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  • 1.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Hellgren, Carina
    International Programme Office, Stockholm.
    Working Conditions for Female and Immigrant Cleaners in Stockholm County: An Intersectional Approach2012In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 161-181Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Alvarsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. KTH.
    Imamovic, Amra
    KTH.
    Bolin, Karl
    KTH.
    Buller i Silverdal 20162016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att buller orsakar ohälsa för många medborgare både i Europa generellt, och i Sverige. De två viktigaste negativa hälsoeffekterna av buller är försämrad sömn och bullerstörning. Trafikbuller är den främsta orsaken till dessa effekter.

    I denna studie användes enkäter samt data från bullerkartor för att undersöka bullerstörning från trafik. Av de 1168 personerna i urvalet deltog 678 personer. Deltagarna svarade på 39 frågor rörande: buller, hälsa, rekreationsbeteende, luftkvalitéupplevelse samt demografi.

    Studiens första syfte var att undersöka bullerstörning från vägtrafik och spårtrafik, hos boende i Silverdal. Resultatet visade att de boende i Silverdal är mer störda av buller än genomsnittet i Sverige, men även jämfört med de beräknade störningsnivåerna från bullerkartorna. Faktorerna som starkast påverkade störning från vägtrafik var: upplevda vibrationer, den upplevda luftkvalitén hemma, utbildningsnivå, om sovrumsfönstret vette mot en lokalgata samt attityd till vägtrafik. Motsvarande faktorer för spårtrafik var: upplevda vibrationer, sovrumsfönster mot spår samt utbildningsnivå.

    Studiens andra syfte undersökte upplevelse av rekreationsmöjligheter och rekreationsbeteende. Resultatet visade att majoriteten av deltagarna upplever mycket bra möjligheter till rekreation. Områden, nära hemmet, med natur samt med lägre nivåer av bullernivåer, var mest besökta.

    Studiens tredje syfte var att undersöka hur boende i Silverdal upplevde luftkvalitén. Resultatet visar att utomhusluften är det som upplevs mest problematiskt, medan färre upplever inomhusluften som dålig.

    Studien visar att många boende i Silverdal är störda av buller, både jämfört med nationella undersökningar, men även i relation till den beräknade bullerstörningsnivån från bullerkartor. Rekreationsmiljön i området upplevs som relativt god och lufkvalitén upplevs som ett relativt mindre problem jämfört med bullret. Utomhusmiljön är den miljö som upplevs som är mest problematiskt för boende. Bulleråtgärder utomhus längs bullerkällornas sträckning rekommenderas, dels eftersom de efterfrågas av de boende, del för att de  minskar bullret både utomhus och inomhus.

  • 3.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Perspectives on wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor environments: Studies of masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An acoustic environment contains sounds from various sound sources, some generally perceived as wanted, others as unwanted. This thesis examines the effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in acoustic environments, with regard to masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility.

    In urban settings, masking of unwanted sounds by sounds from water structures has been suggested as a way to improve the acoustic environment. However, Study I showed that the unwanted (road traffic) sound was better at masking the wanted (water) sound than vice versa, thus indicating that masking of unwanted sounds with sounds from water structures may prove difficult. Also, predictions by a partial loudness model of the auditory periphery overestimated the effect of masking, indicating that centrally located informational masking processes contribute to the effect. Some environments have also been shown to impair stress recovery; however studies using only auditory stimuli is lacking. Study II showed that a wanted (nature) sound improve stress recovery compared to unwanted (road traffic, ambient) sounds. This suggests that the acoustic environment influences stress recovery and that wanted sounds may facilitate stress recovery compared to unwanted sounds. An additional effect of unwanted sounds is impeded speech communication, commonly measured with speech intelligibility models. Study III showed that speech intelligibility starts to be negatively affected when the unwanted (aircraft sound) masker have equal or higher sound pressure level as the speech sound. Three models of speech intelligibility (speech intelligibility index, partial loudness and signal–to–noise ratio) predicted this effect well, with a slight disadvantage for the signal–to–noise ratio model. Together, Study I and III suggests that the partial loudness model is useful for determining effects of wanted and unwanted sounds in outdoor acoustic environments where variations in sound pressure level are large. But, in environments with large variations in other sound characteristics, models containing predictions of central processes would likely produce better results.

    The thesis concludes that wanted and unwanted characteristics of sounds in acoustic environments affect masking, stress recovery, and speech intelligibility, and that auditory perception models can predict these effects.

  • 4.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nordström, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundén, Peter
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Aircraft noise and speech intelligibility in an outdoor living space2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 3455-3462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of effects on speech intelligibility from aircraft noise in outdoor places are currently lacking. To explore these effects, first-order ambisonic recordings of aircraft noise were reproduced outdoors in a pergola. The average background level was 47 dB L-Aeq. Lists of phonetically balanced words (L-ASmax,L- word = 54 dB) were reproduced simultaneously with aircraft passage noise (L-ASmax,L- noise = 72-84 dB). Twenty individually tested listeners wrote down each presented word while seated in the pergola. The main results were (i) aircraft noise negatively affects speech intelligibility at sound pressure levels that exceed those of the speech sound (signal-to-noise ratio, S/N < 0), and (ii) the simple A-weighted S/N ratio was nearly as good an indicator of speech intelligibility as were two more advanced models, the Speech Intelligibility Index and Glasberg and Moore's [J. Audio Eng. Soc. 53, 906-918 (2005)] partial loudness model. This suggests that any of these indicators is applicable for predicting effects of aircraft noise on speech intelligibility outdoors.

  • 5.
    Alvarsson, Jesper J.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Stress Recovery during Exposure to Nature Sound and Environmental Noise2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 1036-1046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that visual impressions of natural compared with urban environments facilitate recovery after psychological stress. To test whether auditory stimulation has similar effects, 40 subjects were exposed to sounds from nature or noisy environments after a stressful mental arithmetic task. Skin conductance level (SCL) was used to index sympathetic activation, and high frequency heart rate variability (HF HRV) was used to index parasympathetic activation. Although HF HRV showed no effects, SCL recovery tended to be faster during natural sound than noisy environments. These results suggest that nature sounds facilitate recovery from sympathetic activation after a psychological stressor.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Sarah
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Elvaåringars syn på människor med psykisk ohälsa: en kvalitativ studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen om barns syn på psykisk ohälsa är knapp och bristen på skalor gör det svårt att generalisera resultat. Därför genomfördes en kvalitativ studie med syfte att undersöka hur 11-åringar upplever psykiskt sjuka, om de har fördomar gentemot människor med psykisk ohälsa och i sådana fall varför. Halvstrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes på svenska 11-åringar från två olika skolor. Deltagarna visade sig ha liten kunskap om psykisk ohälsa. Deltagarna hade vissa stereotyper och fördomar gentemot psykiskt sjuka även om de också visade empati särskilt då de kände någon med psykisk sjukdom. Det talades väldigt lite om psykiska sjukdomar i både skolan och hemmet, även i de fall då familjemedlemmar hade psykiska sjukdomar. Slutsatsen dras att fördomar gentemot människor med psykisk ohälsa finns även hos barn och försök till att förhindra detta bör rikta in sig på att sprida kunskap, öppet kommunicera om psykiska sjukdomar i skolan och vården bör uppmuntra till kommunikation i hemmet då barn diagnostiseras med psykiska sjukdomar.

