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  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palme, Ulrika
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markanvändningens effekter på växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vatten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten fokuserar på skötselmetoder inom skogsoch jordbruk och vilka effekter de får för växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vattenkvalitet/kvantitet. Skogen spelar en allt större roll i klimatarbetet för att minska atmosfärens halter av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid. För den fysiska samhällsplaneringen är det viktigt att kunna diskutera olika utfall för olika markanvändning, både i tid och rum. Rapporten visar genom en systemanalytisk ansats att: De flesta skötselmetoder kan möta målen för växthusgasminskning, minimera påverkan på biologisk mångfald och vattensäkerhet, med undantag för intensivskogsbruk. Rapporten kan användas som diskussionsunderlag när olika miljömål konkurrerar.

  • 2.
    Andrén, Thomas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Vinlandet Sverige - konsumtionen, produktionen och framtida förutsättningar2011In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 121-146Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Arpe, Maria
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Socker - en söt produkt nu som då2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 4.
    Awebro, Kenneth
    Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    Historiskt fiske i Östersjön2006In: Biodiverse, ISSN 1401-5064, no 2, p. 16-16Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Barjolle, Dominique
    et al.
    Swiss Institute of Organic Agriculture.
    Belletti, Giovanni
    University of Florence.
    Marescotti, Andrea
    University of Florence.
    Casabianca, Francois
    INRA.
    Cristóvão, Artur
    De Rosa, Marcello
    University of Cassino del Lazio Meridionale.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Prologue. The Role of Localised Agrifood Systems in a Globalised Europe2014In: International Agricultural Policy, ISSN 1722-4365, Vol. 1, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    The Swedish forestry model: More of everything?2017In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 77, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “The Swedish forestry model” refers to the forest regime that evolved following the 1993 revision of the Swedish Forestry Act. It is key to Swedish forest politics and used to capture the essence of a sustainable way of managing forests. However, the ideas, institutions and practices comprising the model have not been comprehensively analyzed previously. Addressing this knowledge gap, we use frame analysis and a Pathways approach to investigate the underlying governance model, focusing on the way policy problems are addressed, goals, implementation procedures, outcomes and the resulting pathways to sustainability. We suggest that the institutionally embedded response to pressing sustainability challenges and increasing demands is expansion, inclusion and integration: more of everything. The more-of-everything pathway is influenced by ideas of ecological modernization and the optimistic view that existing resources can be increased. Our findings suggest that in effect it prioritizes the economic dimension of sustainability. While broadening out policy formulation it closes down the range of alternative outputs, a shortcoming that hampers its capacity to respond to current sustainability challenges. Consequently, there is a need for a broad public debate regarding not only the role of forests in future society, but also the operationalization of sustainable development.

  • 7.
    Bergkvist, Tomas
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Kommunalt naturskydd som en del av markanvändningsplaneringen: en fallstudie av olika synsätt i samband med upphävande av naturreservat2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In metropolitan areas where the exploitation pressure increases, also the importance to point out nature areas grows, both for the sake of outdoor life and for biodiversity conservation. Since nature conservancy and spatial planning constitute two different parts of the municipalities land use control, a case study has been carried out in two municipalities in the Stockholm region, Huddinge and Järfälla. Both these municipalities have protected about one third of their land and today there are plans to repeal parts of the reserves to enable exploitation. This thesis shows – from the theoretical concept of sustainable development – officials, politicians and non-governmental organizations perspectives on questions concerning land use together with the work with nature reserves and repeals. The study focuses on how different basic attitudes and paradigms emphasizes different aspects of sustainable development and how this in turn affects the work to repeal nature reserves. Interviews with stakeholders in the municipalities and documents concerning land use and nature reserves demonstrates that there is distinct differences between the planning-paradigm, based on spatial planning, and the environmental-paradigm, based on nature conservation. From the planning-paradigm it is considered that nature reserves had to big impact on the munici­pality's land use and that valuable nature more frequently should be protected by the Swedish planning and building act. From the environmental-paradigms view the nature conservancy is – and should also in the future be – an important tool in the long-term prevention to stop valuable nature from being exploited. The thesis also stresses the importance to in the work with repeals take all effects that this kind of decision can lead to into account – not just in the repealed area but also for the future work with nature reserves on the whole.

