) the appropriation of aid for different locations and purposes as well as (c) for the en detail provision of relief on the level of individuals. The questions asked are what function the public accounting had for the campaign, including the shaming of non-donors such as the German-born Queen Charlotte, what kind of structures it required and what it meant for the relation of donors and recipients of aid, and what effect it had in terms of export of specific traits of civil society and political culture from one country to another.

  • 38.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Scandinavianism Revisited: The Transnational Construction of Norden in the Age of Nationalism2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Societal Representation in UN-delegations: Open Diplomacy, Deliberative Democracy and Power-enhancing Consensus2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Spatial Order and Mental Mapping in the Baltic Sea Area2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Cautious Nordic Approach to Integration: Regional, Western and European2011In:  Fronteras y reconfiguraciones regionales: RISC 2009 / [ed] Claudia Puerta Silva and Juan Carlos Vélez Rendón, Brussels: Peter Lang Pub Inc. , 2011, p. 19-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Committees for Relieving the Distresses in Germany and Other Parts of the Continent, 1805–18152013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Voluntary transnational humanitarian aid dates back to the Napoleonic Wars, when affiliates of the British and Foreign Bible Society and some other British subjects, frequently of immigrant background, organized a relief campaign to the benefit of certain allied nations, in particular in Germany and Sweden. The paper accounts for the little known origins of transnational relief and asks for the driving forces of donors, examines the impact of their help, and problematizes the interaction of providers and recipients of aid. The focus will be  on how morality, politics, and economy were interwoven with one another. The paper also discusses the lessons that can be drawn from this early example of humanitarian aid, and which lasting structural problems were evident already two-hundred years ago.

  • 43.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Emergence of NGOs as Actors on the World Stage2019In: Routledge Handbook of NGOs and International Relations / [ed] Thomas Davies, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2019, p. 19-31Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This overview begins with a discussion of how the term NGO entered international relations in connection with the UN Charter conference. It continues with a chronological sketch of the emergence of NGOs in the nineteenth century. It then discusses the quantitative development of NGOs until today, periodisation issues, and major trends, suggesting a politico-economic perspective in tension with geopolitical IR approaches.

  • 44.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Good Plumpuddings’ Belief’: British Humanitarian and Medical Assistance to Sweden During the Napoleonic Wars2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Good Plumpuddings’ Belief: British Voluntary Aid to Sweden During the Napoleonic Wars2015In: International History Review, ISSN 0707-5332, E-ISSN 1949-6540, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 519-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The London-based Committee for Relieving the Distressed Inhabitants of Germany, and Other Parts of the Continent is an early example of a large-scale voluntary relief programme that has gone unappreciated in the annals of humanitarianism. The present article examines the period in 1808 and 1809 when this committee redirected its relief efforts to Sweden. The case highlights many issues that beset humanitarianism today. With well-preserved recipient records, it offers insight to aspects of humanitarian encounters that have been markedly under-researched. It examines how foreign-policy interests fostered mis-conceptions about those in need and how such misconceptions resulted in corrupt distribution structures. It shows that asymmetries in the development of civil society impeded the relief effort and that the divergent interests of donors and distributors caused the forms of relief to be inadequate and agency to be lost. Moreover, it illustrates how local elites resisted advice from abroad and how the individual personalities involved shaped policy outcomes. These factors remain issues at the present time and the case of two Protestant European countries with a cultural affinity illustrates how significant they are.

  • 46.
    Götz, Norbert
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Universeller oder spezieller Frieden?: Demokratie als Kriterium der Mitgliedschaft in den frühen Vereinten Nationen2011In: Frieden durch Demokratie? : Genese, Wirkung und Kritik eines Deutungsmusters / [ed] Jost Dülffer and Gottfried Niedhart, Essen: Klartext , 2011, p. 167-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Brewis, Georgina
    University College London.
    Werther, Steffen
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Humanitarianism in the Modern World: The Moral Economy of Famine Relief2020Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an innovative new history of famine relief and humanitarianism. The authors apply a moral economy approach to shed new light on the forces and ideas that motivated and shaped humanitarian aid during the Great Irish Famine, the famine of 1921-1922 in Soviet Russia and the Ukraine, and the 1980s Ethiopian famine. They place these episodes within a distinctive periodisation of humanitarianism which emphasises the correlations with politico-economic regimes: the time of elitist laissez-faire liberalism in the nineteenth century as one of ad hoc humanitarianism; that of Taylorism and mass society from c.1900-1970 as one of organised humanitarianism; and the blend of individualised post-material lifestyles and neoliberal public management since 1970 as one of expressive humanitarianism. The book as a whole shifts the focus of the history of humanitarianism from the imperatives of crisis management to the pragmatic mechanisms of fundraising, relief efforts on the ground, and accounting.

  • 48.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Brewis, Georgina
    Werther, Steffen
    Humanitäre Hilfe: Eine Braudel'sche Perspektive2019In: Freiwilligenarbeit und gemeinnützige Organisationen im Wandel: Neue Perspektiven auf das 19. und 20. jahrhundert / [ed] Nicole Kramer und Christine G. Krüger, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2019, p. 89-119Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Ekengren, Ann-Marie
    Världssamvetet eller världsmedvetet?: Norden och biståndet under kalla kriget2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Götz, Norbert
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Herrmann, Irène
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Universalism in Emergency Aid before and after 1970: Ambivalences and Contradictions2022In: Nationalism and Internationalism Intertwined: A European History of Concepts Beyond the Nation State / [ed] Pasi Ihalainen; Antero Holmila, New York: Berghahn Books, 2022, p. 247-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 88
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