  • 7.
    Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    CNRS, Paris, France / University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Laukka, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Granjon, Lionel
    CNRS, Paris, France / University of Paris Descartes, Paris, France.
    Elfenbein, Hillary Anger
    Washington University, St Louis, USA.
    Banziger, Tanja
    Mid Sweden University.
    Second Language Ability and Emotional Prosody Perception2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the effect of language experience on vocal emotion perception in a second language. Native speakers of French with varying levels of self-reported English ability were asked to identify emotions from vocal expressions produced by American actors in a forced-choice task, and to rate their pleasantness, power, alertness and intensity on continuous scales. Stimuli included emotionally expressive English speech (emotional prosody) and non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts), and a baseline condition with Swiss-French pseudo-speech. Results revealed effects of English ability on the recognition of emotions in English speech but not in non-linguistic vocalizations. Specifically, higher English ability was associated with less accurate identification of positive emotions, but not with the interpretation of negative emotions. Moreover, higher English ability was associated with lower ratings of pleasantness and power, again only for emotional prosody. This suggests that second language skills may sometimes interfere with emotion recognition from speech prosody, particularly for positive emotions.

  • 8.
    Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    Université Paris Descartes, France.
    Laukka, PetriStockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.Levitin, Daniel J.McGill University, Canada.
    Expression of emotion in music and vocal communication2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two of the most important social skills in humans are the ability to determine the moods of those around us, and to use this to guide our behavior. To accomplish this, we make use of numerous cues. Among the most important are vocal cues from both speech and non-speech sounds. Music is also a reliable method for communicating emotion. It is often present in social situations and can serve to unify a group's mood for ceremonial purposes (funerals, weddings) or general social interactions. Scientists and philosophers have speculated on the origins of music and language, and the possible common bases of emotional expression through music, speech and other vocalizations. They have found increasing evidence of commonalities among them. However, the domains in which researchers investigate these topics do not always overlap or share a common language, so communication between disciplines has been limited. The aim of this Research Topic is to bring together research across multiple disciplines related to the production and perception of emotional cues in music, speech, and non-verbal vocalizations. This includes natural sounds produced by human and non-human primates as well as synthesized sounds. Research methodology includes survey, behavioral, and neuroimaging techniques investigating adults as well as developmental populations, including those with atypical development. Studies using laboratory tasks as well as studies in more naturalistic settings are included.

  • 9.
    Bhatara, Anjali
    et al.
    Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France / Laboratoire Psychologie de la Perception, CNRS, UMR 8242, Paris, France.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. .
    Levitin, Daniel J.
    Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Expression of emotion in music and vocal communication: Introduction to the research topic2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 399Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In social interactions, we must gauge the emotional state of others in order to behave appropriately. We rely heavily on auditory cues, specifically speech prosody, to do this. Music is also a complex auditory signal with the capacity to communicate emotion rapidly and effectively and often occurs in social situations or ceremonies as an emotional unifier.

    In sum, the main contribution of this Research Topic, along with highlighting the variety of research being done already, is to show the places of contact between the domains of music and vocal expression that occur at the level of emotional communication. In addition, we hope it will encourage future dialog among researchers interested in emotion in fields as diverse as computer science, linguistics, musicology, neuroscience, psychology, speech and hearing sciences, and sociology, who can each contribute knowledge necessary for studying this complex topic.

  • 10.
    Bjursell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Jönköping University.
    Nystedt, Paul
    Jönköping University.
    Björklund, Anita
    Jönköping University.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Jönköping University.
    Education level explains participation in work and education later in life2017In: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 511-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A prolonged working life is crucial for sustaining social welfare and fiscal stability for countries facing ageing populations. The group of older adults is not homogeneous; however, differences within the group may affect the propensity to continue working and to participate in continuing education. The aim of this paper is to explore how participation in work and education vary with gender, age, and education level in a sample of older adults. The study was performed in Sweden, a context characterized by high female labour-market-participation rates and a high average retirement age. The participants were 232 members of four of the major senior citizens’ organizations. We found no differences in participation in work and education based on gender. People older than 75 years were found to be as active as people 65–75 years old in education, but the older group worked less. There were positive associations between education level and participation in both work and education. Hence, this study implies that socio-economic inequalities along these dimensions are widened later in life. This highlights the importance of engaging workers with lower education levels in educational efforts throughout life. It also emphasizes the need for true lifelong learning in society.

  • 11.
    Bornemark, Jonna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Ekström von Essen, Ulla
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Livet som stör: om hästunderstödd terapi i psykiatrisk öppenvård2010In: Kentauren: om interaktion mellan häst och människa / [ed] Jonna Bornemark, Ulla Ekström von Essen, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2010, p. 119-141Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Brock, Maria
    University of London, London, England.
    Reading Formations of Subjectivity: From Discourse to Psyche2016In: Social & Personality Psychology Compass, ISSN 1751-9004, E-ISSN 1751-9004, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article represents a critical overview of strategies to examine subjectivity in discourse, highlighting a series of methodological approaches, which seek to manage the tension between discourse studies' focus on social and cultural structures, and psychoanalysis' interest in unconscious motivations. One aim is to trouble the supposed opposition between discourse analysis and the psychosocial approach and to regard the latter as a possible extension of insights established by the former. It is argued here that psychosocial readings in general, and Lacanian approaches more specifically, offer a cautious, nuanced way of introducing psychoanalytic ideas into the analysis of texts. The first part of this article offers examples of discourse analytic approaches, which have explicitly sought to incorporate psychoanalytic notions, followed by a discussion of Lacanian discourse analysis - a method shaped directly by this psychoanalytic school's concern with language. The article concludes with a series of methodological injunctions for conducting a psychosocial form of textual analysis.

