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  • 1.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    The Swedish forestry model: More of everything?2017Ingår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, s. 44-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    “The Swedish forestry model” refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 2.
    Dahl, Ida
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Naturvårdshänsyn i boreal bruksskog: En studie om avverkningar och avverkare i skogarna runt Saxdalen i södra Dalarna2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As the past century’s technological development has progressed the Swedish boreal forests have transformed into dense, highly productive, homogenous and coniferous forests. The area around Saxdalen in Ludvika municipality has long been dominated forests which have been heavily worked since the 18th century. There are in Ludvika 119 000 hectares of productive forest land. Around 70 percent are owned by forest companies and 20 by private forest owners. The forestry is governed by national laws and instructions from the Swedish Forest Agency. Foresters may also choose to abide by certification systems such as FSC and PEFC. 80 percent of Swedish productive forest is certified. This thesis is based on literature review and 8 field studies of regeneration fellings in Saxdalen. The purpose of this thesis is to understand to what degree environmental considerations are taken during regeneration fellings to preserve biodiversity. The focus of the thesis has been the preservation of storm sturdy trees, deciduous trees and standing dread trees, larger tree stumps and protected zones around watercourses. The protected zones were found severely lacking in practically all the observed fellings. The quality the trees preserved varied greatly between the fellings. In this study there were no found links between the ownership form or certification system and the considerations taken during regeneration fellings. A lot of parties are involved in fellings and those responsible aren’t always in full control. The work of preserving boreal forests resilience and biodiversity must be conducted in more strategic and coordinated fashion. There must be common criteria and strategies for large forest areas so that species can spread and survive the forestry, especially considering future climate change.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Naturvård i boreal bruksskog
  • 3.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cost-efficient climate policies for interdependent carbon pools2018Ingår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 101, s. 86-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate cost-effective climate policy instruments for bioenergy and timber, adapted to the impacts on interdependent forest carbon pools, and applied in the EU climate policy to 2050. We develop a discrete time dynamic model including forest carbon pools in biomass, soil, and products, as well as fossil fuel consumption. The analytical results show that the optimal taxes on forest products depend on the growth in the respective carbon pool. The application to the EU 2050 climate policy for emission trading shows that total costs for target achievement can be reduced by 33 percent if all carbon pools are included, and the carbon tax on fossil fuel can be reduced by 50 percent. Optimal taxes on forest products differ among countries and over time depending on the potential for increased carbon sequestration over the planning period. (C) 2017 The Authors. 

  • 4.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Involving forest-dependent communities in climate change mitigation: Obstacles and opportunities for successful implementation of a REDD mechanism in Babati District, Tanzania2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify how forest management in Tanzania can contribute to global climate change mitigation while improving livelihoods of forest-dependent communities.

    A mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is meant to slow increases of atmospheric CO2 while channelling funds to developing countries. In Tanzania, pioneering work in participatory forest management (PFM) has promoted local-level control over forest resource use. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a linkage between REDD and PFM that maximises benefits for communities, forests and global climate.

    Three PFM projects with relation to REDD have been studied, primarily using semi-structured interviews with villagers, district officials, project facilitators, researchers, consultants and policy-makers. Analysis consists of comparing experiences at different levels and putting them in the theoretical context of climate change and forest conservation.

    The study identifies several issues: local and central government institutions cannot ensure equitable benefit sharing; cross-sectoral co-ordination to address fundamental causes of the problems is lacking; participation of local communities is not satisfactory.

    However, the process is at an early stage. Current activities will hopefully contribute to a future framework that properly addresses these and other obstacles. If this is accomplished, PFM and REDD can complement each other in a positive way.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Gebru, Bahre
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Mekelle University, Ethiopia.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Nationalekonomi. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; Aarhus University, Denmark.
    The role of forest status in households’ fuel choice in Uganda2023Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 173, artikel-id 113390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigate how households' choice of energy source is influenced by the status of the local forest resource. We assume that households choose between clean fuels (e.g., kerosene, LPG, solar, and electricity), dirty biobased fuels (e.g., firewood, animal dung, crop residues, and charcoal), and mixed fuels. We integrate socioeconomic data with high-resolution satellite data on forest conditions from the Uganda National Panel Survey. The findings from a random-effects multinomial logit model indicate that households in vegetated areas are 6–7% less likely to rely solely on dirty biobased fuels, and 6–8% more likely to use mixed fuels, compared to those in non-vegetated areas. A larger forest stock is more strongly associated with lower use of firewood than charcoal. A possible explanation for the findings is the presence of policies for forest conservation and enhanced forest property rights, which improve forest conditions and limit opportunities to collect firewood. Given households' dependence on forest-based fuels, such policies could need to be modified to secure households’ access to these fuels.