  • 8.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Conflict or convergence?: Products of origin. An analysis of the Swedish case of Baltic Sea fish2013In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, Vol. VI, no 3-4, p. 48-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to the contemporary globalization ofthe economy, food markets are shifting toward differentiation of services and products based on theunique qualities and attributes of the products. Aparadigm called the “quality turn” corresponds to the increasing variety of food services. “Alternative foods”,including organic products or products qualified bytheir origin, and new methods of marketing the sefoods (farmer’s markets, local contracts, etc.) are developingthrough the mainstreaming of innovation. Protected designation of origin (PDO) is a certificationscheme that certifies products by their origin, and is one of several important tools to strengthen the competitiveness of rural areas, especially for smallscalefood processing in rural and less-developed areas in Europe. A PDO provides groups of producers with protection against unfair competition for products whose unique sensory characteristics essentially depend on the local geographic and cultural conditions as well as the local know-how of the productionsite. A PDO certification informs consumers that the product quality and its value depend on the geographic origin of the product. Despite the potential value of PDOs for producers, their use is unevenly distributed throughout the EU. The organization of the qualitycertification systems and corresponding legal provisions vary between countries. France, Italy, and Spainare models for the development of the PDO schemeand have more than 800 PDO-certified products. However, countries such as Sweden, Finland, andDenmark have a much smaller number of products that are certified. In Sweden, several products have applied for a PDO, but only one, Kalix Löjrom, has been certified under the scheme. The reason for this failure is mainly that Sweden’s current customs do not correspond to the rules and traditions used to createthe PDO scheme. To increase the likelihood of successfully obtaining PDOs, Sweden should work to reinvent local knowledge and local food and to recover its traditional food culture.

  • 9.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Normark, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Community gardening in Stockholm: participation, driving forces and the role of the municipality2018In: Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, ISSN 1742-1705, E-ISSN 1742-1713, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 503-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports on a study of community gardening in Stockholm. We contribute to the body of knowledge about the sustainability of community gardens and this new form of citizen-led initiatives in Stockholm, with the ambition of creating a debate about the best way to sustain and develop these initiatives in Sweden. We argue that although community gardening may provide leverage for means of developing a sustainable city, it is a marginal phenomenon and contributes little to sustainable development its present form. Through interviews we have investigated how the citizens and municipality officers of Stockholm try to adapt to the renewed interest in community gardening by looking at the policy makers’, municipality officers’ and grassroots movements’ incentives to start community gardens. We specifically focus on how the community gardeners articulate their reasons for participating in collaborative initiatives in the city and how these expectations evolve when they are faced with the reality of gardening and the problems relating to producing food in the city. We have found that there are a growing number of citizens and local authorities advocating community gardening, but the sustainability and endurance of gardens are hampered by vague responsibilities, lack of leadership and unclear expectations of the outcome. Community gardening cases in Stockholm contribute to the debate by exemplifying how formal (e.g. policy making) and informal advocacy (e.g. civic engagement in community gardening) groups are collaborating, but also showing that they often have different agendas and initial motivations for setting up new gardens. We argue that uncritical enthusiasm results in an overly instrumental approach to governance of community gardening and that the sustainability and endurance of the community gardening is not an issue that the governing bodies plan for, and hence it is forgotten. We suggest some routes forward, involving employing facilitators from various stakeholders such as the municipality, housing companies and various NGOs.

  • 10.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science.
    Gastronomins (politiska) geografi2011In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 7-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Platsen som varumärke2013In: Från matproduktion till gastronomi / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Madeleine Bonow, Per Wramner, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2013, p. 61-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences.
    Platsen som varumärke2013In: Entreprenörskap och varumärken / [ed] Mats Larsson, Mikael Lönnborg & Karin Winroth, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2013, p. 217-235Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Geography.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Karpfiskarnas tillbakagång i svenskt kosthåll2013In: Från matproduktion till gastronomi / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Madeleine Bonow, Per Wramner, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2013, p. 91-114Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Bonow, Madeleine
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Culinary arts and meal science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography.
    Svanberg, Ingvar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    "Säg får jag bjuda ur sumpen på en sprittande ruda": En bortglömd läckerhet från gångna tiders prästgårdskök2011In: Ymer, ISSN 0044-0477, p. 147-169Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Brockwell, Erik
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The role of water quality for local environmental policy implementation2019In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to examine the role of surface water quality for the decisions by Swedish municipalities to adopt environmental targets and action plans, as well as allocating these decisions to a responsible authority. To this end, we assess how environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, as well as the availability of environmental expertise, affect these municipal decisions. Questionnaire data from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, in combination with environmental monitoring data and official statistics, are used for the econometric analysis. Results show that: (i) municipalities with bad water quality, greater coastal length, and higher income are more inclined to adopt local policies; (ii) collaboration with interest groups increases the likelihood of adopting local policies; and (iii) municipalities with high Center Party representation tend to set responsibility for environmental policy with the municipal council board.