  • 13.
    Brock, Maria
    University of London, London, UK.
    Review of Lacanian ethics and the assumption of subjectivity2012In: Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society, ISSN 1088-0763, E-ISSN 1543-3390, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 102-104Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews the book, Lacanian Ethics and the Assumption of Subjectivity by Calum Neill (2011). This book aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the French psychoanalyst’s ideas on subjectivity and ethics to academics and students at the postgraduate level. It represents a useful starting point for an exploration of the central Lacanian notion of the split subject, along with some related ideas such as fantasy, desire and the drive. The author is consistently thorough in his interpretations, and in his clear style he follows every argument through to its conclusion. The author is consistently thorough in his interpretations, and in his clear style he follows every argument through to its conclusion. It could be said that, while this book is largely about impossibilities, it is by no means an impossible book. The author's erudition and rigor make it a brilliant evocation of both Lacanian and traditional ethical thought. Whether the book’s conclusion proves to be satisfactory to readers depends largely on their interest in, and commitment to, Lacanian theory.

  • 14.
    Brock, Maria
    London School of Economics, London, UK.
    Review of Psychoanalysis outside the clinic: Interventions in psychosocial studies2011In: Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society, ISSN 1088-0763, E-ISSN 1543-3390, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 107-109Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reviews the book, Psychoanalysis outside the clinic: Interventions in pychosocial studies by Stephen Frosh (2011). Through a detailed exposition of existing scholarly endeavors, the book illustrates how these concepts can be applied to issues of a transindividual nature. At the same time, the book tries to rein in those enthusiasts who believe that psychoanalytic knowledge, with its emphasis on affect and the unconscious, holds the missing elements to a Grand Theory of the Social. One way of reading this book is therefore as a review of previous efforts to transcend the original analyst-analysand dyad. Each chapter looks at a different area and sub discipline that has experienced an influx of psychoanalytic ideas, including literary studies, social psychology and ethics. The author always remains critical of the dogmatic tendencies of psychoanalytic thinking, which at times appears to want to install its mode of viewing the social world as a new 'Master Discourse'. This development effects a domestication of its ideas, a 'blunting of the subversive edge of psychoanalysis'. This book is not likely to convert those sceptical of the discipline's tenets; and, though it might disappoint those searching for an impassioned argument for the explanatory potency of psychoanalysis, it nevertheless provides an indispensable guide to existing interdisciplinary efforts.

  • 15.
    Bäck, E. A.
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Bäck, H.
    Lund University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm Univeristy.
    Sikström, S.
    Lund University.
    From I to we: Group formation and linguistic adaption in an online xenophobic forum2018In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 76-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of identity formation processes nowadays takes place online, indicating that intergroup differentiation may be found in online communities. This paper focuses on identity formation processes in an open online xenophobic, anti-immigrant, discussion forum. Open discussion forums provide an excellent opportunity to investigate open interactions that may reveal how identity is formed and how individual users are influenced by other users. Using computational text analysis and Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC), our results show that new users change from an individual identification to a group identification over time as indicated by a decrease in the use of “I” and increase in the use of “we”. The analyses also show increased use of “they” indicating intergroup differentiation. Moreover, the linguistic style of new users became more similar to that of the overall forum over time. Further, the emotional content decreased over time. The results indicate that new users on a forum create a collective identity with the other users and adapt to them linguistically.

  • 16. Bäck, Emma A.
    Effects of Parental Relations and Upbringing in Troubled Adolescent Eating Behaviors2011In: Eating Disorders, ISSN 1064-0266, E-ISSN 1532-530X, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 403-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Family relations may constitute a risk for developing eating problems. Not enough is known about parent-child relationship quality and upbringing in food situations. Self-report data from 80 high school students (45 males) showed that females had more eating problems than males, and their problems were related both to insecure mother attachment, controlling for body/weight dissatisfaction, and to more memories of childhood food rules. Secure mother attachment was related to decreased eating problems, via increasing body/weight satisfaction. Especially the mother- daughter relationship seems to affect adolescent girls' eating habits and can either protect against or enhance the risk for eating problems.

  • 17. Bäck, Emma A.
    Social and cognitive biases in large group decision settings2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis consists of three studies on the effects of group membership in large group decisions. The overall aim was to contribute to understanding how individuals react when decisions are made in large groups. We explored consequences of procedural justice concerns within such groups. In Study I we investigated how different decision procedures and issue importance affect perceptions of others who agree and disagree with the individual on a potentially important issue.  Individuals attributed more positive reasons for attitudes of those who agree as opposed to disagree with themselves, whereas disagreers were attributed more negative reasons. The asymmetry was moderated by decision form, and issue importance. The attitudes concerned attitudes towards potential new policies. In Study II we investigated differences in participants’ perceptions of others depending on own position towards the new policy. Challengers of the status quo advocating a change in the existing policy, were more biased when judging others than were defenders of the status quo. This suggests that challengers are less tolerant of defenders’ point of view. This effect was not affected by perceptions of minority status among the challengers. In Study III we looked at individual group members’ cognitive restructuring of a preferred decision alternative, and how it differs between decision conditions when the decision-maker is affiliated to own ingroup or not. Results showed that individuals restructure the attractiveness of their preferred alternative in group decisions similarly to what has been previously found in individual decision-making. The magnitude of restructuring was greatest when ingroup members decided for the group. However, this effect was moderated by identification with the ingroup, such that those who identified themselves with the ingroup restructured their preferred alternative more when ingroup members decided as opposed to when outgroup authorities decided.

  • 18. Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Esaisson, Peter
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Svenson, Ola
    Lindholm, Torun
    Post-decision consolidation in large group decision-making2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision-makers tend to change the psychological attractiveness of decision alternatives in favour of their own preferred alternative after the decision is made. In two experiments, the present research examined whether such decision consolidation occurs also among individual group members in a large group decision-making situation. High-school students were presented with a decision scenario on an important issue in their school. The final decision was made by in-group authority, out-group authority or by majority after a ballot voting. Results showed that individual members of large groups changed the attractiveness of their preferred alternative from a pre- to a post decision phase, that these consolidation effects increased when decisions were made by in-group members and when participants identified strongly with their school. Implications of the findings for understanding of group behavior and subgroup relations are discussed.