  • 6.
    Gren, I. -M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Aklilu, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest carbon sequestration, pathogens and the costs of the EU's 2050 climate targets2018Ingår i: Forests, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, nr 9, artikel-id 542Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon sequestration is suggested as a low-cost option for climate change mitigation, the functioning of which can be threatened by pathogen infestation. This study calculates the effects of infectious pathogens on the cost of achieving the EU's 2050 climate targets by combining the so-called production function method with the replacement cost method. Pathogens are then assumed to affect carbon sink enhancement through the impact on productivity of forest land, and carbon sequestration is valued as the replacement for costly reductions in emissions from fossil fuels for reaching the EU's 2050 climate targets. To this end, we have constructed a numerical dynamic optimization model with a logistic forest growth function, a simple allometr+ic representation of the spread of pathogens in forests, and reductions in emissions from fossil fuels. The results show that the annual value of forest carbon sequestration ranges between approximately 6.4 and 14.9 billion Euros, depending on the impact and dispersal of pathogens. Relatively large values are obtained for countries with large emissions from fossil fuels, e.g., Germany, France, Spain and Italy, which also face costs of pathogen together with countries with large forest area, such as Romania. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Samverkan om skogen förutsätter ledarskap för långsiktig hållbarhetsomställning2022Ingår i: Skogens värden: forskares reflektioner / [ed] Catrin Johansson; Hans-Erik Nilsson; Peter Öhman; Bengt-Gunnar Jonsson; Birgitta A. Engberg; Oskar Englund; Per Simonsson; Inger Axbrink, Sundsvall: Mittuniversitetet , 2022, s. 106-107Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Konflikter, meningsskiljaktigheter och motstånd. Ofta framträder debatten om skogen som en svårlöst kamp med skilda värderingar om vad som är ett långsiktigt hållbart skogsbruk, vem som har tolkningsföreträde över nyttjandet, samt vilken kunskapssyn som ligger till grund för skogspolitiska beslut och praxis. Ibland är debatten även ett uttryck för skilda erfarenheter av att leva och bo på landsbygden respektive i urbana stadsmiljöer. De senaste åren har förhandlingar om nya strategier och lagförslag om skogen arbetats fram, inte bara i Sverige utan även i Europeiska unionen inom ramen för klimat- och miljöpolitiken. Förväntningarna på hur skogen bör brukas och vad den ska leverera till samhället, vilken roll skogen har i klimatomställningen och vem som ska bestämma vilken skog som är mest skyddsvärd, är frågor som i allt större utsträckning tycks avgöras utanför Sveriges gränser. Samtidigt fortsätter den skogspolitiska debatten i Sverige. Allt oftare hörs röster som kräver att politiken ska dra en tydlig gräns för när skogen är en privat eller en gemensam resurs; Stärk äganderätten! eller Låt skogen stå! Det pågår en intensiv diskussion gällande skogspolitikens jämställda mål om produktion och miljö, inte minst om målen uppnås främst genom frivillighet eller lagstiftning, eller om målen ens är möjliga att uppnå på samma mark. Vem eller vilka bestämmer egentligen om och hur skogen ska brukas och bevaras? Hur går det till när olika aktörer samverkar om mål, medel och framtiden för skogens nyttjande? Och varför är det så svårt att komma överens, ibland till och med om vad som är en skog?

  • 8.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    The stick, the carrot or the sermon: on the conditions to steer for change2024Ingår i: Route to Paris: Unlocking climate change mitigation potential of Swedish forests / [ed] Malin von Essen; Lotta Möller, 2024, s. 15-18Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The forest is attributed a key role in a green societal transition. Even though the climate benefits of the forest are already significant, the forest's contribution must further increase according to the Paris Agreement. In the interdisciplinary project Route to Paris, we investigate the potential of Swedish forests to contribute to a climate-neutral society. The research program is based on close collaboration with stakeholders who want to participate in developing innovative concepts that can stimulate climate-smart forestry. This work is intended to provide an initial overview of the research that the project will encompass and lay the groundwork for dialogue among stakeholders.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018Ingår i: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, nr 4, artikel-id 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values
  • 10.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro universitet.
    Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 319-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Löfroth, Therese
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Merinero, Sonia
    Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sahlström, Emma
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Land-sparing benefits biodiversity while land-sharing benefits ecosystem services: Stakeholders’ perspectives on biodiversity conservation strategies in boreal forests2024Ingår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 20-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity conservation and economic profit from forests can be combined by various land-sparing and land-sharing approaches. Using a semi-structured survey, we evaluated support for scenarios representing contrasting conservation strategies in a managed boreal forest landscape. Land-sparing approaches were supported by the conservation organisation, regional administrations and the forest company, mainly motivated by the benefit for biodiversity based on ecological theory. Land-sharing approaches were supported by one recreational organisation, some municipalities and the forest owners’ association, mainly motivated by the delivery of ecosystem services. Stakeholder groups using certain ecosystem services had motivations that we related to an anthropocentric mindset, while others focused more on species conservation, which can be related both to an anthropocentric or an ecocentric mindsets. Forest conservation planning should consider stakeholders’ preferences to handle land-use conflicts. Since reaching consensus among multiple stakeholders seems unfeasible, a combination of land-sparing and land-sharing approaches is probably the best compromise.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rist, Lucy
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Umeå universitet.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Bok (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 13.
    Vass, Miriam Munnich
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Is forest carbon sequestration at the expense of bioenergy and forest products cost-efficient in EU climate policy to 2050?2016Ingår i: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 24, s. 82-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest management affects the quantity of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere through carbon sequestration in standing biomass, carbon storage in forest products and production of bioenergy. The main question studied in this paper is whether forest carbon sequestration is worth increasing at the expense of bioenergy and forest products to achieve the EU emissions reduction target for 2050 in a cost-efficient manner. A dynamic cost minimisation model is used to find the optimal combination of carbon abatement strategies to meet annual emissions targets between 2010 and 2050. The results indicate that forest carbon sequestration is a low-cost abatement method. With sequestration, the net present costs of meeting EU carbon targets can be reduced by 23%. 

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