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  • 1.
    Dahl, Ida
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Naturvårdshänsyn i boreal bruksskog: En studie om avverkningar och avverkare i skogarna runt Saxdalen i södra Dalarna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the past century’s technological development has progressed the Swedish boreal forests have transformed into dense, highly productive, homogenous and coniferous forests. The area around Saxdalen in Ludvika municipality has long been dominated forests which have been heavily worked since the 18th century. There are in Ludvika 119 000 hectares of productive forest land. Around 70 percent are owned by forest companies and 20 by private forest owners. The forestry is governed by national laws and instructions from the Swedish Forest Agency. Foresters may also choose to abide by certification systems such as FSC and PEFC. 80 percent of Swedish productive forest is certified. This thesis is based on literature review and 8 field studies of regeneration fellings in Saxdalen. The purpose of this thesis is to understand to what degree environmental considerations are taken during regeneration fellings to preserve biodiversity. The focus of the thesis has been the preservation of storm sturdy trees, deciduous trees and standing dread trees, larger tree stumps and protected zones around watercourses. The protected zones were found severely lacking in practically all the observed fellings. The quality the trees preserved varied greatly between the fellings. In this study there were no found links between the ownership form or certification system and the considerations taken during regeneration fellings. A lot of parties are involved in fellings and those responsible aren’t always in full control. The work of preserving boreal forests resilience and biodiversity must be conducted in more strategic and coordinated fashion. There must be common criteria and strategies for large forest areas so that species can spread and survive the forestry, especially considering future climate change.

  • 2.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cost-efficient climate policies for interdependent carbon pools2018In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 101, p. 86-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate cost-effective climate policy instruments for bioenergy and timber, adapted to the impacts on interdependent forest carbon pools, and applied in the EU climate policy to 2050. We develop a discrete time dynamic model including forest carbon pools in biomass, soil, and products, as well as fossil fuel consumption. The analytical results show that the optimal taxes on forest products depend on the growth in the respective carbon pool. The application to the EU 2050 climate policy for emission trading shows that total costs for target achievement can be reduced by 33 percent if all carbon pools are included, and the carbon tax on fossil fuel can be reduced by 50 percent. Optimal taxes on forest products differ among countries and over time depending on the potential for increased carbon sequestration over the planning period. (C) 2017 The Authors. 

  • 3.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Involving forest-dependent communities in climate change mitigation: Obstacles and opportunities for successful implementation of a REDD mechanism in Babati District, Tanzania2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify how forest management in Tanzania can contribute to global climate change mitigation while improving livelihoods of forest-dependent communities.

    A mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is meant to slow increases of atmospheric CO2 while channelling funds to developing countries. In Tanzania, pioneering work in participatory forest management (PFM) has promoted local-level control over forest resource use. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a linkage between REDD and PFM that maximises benefits for communities, forests and global climate.

    Three PFM projects with relation to REDD have been studied, primarily using semi-structured interviews with villagers, district officials, project facilitators, researchers, consultants and policy-makers. Analysis consists of comparing experiences at different levels and putting them in the theoretical context of climate change and forest conservation.

    The study identifies several issues: local and central government institutions cannot ensure equitable benefit sharing; cross-sectoral co-ordination to address fundamental causes of the problems is lacking; participation of local communities is not satisfactory.

    However, the process is at an early stage. Current activities will hopefully contribute to a future framework that properly addresses these and other obstacles. If this is accomplished, PFM and REDD can complement each other in a positive way.

  • 4.
    Gren, I. -M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Aklilu, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest carbon sequestration, pathogens and the costs of the EU's 2050 climate targets2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon sequestration is suggested as a low-cost option for climate change mitigation, the functioning of which can be threatened by pathogen infestation. This study calculates the effects of infectious pathogens on the cost of achieving the EU's 2050 climate targets by combining the so-called production function method with the replacement cost method. Pathogens are then assumed to affect carbon sink enhancement through the impact on productivity of forest land, and carbon sequestration is valued as the replacement for costly reductions in emissions from fossil fuels for reaching the EU's 2050 climate targets. To this end, we have constructed a numerical dynamic optimization model with a logistic forest growth function, a simple allometr+ic representation of the spread of pathogens in forests, and reductions in emissions from fossil fuels. The results show that the annual value of forest carbon sequestration ranges between approximately 6.4 and 14.9 billion Euros, depending on the impact and dispersal of pathogens. Relatively large values are obtained for countries with large emissions from fossil fuels, e.g., Germany, France, Spain and Italy, which also face costs of pathogen together with countries with large forest area, such as Romania. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

  • 6.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro universitet.
    Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.

  • 7.
    Vass, Miriam Munnich
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Is forest carbon sequestration at the expense of bioenergy and forest products cost-efficient in EU climate policy to 2050?2016In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 24, p. 82-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest management affects the quantity of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere through carbon sequestration in standing biomass, carbon storage in forest products and production of bioenergy. The main question studied in this paper is whether forest carbon sequestration is worth increasing at the expense of bioenergy and forest products to achieve the EU emissions reduction target for 2050 in a cost-efficient manner. A dynamic cost minimisation model is used to find the optimal combination of carbon abatement strategies to meet annual emissions targets between 2010 and 2050. The results indicate that forest carbon sequestration is a low-cost abatement method. With sequestration, the net present costs of meeting EU carbon targets can be reduced by 23%. 

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