  • 19.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet.
    Defending or Challenging the Status Quo: Position Effects on Biased Intergroup Perceptions2014In: Journal of social and political psychology, ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 77-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The default ideological position is status quo maintaining. Strategies justifying the status quo include undermining challenging arguments, and challengers are judged more negatively than defenders by observers. The current study examined perceptions of challengers and defenders of status quo taking into account perceivers’ own position. Experiment 1 showed that challengers undermined, by ascribing more externality and less rationality, the position of defenders to a larger extent than defenders did of challengers’ position. Experiment 2 tested if effects were driven by the implied minority status of the challenging position. Results revealed no effects of experimentally manipulated numerical status, but challengers were again more biased than defenders. Hence, thedriving force behind challengers’ negative attitudes towards opponents seems to lie in the challenging position per se rather than numerical status. Possibly, challenging what is generally considered to be good demands more from the individual in terms of gearing up for fight and protection against attacks.

  • 20.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholms universitet.
    Hen. Bakgrund, attityder och användande2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2015 infördes det könsneutrala pronomenet hen i Svenska akademins ordlista efter en känslomässig allmän debatt om ordet, dess innebörd och möjliga konsekvenser. Hösten 2015 genomförde vi en större enkätundersökning som besvarades av 1308 personer registrerade i Enkätfabrikens deltagarpanel. Enkäten presenterades som en studie om attityder i aktuella frågor, till exempel attityder till jämställdhet och det svenska språket. Enkäten innehöll frågor om attityder till och användande av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen. Till exempel ställdes frågor om hur ofta och i vilka situationer hen används, och vad deltagaren tycker om ordet. I enkäten fanns också mer generella frågor om jämställdhet och språk.I den här rapporten beskrivs först hur språk och jämställdhet är relaterade till varandra och hur språk antas kunna påverka uppfattningar om kön. Vi beskriver också specifikt hur införandet av hen gick till. Efter det följer resultat från enkäten.Studien är en del av ett större projekt vars huvudsakliga syfte är att studera attityder till och kognitiva effekter av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen. Andra studier i projektet inkluderar experimentella laboratoriestudier med ögonrörelsemätningar, enkät-experiment samt en uppföljande enkät till denna, för att studera förändringar över tid. Projektet är ett samarbete mellan de psykologiska institutionerna vid Stockholms, Lunds och Göteborgs universitet och har sin hemvist vid Stockholms universitet.

  • 21.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms univeristet.
    Hen can do it!: Effects of using a gender-neutral pronoun in recruitment2015In: Könskonstruktioner och språkförändringar: Rapport från den åttonde nordiska konferensen om språk och kön / [ed] Magnusson, Jenny; Milles, Karin; Nikolaidou, Zoe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2015, p. 71-90Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bäck, Emma
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Esaiasson, Peter
    Gilljam, Mikael
    Lindholm, Torun
    Biased attributions regarding the origins of preferences in a group decision situation2010In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 270-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current research investigated biases in attributions of the origins of others’ preferences in a group decision situation. In two experiments, students indicated their preferred alternative in a decision on an important issue in their school, and then explained the bases for preferences of those agreeing and disagreeing with them. Results showed that participants saw preferences of those who agreed as more rationally and less externally based than of those who disagreed. This effect increased with perceived issue importance, when the decision was made by in-group representatives, when the decision outcome was concordant with their own preference (Study 1), and, on the externality dimension, when their representatives were in the majority when deciding on an important issue (Study 2). Findings have important implications for our understanding of the tolerance of others and acceptance of group decisions, and ultimately, how group members behave and interact.

  • 23.
    Calmfors, L.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Dimdins, G.
    University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Montgomery, H.
    Stockholm University.
    Stavlöt, U.
    Fores, Stockholm.
    Why do people dislike low-wage trade competition with posted workers in the service sector?2013In: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, E-ISSN 1879-1239, Vol. 47, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of low-wage competition in services trade involving posted workers is controversial in the EU. Using Swedish survey data, people's attitudes are found to be more negative to such trade than to goods trade. The differences depend on both a preference for favouring social groups to which individuals belong (the domestic population) and altruistic justice concerns for foreign workers. In small-group experiments, we find a tendency for people to adjust their evaluations of various aspects of trade to their general attitude. This tendency is stronger for those opposed to than those in favour of low-wage trade competition. This may indicate that the former group forms its attitudes in a less rational way than the latter group.

  • 24.
    Cowley, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kosunen, Ilkka
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Lankoski, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology. Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kivikangas, J Matias
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Järvelä, Simo
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ekman, Inger
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland / University of Tampere, Finland.
    Kemppainen, Jaakko
    Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Ravaja, Niklas
    University of Helsinki, Finland / Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland / Helsinki Institute for Information Technology, Finland.
    Experience Assessment and Design in the Analysis of Gameplay2014In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 41-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report research on player modeling using psychophysiology and machine learning, conducted through interdisciplinary collaboration between researchers of computer science, psychology, and game design at Aalto University, Helsinki. First, we propose the Play Patterns And eXperience (PPAX) framework to connect three levels of game experience that previously had remained largely unconnected: game design patterns, the interplay of game context with player personality or tendencies, and state-of-the-art measures of experience (both subjective and non-subjective). Second, we describe our methodology for using machine learning to categorize game events to reveal corresponding patterns, culminating in an example experiment. We discuss the relation between automatically detected event clusters and game design patterns, and provide indications on how to incorporate personality profiles of players in the analysis. This novel interdisciplinary collaboration combines basic psychophysiology research with game design patterns and machine learning, and generates new knowledge about the interplay between game experience and design.

  • 25.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Uppsala Universitet.
    A two-dimensional model for measurement of political orientation2014In: On conference website, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although often measured on a single right-left (or conservative-liberal) continuum, individual political orientation can be conceptualized as consisting of at least two orthogonal dimensions. The first is acceptance vs. rejection of social change, and the second is acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. We propose a theoretical model where the former dimension is represented as acceptance vs. avoidance of uncertainty, and the latter dimension is represented as tough mindedness vs. empathy. The former axis corresponds to the conservation vs. openness to change dimension in the Schwartz's (1992) value model; the latter axis corresponds to the self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence dimension. Two secondary axes represent the possible combinations of the variables defining the primary axes. Tough mindedness in combination with uncertainty avoidance result in high system justification, whereas empathy in combination with uncertainty acceptance represents low system justification. This axis corresponds to the self-protection vs. growth dimension of the refined Schwartz et al. (2011) value model. Tough mindedness in combination with uncertainty acceptance results in preference for self-reliance, whereas the opposite combination represents preference for dependence on others. This axis corresponds to the personal vs. social focus of the Schwartz et al. (2011) value model. Participants (N = 287) completed both one-dimensional and two-dimensional measures of political orientation, measures of social dominance orientation, right wing authoritarianism, system justification, need for cognitive closure, moral motives, values, dependence on others, and a number of political attitude measures. Multidimensional scaling supported the proposed model. The results show that the network of political beliefs and attitudes that represents individual political orientation can be largely reduced to the basic psychological variables of uncertainty avoidance and tough-mindedness, and that both dimensions of political orientation are separable not only theoretically, but also empirically. Our findings call for using two-dimensional measures of political orientation instead of one-dimensional measures (even in cultural contexts where both dimensions are highly correlated), because each dimension can be used to predict its own set of political beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors.