  • 16.
    Dahl, Ida
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Naturvårdshänsyn i boreal bruksskog: En studie om avverkningar och avverkare i skogarna runt Saxdalen i södra Dalarna2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the past century’s technological development has progressed the Swedish boreal forests have transformed into dense, highly productive, homogenous and coniferous forests. The area around Saxdalen in Ludvika municipality has long been dominated forests which have been heavily worked since the 18th century. There are in Ludvika 119 000 hectares of productive forest land. Around 70 percent are owned by forest companies and 20 by private forest owners. The forestry is governed by national laws and instructions from the Swedish Forest Agency. Foresters may also choose to abide by certification systems such as FSC and PEFC. 80 percent of Swedish productive forest is certified. This thesis is based on literature review and 8 field studies of regeneration fellings in Saxdalen. The purpose of this thesis is to understand to what degree environmental considerations are taken during regeneration fellings to preserve biodiversity. The focus of the thesis has been the preservation of storm sturdy trees, deciduous trees and standing dread trees, larger tree stumps and protected zones around watercourses. The protected zones were found severely lacking in practically all the observed fellings. The quality the trees preserved varied greatly between the fellings. In this study there were no found links between the ownership form or certification system and the considerations taken during regeneration fellings. A lot of parties are involved in fellings and those responsible aren’t always in full control. The work of preserving boreal forests resilience and biodiversity must be conducted in more strategic and coordinated fashion. There must be common criteria and strategies for large forest areas so that species can spread and survive the forestry, especially considering future climate change.

  • 17.
    Eellend, Johan
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Agrarianism and Modernization in Inter-War Eastern Europe2008In: Societal change and ideological formation among the rural population of the Baltic area 1880-1939 / [ed] Piotr Wawrzeniuk, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 35-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Eellend, Johan
    Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    The Harvest of Modernization: The formation of Agrarianism in Estonia prior to World War2010In: Jahrbuch für Geschichte des ländlichen Raumes, p. 149-166Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Eellend, Johan
    Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Unity through modernity: the agrarian media and the national question at the turn of the 20th century2009In: Nordost-Archiv.Zeitschrift für Regionalgeschichte. Neue Folge, ISSN 0029-1595, no XVIII, p. 25-44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Elffors, Jenny
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Johannessen, Athena
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Marknadsföring på recept: Läkemedelsmarknadsföring ur ett moraliskt perspektiv2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Overall aims of this thesis are to bring a broader and deeper understanding, from  a moral point of view, of marketing of pharmaceuticals, and to consider whether  there is a reason for separating advertising from information in the sector.

    Methods: A qualitative approach to the subject was used. Methods for data compilation  were semi-structured interviews with representatives for The Swedish Association  of the Pharmaceutical Industry (Läkemedelsindustriföreningen), and studies  of advertisements in The Journal of the Swedish Medical Association (Läkartidningen)  and commercials on a TV channel (TV4). A customised, self-made,  grid was utilised for coding and compiling data from the observations of commercial  material. Following that, the empirical material from interviews as well  as observations has been analysed, using the theory of counter productivity as a  model for ethical audit.

    Results: The authors judge marketing activities of the pharmaceutical industry to be morally  justified. One reason for this judgement is, that the pharmaceutical industry  contributes to an increased well-being among citizens by providing research, research  activities being financed by revenues, which – in turn – are enhanced by  marketing. Another reason is that companies show responsible in the dissemination  of information and that the results of the study indicate sincerity in marketing.  When responsibility is linked to trustworthiness and when availability of information  provided by marketing activities is taken into consideration, there is  also evidence of a morally justifiable behaviour. Advertisements for drugs on  prescription showed more informatively designed than those for over-the-counter  drugs. A more informative and appropriate marketing of non-prescription pharmaceuticals  would enhance the moral reputation of the companies.