  • 26.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Uppsala University.
    Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 437-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants.

  • 27.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. University of Latvia.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Uppsala University.
    Uncertainty avoidance and tough-mindedness as the bases for system justification and dependence on others2014In: ISJR Conference Program, 2014, p. 133-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Dimdins, Girts
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Montgomery, Henry
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Uncertainty avoidance and tough-mindedness as the psychological bases of political orientation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests a theoretical model where the social dimension of political orientation (acceptance vs. rejection of social change) is represented as acceptance vs. avoidance of uncertainty, and the economic dimension (acceptance vs. rejection of inequality) is represented as tough mindedness vs. empathy. The former axis corresponds to the conservation-openness to change dimension in the Schwartz's (1992) value model; the latter axis corresponds to the self-enhancement vs. self-transcendence dimension. {Schwartz, 1992 #322}Two secondary axes represent the possible combinations of the variables defining the primary axes. Tough mindedness in combination with uncertainty avoidance result in high system justification, whereas empathy in combination with uncertainty acceptance represents low system justification. This axis corresponds to the growth vs. self-protection dimension of the refined Schwartz et al. (2011) value model. Tough mindedness in combination with uncertainty acceptance results in preference for self-reliance, whereas the opposite combination represents preference for dependence on others. This axis corresponds to the social vs. personal focus of the Schwartz et al. (2011) value model. Participants (N = 287) completed measures of SDO, RWA, system justification, NFC, moral motives, values, dependence, and a number of political attitude measures. Multidimensional scaling supported the proposed model. The results show that the network of political beliefs and attitudes that represents individual political orientation can be largely reduced to the basic psychological variables of uncertainty avoidance and tough-mindedness, and that both dimensions of political orientation are separable, both theoretically and empirically. The model allows a deeper analysis of individual political orientation beyond a simple liberal-conservative division.

  • 29.
    Edwardsson, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    Kontorslandskap och sensory-processing sensitivitet: Vilken betydelse har de för välbefinnande, hälsa och arbetsvillkor hos designstudenter?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kontorslandskap är en vanligt förekommande kontorsdesign och fördelar och nackdelar med att arbeta i sådan miljö är oklara. Syften med denna studie var att a) undersöka hur individer upplever att arbeta i kontorslandskap och vad det kan ha för konsekvenser för hälsa och arbetsvillkor, och b) undersöka deras grad av känslighet i förhållande till kontorslandskap, hälsa och arbetsvillkor. Studenter vid Beckmans designhögskola deltog i studien genom att fylla i en enkät. Resultaten visade att upplevelse av kontorslandskap var relaterat till anspänning av arbete och arbetstillfredsställelse men inte till sensory-processing sensitivitet vilket är delvis i linje med tidigare forskning. Att uppleva kontorslandskap som positivt kan kopplas till högre arbetstillfredsställelse och lägre anspänning av arbetet. Att ha en hög grad av sensitivitet kunde även kopplas till sämre mental hälsa och välbefinnande. Slutsatsen som drogs var att kontorslandskap tycks gynna individer i vissa typer av arbetsprocesser, men att det krävs vidare forskning för vad som ligger bakom upplevelsen av kontorslandskap.

  • 30.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Drawings as Representations of Children’s Conceptions2009In: International Journal of Science Education, ISSN 0950-0693, E-ISSN 1464-5289, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 41-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawings are often used to obtain an idea of children’s conceptions. Doing so takes for granted an unambiguous relation between conceptions and their representations in drawings. This study was undertaken to gain knowledge of the relation between children’s conceptions and their representation of these conceptions in drawings. A theory of contextualization was the basis for finding out how children related their contextualization of conceptions in conceptual frameworks to their contextualization of drawings in pictorial convention. Eighteen children were interviewed in a semi-structured method while they were drawing the Earth. Audio-recorded interviews, drawings, and notes were analysed to find the cognitive and cultural intentions behind the drawings. Also, even children who demonstrated alternative conceptions of the Earth in the interviews still followed cultural conventions in their drawings. Thus, these alternative conceptions could not be deduced from the drawings. The results indicate that children’s drawings can be used to grasp children’s conceptions only by considering the meaning the children themselves give to their own drawings.

  • 31.
    Ehrlén, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Understanding of the Earth in the presence of a satellite photo: A threefold enterprise2009In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 281-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To acknowledge both conceptual and situational factors, childrens' understanding of the Earth was considered from three angles: 1, the perspective as the physical point or direction from which something is seen or depicted; 2. conceptual frameworks; 3. the relevance of explanations in a situation. Fourteen children were interviewed individually in front of a poster of a satellite photo of the Earth. The interviews were semi-structured and focused on what the children understood was depicted in the poster and if they had seen the Earth. The effect of choice of perspective was demonstrated by children who only talked about how the Earth could be seen from space. The need to relate different conceptual frameworks became apparent with children, who meant that the Earth was situated in the direction of the sky. Different understandings of the relevance of an explanation were detected when the interviewer talked from the perspective in the room, but children talked about the perspective in the present poster. The results indicate that not only both conceptual frameworks and understanding of perspectives play a part when students encounter questions related to the concept of Earth, but also the students' judgments of the relevance of different explanations in a situation.

  • 32.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Lovseth, Lise T.
    St. Olavs University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm Univeristy / Karolinska Institutet.
    A comparison of risk and protective factors related to suicide ideation among residents and specialists in academic medicine2014In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, article id 271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physicians have an elevated risk of experiencing suicidal thoughts, which might be due to work-related factors. However, the hierarchical work positions as well as work-related health differ among resident and specialist physicians. As such, the correlates of suicide ideation may also vary between these two groups. Methods: In the present study, work- and health-related factors and their association with suicidal thoughts among residents (n=234) and specialists (n=813) working at a university hospital were examined using cross-sectional data. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that having supportive meetings was associated with a lower level of suicide ideation among specialists (OR=0.68, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94), while an empowering leadership was related to a lower level of suicide ideation among residents (OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.94). Having been harassed at work was associated with suicidal ideation among specialists (OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.31-3.91). In addition, sickness presenteeism and work disengagement were associated with suicide ideation in both groups of physicians. Conclusions: These findings suggest that different workplace interventions are needed to prevent suicide ideation in residents and specialists.

  • 33.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Schenck Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholm Univeristy.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm Univeristy / Karolinska Institutet.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 208-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 34.
    Fagerström, Cecilia
    et al.
    Blekinge Center of Competence / Linnaeus University.
    Sandin Wranker, Lena
    Lund University.
    Kabir, Zarina Nahar
    Karolinska Institute.
    Sternäng, Ola
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Jönköping University.
    Everyday Health among Older People: A Comparison between Two Countries with Variant Life Conditions2017In: Journal of Aging Research, ISSN 2090-2204, E-ISSN 2090-2212, p. -8, article id 2720942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study described health factors of importance for everyday health, such as pain, tiredness, and sleeping problems, in a cross-national context. Data for persons 60+ years were obtained from the Poverty and Health in Aging study, Bangladesh, and the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care-Blekinge. The strongest associations with everyday health in Sweden were found for pain and tiredness, while in Bangladesh they were financial status, tiredness, and sleeping problems. As similarities were found regarding the associations of tiredness on everyday health, tiredness may be a universal predictor of everyday health in older adults irrespective of country context.

  • 35.
    Faraon, Montathar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Much more to it: The relation between Facebook usage and self-esteem2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 15th International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration / [ed] James Joshi, Elisa Bertino, Bhavani Thuraisingham, Ling Liu, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society (SMC) , 2014, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine closer the conflicting results from previous studies concerning the relation- ship between Facebook use and self-esteem using the Facebook Intensity Scale and Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale (N = 107). In line with some previous studies, our data confirmed that there is a relationship between Facebook usage and self-esteem, but the applied scales allowed a more refined assessment of it. The results showed, after controlling for demographic variables, that participants with low Facebook intensity reported on average higher self-esteem than those who did not use Facebook or those with high Facebook intensity, while those with medium Facebook intensity had significantly higher self-esteem compared to the participants with high Facebook intensity. Future studies should address the underlying causal relations using a time-bound observation method.

  • 36.
    Feingold, Daniel
    et al.
    Ariel University, Ariel, Israel / Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit
    Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    Laukka, Petri
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology. Stockholm University.
    Vishne, Tali
    Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    Dembinsky, Yael
    Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv, Israel.
    Kravets, Shlomo
    Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    Emotion recognition deficits among persons with schizophrenia: Beyond stimulus complexity level and presentation modality.2016In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 240, p. 60-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that persons with schizophrenia have lower accuracy in emotion recognition compared to persons without schizophrenia. However, the impact of the complexity level of the stimuli or the modality of presentation has not been extensively addressed. Forty three persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 43 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were administered tests assessing emotion recognition from stimuli with low and high levels of complexity presented via visual, auditory and semantic channels. For both groups, recognition rates were higher for high-complexity stimuli compared to low-complexity stimuli. Additionally, both groups obtained higher recognition rates for visual and semantic stimuli than for auditory stimuli, but persons with schizophrenia obtained lower accuracy than persons in the control group for all presentation modalities. Persons diagnosed with schizophrenia did not present a level of complexity specific deficit or modality-specific deficit compared to healthy controls. Results suggest that emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia are beyond level of complexity of stimuli and modality, and present a global difficulty in cognitive functioning.

  • 37. Fornäs, Johan
    Det inre förtrycket: Om kapitalismens neuroser och den borgerliga psykologin1977In: Tekla: Teori och klasskamp, ISSN 0348-7253, no 1, p. 40-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Forsberg Lundell, Fanny
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    High-level proficiency in late L2 acquisition: Relationships between collocational production, language aptitude and personality2013In: Sensitive periods, language aptitude, and ultimate L2 attainment / [ed] Granena, G., & Long, M., Amsterdam, Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 231-256Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Fridner, A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Belkić, K.
    Karolinska Institutet / Claremont Graduate University, USA / University of Southern California, USA.
    Marini, M.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutiet / Karolinska University Hospital.
    Why don't academic physicians seek needed professional help for psychological distress?2012In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 142, no JULY, article id w13626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Suicidal thoughts, burnout and other signs of psychological distress are prevalent among physicians. There are no studies concerning help-seeking for psychological distress among university hospital physicians, who face a particularly challenging, competitive work environment. We compare psychologically-distressed university hospital physicians who have not sought needed help with those who have sought such help. We thereby aim to identify factors that may hinder help-seeking and factors that may trigger seeking help. METHODS: Analysis was performed among university hospital physicians reporting recent suicidal thoughts and/or showing other indications of current psychological illhealth. These distressed physicians were a subgroup (42.7%) from the cross-sectional phase I HOUPE study (Health and Organization among University Hospital Physicians in Europe): 366 from Sweden and 150 from Italy. Having sought professional help for depression or burnout was the outcome variable. Multiple logistic regression was performed with socio-demographic factors as covariates. RESULTS: Altogether 404 (78.3%) of these distressed physicians had never sought professional help for depression/burnout. Physicians who were currently involved in medical research, taking night call, surgical specialists, male, or Italian were least likely to have sought help. Physicians who faced harassment at work or who self-diagnosed and self-treated were more likely to have sought help. CONCLUSION: Very few of these university hospital physicians with signs of psychological distress sought help from a mental-health professional. This has implications for physicians themselves and for patient care, clinical research, and education of future physicians. More study, preferably of interventional design, is warranted concerning help-seeking among these physicians in need.