  • 21.
    Elgan, Elisabeth
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning 3, Institute of Contemporary History.
    Sexualpolitikens genus i Frankrike och Sverige1999In: Kvinnovetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 0348-8365, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, Ing-Marie
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cost-efficient climate policies for interdependent carbon pools2018In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 101, p. 86-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate cost-effective climate policy instruments for bioenergy and timber, adapted to the impacts on interdependent forest carbon pools, and applied in the EU climate policy to 2050. We develop a discrete time dynamic model including forest carbon pools in biomass, soil, and products, as well as fossil fuel consumption. The analytical results show that the optimal taxes on forest products depend on the growth in the respective carbon pool. The application to the EU 2050 climate policy for emission trading shows that total costs for target achievement can be reduced by 33 percent if all carbon pools are included, and the carbon tax on fossil fuel can be reduced by 50 percent. Optimal taxes on forest products differ among countries and over time depending on the potential for increased carbon sequestration over the planning period. (C) 2017 The Authors. 

  • 23.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Häggmark Svensson, Tobias
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences .
    The impact of lynx and wolf on roe deer huntingvalue in Sweden 2002-20122019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large carnivores provide ecosystem and cultural benefits but also impose costs on livestock owners, due to predation, and on hunters, due to the competition for game. The benefits as well as the costs that accrue to livestock owners have been studied, but this is not the case for the costs that accrue to hunters. The aim of this paper was to identify the impact of lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunting value. We applied a production function approach, using a bioeconomic model where the number of roe deer harvested was assumed to be jointly determined by hunting effort, abundance of predators, availability of other game, and climatic conditions. The impact of the predators on the roe deer harvests was estimated econometrically, and carnivore impacts for a constant and adjusted, steady state hunting effort were derived. The results showed that the marginal cost in terms of hunting values foregone varied between the counties and ranged between 18,000 and 58,000 EUR for lynx and 79,000 and 336,000 EUR for wolf. Larger costs were found in counties where the hunting effort was high, mainly located in south Sweden. The regional variation in costs has implications for decisions on policies affecting the regional distribution of wolf and lynx.

  • 24.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Optimal management of two ecologically interacting deer speciesreality matters, beliefs don't2017In: Natural Resource Modeling, ISSN 0890-8575, E-ISSN 1939-7445, Vol. 30, no 4, article id e12137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the optimal management of two ecologically interdependent, competing species, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). To this end, we develop a numerical stage-structured model, accounting for species-specific life history characteristics, gender, and stage-specific hunting values. Two contrasting management regimes are considered: optimal joint management of the two species and management where the decision maker is ignorant about interspecific competition. Results from our case study show that the presence of interspecific competition reduces roe deer population size and harvest by 30% and 47%, respectively, and reduces the net present value by 9%. High interspecific competition could lead to the exclusion of the roe deer from the area. In contrast, ignorance about the level and consequences of interspecific competition has no impact on harvest decisions and revenues. The explanation is the higher hunting benefits for fallow deer. Summary for Managers Wildlife managers need bioeconomic models for decisions on ecologically interdependent species. This study investigates optimal joint management of roe and fallow deer when the fallow deer exerts a negative impact on roe deer due to interspecific competition. Results show that interspecific competition reduces the net present value of hunting at the study site by 9%. Regulations will not increase the net present value of hunting in a situation where the manager is ignorant of interspecific competition.

  • 25.
    Enqvist, Johan
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Involving forest-dependent communities in climate change mitigation: Obstacles and opportunities for successful implementation of a REDD mechanism in Babati District, Tanzania2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to identify how forest management in Tanzania can contribute to global climate change mitigation while improving livelihoods of forest-dependent communities.

    A mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) is meant to slow increases of atmospheric CO2 while channelling funds to developing countries. In Tanzania, pioneering work in participatory forest management (PFM) has promoted local-level control over forest resource use. The purpose of this study is to contribute to a linkage between REDD and PFM that maximises benefits for communities, forests and global climate.