  • 40.
    Fridner, Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Norell, Alexandra
    Stockholm University.
    Åkesson, Gertrud
    Stockholm University.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Lovseth, Lise Tevik
    St. Olav’s University Hospital, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Possible reasons why female physicians publish fewer scientific articles than male physicians - a cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15, article id 67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The proportion of women in medicine is approaching that of men, but female physicians are still in the minority as regards positions of power. Female physicians are struggling to reach the highest positions in academic medicine. One reason for the disparities between the genders in academic medicine is the fact that female physicians, in comparison to their male colleagues, have a lower rate of scientific publishing, which is an important factor affecting promotion in academic medicine. Clinical physicians work in a stressful environment, and the extent to which they can control their work conditions varies. The aim of this paper was to examine potential impeding and supportive work factors affecting the frequency with which clinical physicians publish scientific papers on academic medicine. Methods: Cross-sectional multivariate analysis was performed among 198 female and 305 male Swedish MD/PhD graduates. The main outcome variable was the number of published scientific articles. Results: Male physicians published significantly more articles than female physicians p<.001. In respective multivariate models for female and male physicians, age and academic positions were significantly related to a higher number of published articles, as was collaborating with a former PhD advisor for both female physicians (OR = 2.97; 95% CI 1.22-7.20) and male physicians (OR = 2.10; 95% CI 1.08-4.10). Control at work was significantly associated with a higher number of published articles for male physicians only (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.09). Exhaustion had a significant negative impact on number of published articles among female physicians (OR = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12-0.70) whilst the publishing rate among male physicians was not affected by exhaustion. Conclusions: Women physicians represent an expanding sector of the physician work force; it is essential that they are represented in future fields of research, and in academic publications. This is necessary from a gender perspective, and to ensure that physicians are among the research staff in biomedical research in the future.

  • 41.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Schmitow, Clara
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Laeng, Bruno
    University of Oslo, Norway .
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Individual Differences in Face Processing: Infants' Scanning Patterns and Pupil Dilations are Influenced by the Distribution of Parental Leave2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen-month-old infants were presented with static images of happy, neutral, and fearful emotional facial expressions in an eye-tracking paradigm. The emotions were expressed by the infants own parents as well as a male and female stranger (parents of another participating infant). Rather than measuring the duration of gaze in particular areas of interest, we measured number of fixations, distribution of fixations, and pupil diameter to evaluate global scanning patterns and reactions to emotional content. The three measures were differentially sensitive to differences in parental leave, emotional expression, and face familiarity. Infants scanned and processed differently happy, neutral, and fearful faces. In addition, infants cared for by both father and mother (divided parental leave) distributed their gaze more across faces than did infants primarily cared for by one parent (in this study, the mother). Pupil diameter complemented these findings, revealing that infants had larger pupil diameter during observation of neutral emotions expressed by the parent who is not currently the primary caregiver. This study demonstrates how conclusions differ as a function of the particular eye-tracking measure used and shows that the three measures used here converge on the conclusion that 14-month-old infants processing of emotional expressions is influenced by infants exposure to fathers and mothers.

  • 42.
    Grind, Linnea
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences.
    En flexibel arbetsmiljö för ett flexibelt arbete: En studie av aktivitetsbaserad arbetsmiljö2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En trend hos svenska företag är att omorganisera sina arbetsplatser till aktivitetsbaserade arbetsmiljöer. Kontorstypen karaktäriseras av öppna kontorslandskap där medarbetarna inte har några fasta platser utan får välja plats utifrån det arbete som ska utföras. Tidigare studier visar på att kontorets utformning har effekter på bland annat medarbetarnas hälsa och arbetstillfredsställelse. Den här studiens syfte var att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar medarbetares attityder till att arbeta i en aktivitetsbaserad arbetsmiljö. En enkätstudie genomfördes på ett företag som nyligen infört en aktivitetsbaserad arbetsmiljö. En stegvis multipel regressionsanalys utfördes med attityd till aktivitetsbaserad arbetsmiljö som beroende variabel och prediktorerna: individuellt förändringsmotstånd, delaktighet i förändringsprocessen, extraversion samt rörlighet i arbetet. Resultatet visade att rörlighet i arbetet var den viktigaste prediktorn, följt av delaktighet i förändringsprocessen och individuellt förändringsmotstånd. Rörlighet förklarade 43 procent av variationen i medarbetarnas attityd till att arbeta i en aktivitetsbaserad arbetsmiljö, gemensamt kunde de tre variablerna förklara 52 procent. Resultatet indikerar att företag som är intresserade av att medarbetarna ska ha en positiv attityd till en implementering av en aktivitetsbaserad arbetsmiljö främst bör fokusera på att öka möjligheten till rörlighet och flexibilitet i arbetet.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet.
    Personal Pronouns in Evaluative Communication2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal pronouns represent important social categories; they are among the most common words in communication and are therefore highly interesting in studying psychological perspectives and relations. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether pronouns are used in semantic contexts in a way that reflect psychological biases. Specifically, I have tested whether self-, group-serving- and gender biases occur when pronouns are used in natural language. To study this, I developed a structure for pronouns in social categorization where the pronouns are categorized in a self-inclusive/exclusive, an individual/collective, and a gender dimension. New methods for examining pronouns usage in language were developed in the thesis, for use in experiments and in computerized studies of large data corpora of media news. The results of this thesis showed that self-inclusive pronouns (I, We) consistently were used in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He, She, They) by participants who generated messages in the lab (Study I), and by journalists in written media news (Study II). Study I revealed that the evaluative context surrounding I and We varied according to the specific communicative situation. When individuals generated messages individually, more positive contexts were selected for I than We. However in a collaborative setting, We occurred in contexts of similar valence as I. An intergroup setting magnified the differences between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns (e.g., between We and They and between I and He/She). In an analysis of 400 000 news media messages, We occurred in more positive context than I (Study II). In Study III, the contexts of He and She in these media news were examined. The results showed that He occurred nine times more often, and in more positive contexts than She. Moreover, words associated with She included more labels denoting gender, and were more uniform than words associated with He. In sum, this thesis shows that studying the use of pronouns is a fruitful way to investigate social psychology phenomena. The thesis contributes to the understanding of how pronoun use convey knowledge about social cognition, attitudes, gender stereotypes, as well as interpersonal and intergroup relations.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms univeristet.
    "She" and "He" in news media messages: Pronoun use reflects gender stereotypes2015In: Könskonstruktioner och språkförändringar: Rapport från den åttonde nordiska konferensen om språk och kön / [ed] Magnusson, Jenny; Milles, Karin; Nikolaidou, Zoe, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2015, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Bäck, Emma A.
    Gothenburg University.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Lund University.
    Introducing a gender-neutral pronoun in a natural gender language: the influence of time on attitudes and behavior2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of gender fair language is often associated with negative reactions and hostile attacks on people who propose a change. This was also the case in Sweden in 2012 when a third gender-neutral pronoun hen was proposed as an addition to the already existing Swedish pronouns for she (hon) and he (han). The pronoun hen can be used both generically, when gender is unknown or irrelevant, and as a transgender pronoun for people who categorize themselves outside the gender dichotomy. In this article we review the process from 2012 to 2015. No other language has so far added a third gender-neutral pronoun, existing parallel with two gendered pronouns, that actually have reached the broader population of language users. This makes the situation in Sweden unique. We present data on attitudes toward hen during the past 4 years and analyze how time is associated with the attitudes in the process of introducing hen to the Swedish language. In 2012 the majority of the Swedish population was negative to the word, but already in 2014 there was a significant shift to more positive attitudes. Time was one of the strongest predictors for attitudes also when other relevant factors were controlled for. The actual use of the word also increased, although to a lesser extent than the attitudes shifted. We conclude that new words challenging the binary gender system evoke hostile and negative reactions, but also that attitudes can normalize rather quickly. We see this finding very positive and hope it could motivate language amendments and initiatives for gender-fair language, although the first responses may be negative.

  • 46. Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Lindholm, T.
    Uppsala University.
    Sikström, S.
    Lund University.
    Biases in news media as reflected by personal pronouns in evaluative contexts2014In: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether pronouns in news media occurred in evaluative contexts reflecting psychological biases. Contexts of pronouns were measured by computerized semantic analysis. Results showed that self-inclusive personal pronouns (We, I) occurred in more positive contexts than self-exclusive pronouns (He/She, They), reflecting self- and group-serving biases. Contexts of collective versus individual pronouns varied; We occurred in more positive contexts than I, and He/She in more positive contexts than They. The enhancement of collective relative to individual self-inclusive pronouns may reflect that media news is a public rather than private domain. The reversed pattern among self-exclusive pronouns corroborates suggestions that outgroup derogation is most pronounced at the category level. Implications for research on language and social psychology are discussed.

  • 47.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lund University.
    Selection Bias in Choice of Words: Evaluations of “I” and “We” Differ Between Contexts, but “They” Are Always Worse2013In: Journal of language and social psychology, ISSN 0261-927X, E-ISSN 1552-6526, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 49-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In everyday life, people use language to communicate evaluative messages about social categories. A selection bias in language across two social dimensions not previously integrated was examined: a self-inclusive/self-exclusive dimension and an individual/collective dimension. Pronouns as markers for social categories were adopted (I, We, He/She, and They), and a new measure was developed (the Evaluative Sentence Generating task) to investigate the evaluative context selected for the pronouns. Results demonstrate that individuals select a more positive context for self-inclusive than self-exclusive pronouns and a more positive context for individual than collective pronouns. However, in an interpersonal context, evaluative differences between I and We diminished, whereas in an intergroup condition the evaluative gap between self-inclusive and self-exclusive pronouns was magnified.

  • 48.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Løvseth, L. T.
    St Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Fridner, A.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    What makes physicians go to work while sick: A comparative STUDY of Sickness presenteeism in four European countries (HOUPE)2013In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 143, article id 13840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: Sickness presenteeism is common in the health sector, especially among physicians, leading to high costs in terms of medical errors and loss in productivity. This study investigates predictors of sickness presenteeism in university hospitals, which might be especially exposed to competitive presenteeism. The study included comparisons of university hospitals in four European countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey analysis of factors related to sickness behaviour and work patterns in the field of academic medicine was performed among permanently employed physicians from the HOUPE (Health and Organisation among University Physicians Europe) study: (Sweden n = 1,031, Norway n= 354, Iceland n = 242, Italy n = 369). The outcome measure was sickness presenteeism. RESULTS: Sickness presence was more common among Italian physicians (86%) compared with physicians in other countries (70%-76%). Country-stratified analyses showed that sickness presenteeism was associated with sickness behaviour and role conflicts in all countries. Competition in the form of publishing articles was a predictor in Italy and Sweden. Organisational care for physician well-being reduced sickness presenteeism in all countries. CONCLUSION: Sickness presenteeism in university hospitals is part of a larger behavioural pattern where physicians seem to neglect or hide their own illness. Factors associated with competitive climate and myths about a healthy doctor might contribute to these behaviours. Importantly, it is suggested that managers and organisations should work actively to address these questions since organisational care might reduce the extent of these behaviours.

  • 49.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, Karin
    Karolinska Institute.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholm University.
    Gender differences in Reasons for Sickness Presenteeism - a study among GPs in a Swedish health care organization2016In: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 2052-4374, Vol. 28, article id 50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is common that physicians go to work while sick and therefore it is important to understand the reasons behind. Previous research has shown that women and men differ in health and health related behavior. In this study, we examine gender differences among general practitioners who work while sick. Methods: General practitioners (GP's) working in outpatient care in a Swedish city participated in the study (n = 283; women = 63 %; response rate = 41 %). Data were obtained from a large web-based questionnaire about health and organization within primary care. Two questions about sickness presenteeism (going to work while sick) were included; life-long and during the past 12 months, and five questions about reasons. We controlled for general health, work-family conflict and demographic variables. Results: Female physicians reported sickness presenteeism more often than male physicians. Work-family conflict mediated the association between gender and sickness presenteeism. Women reported reasons related with "concern for others" and "workload" more strongly than men. Men reported reasons related with "capacity" and "money" more strongly than women. These differences are likely effects of gender stereotyping and different family-responsibilities. Conclusions: Gender socialization and gender stereotypes may influence work and health-related behavior. Because sickness presenteeism is related with negative effects both on individuals and at organizational levels, it is important that managers of health organizations understand the reasons for this, and how gender roles may influence the prevalence of sickness presenteeism and the reasons that female and male GPs give for their behavior.

  • 50. Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    et al.
    Sikström, Sverker
    Lindholm, Torun
    "She" and "He" in News Media Messages: Pronoun Use Reflects Gender Biases in Semantic Contexts2015In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 72, no 1-2, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown a male bias in the media. This study tests this statement by examining how the pronouns She and He are used in a news media context. More specifically, the study tests whether He occurs more often and in more positive semantic contexts than She, as well as whether She is associated with more stereotypically and essential labels than He is. Latent semantic analysis (LSA) was applied to 400 000 Reuters' news messages, written in English, published in 1996-1997. LSA is a completely data-driven method, extracting statistics of words from how they are used throughout a corpus. As such, no human coders are involved in the assessment of how pronouns occur in their contexts. The results showed that He pronouns were about 9 times more frequent than She pronouns. In addition, the semantic contexts of He were more positive than the contexts of She. Moreover, words associated with She-contexts included more words denoting gender, and were more homogeneous than the words associated with He-contexts. Altogether, these results indicate that men are represented as the norm in these media. Since these news messages are distributed on a daily basis all over the world, in printed newspapers, and on the internet, it seems likely that this presentation maintains, and reinforces prevalent gender stereotypes, hence contributing to gender inequities.

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