    Three PFM projects with relation to REDD have been studied, primarily using semi-structured interviews with villagers, district officials, project facilitators, researchers, consultants and policy-makers. Analysis consists of comparing experiences at different levels and putting them in the theoretical context of climate change and forest conservation.

    The study identifies several issues: local and central government institutions cannot ensure equitable benefit sharing; cross-sectoral co-ordination to address fundamental causes of the problems is lacking; participation of local communities is not satisfactory.

    However, the process is at an early stage. Current activities will hopefully contribute to a future framework that properly addresses these and other obstacles. If this is accomplished, PFM and REDD can complement each other in a positive way.

  • 26.
    Ericsson, Anna
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Water Availability and Distribution in Africa: Effects of the IFAD irrigation scheme in Kiru Valley, Tanzania2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The case study was made in the area of Kiru Valley, Tanzania, in order to study the conflicts over the water in the river Dodumera, and also to understand how the villages Mawemairo, Matufa and Mapea have been affected by the construction of the IFAD irrigation scheme. The aim was to connect the conflicts in the area with a general view of how water can create such conflicts. The method used in the case study was semi-structured interviews. The results from the interviews made with farmers and officials in Kiru Valley was analysed through general theories about water conflicts and theories about governing common-pool resources, such as Ostrom’s eight principles and the theory the Tragedy of the Commons. The analysis was also made through the IFAD poverty reduction strategy programme (PRSP). The conclusion made on the basis of this analysis was that the IFAD project, in Kiru Valley, was in correlation with the PRSP and an attempt to reduce poverty in the two villages Mawemairo and Matufa. The project has been very successful and has contributed to an increase of livelihood and development in the villages. However, the scheme has also affected other villages, such as Mapea. The scheme has contributed to a decrease of water availability in the Dodumera River for Mapea. Nowadays they only rely on rain-fed irrigation. The conflicts have been affected by the scheme, not so much in the quantity of the conflicts but more in the target of the conflicts. Before the construction of the scheme the conflicts was directed at the big-scale farmers, now they are directed at the scheme. On the other hand, the scheme has helped reducing the conflicts between the farmers in Mawemairo and Matufa. There are solutions to conflicts and water scarcity, such as more efficient irrigation techniques and Ostrom’s principles on governing the common-pool resources.

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Stockholms universitet.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Historical perspepctives on landscape representation and forest composition in Woodland Key Habitats compared to formally protected forest in boreal SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitats of Swedish conservation interests are in general small and fragmented following the extensive and intensive forest management history. This study covering 71 000 ha of boreal Sweden investigates how history influences present-day distribution and composition of forests identified as high conservation value habitats and how they are protected. We also investigated if the habitat criteria used to describe reservations differed between reservation types and if habitat criteria were associated with the size of Woodland Key Habitats. The results show strong effects from historical ownership and historical forest type on the probability of an area being set aside as formally protected or as voluntary protected Woodland Key Habitats. We also found that both formal reservations and Woodland Key Habitats primarily cover coniferous forest in the age interval 70-110 years but not the presumably most valuable oldest coniferous category >110 or deciduous forests, which are as common in reservations as in other areas. Old deciduous forests (>110 years) are significantly more rare in formal reservations compared to the forest matrix. When viewed in a context of fragmentation and edge effects the results underline the importance of evaluating reserved areas and Woodland Key Habitats in a wider temporal and larger spatial perspective to optimize conservation management efforts. Maximal representation and biodiversity can be better achieved if new reservations are chosen to represent different ownership and forest history, and if they are selected in a landscape context related to present reservations and the present surrounding production forest.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Stockholms universitet.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Interactions between historical forest composition and ownership affect present composition of older forest in boreal SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we reconstruct forest composition during the 1860s for a 71000 ha area in southern boreal Sweden. The aim is to show how historical ownership and associated anthropogenic disturbances act as a source of heterogeneity in the present-day distribution and composition of coniferous and deciduous forest within the commercial production forest. We use older (>110 years) and mature (70-110 years) forest as response variables in generalized linear models with a binominal error distribution. The explanatory variables include size of zone, historical type of ownership zone (village, company, and farm), amount of forest, and forest type. We focus in particular on investigating effects from interacting explanatory variables. The significant statistical associations in the study indicate that patterns of deciduous and coniferous older patches differ, and that deciduous patches differ in relation to age interval. The oldest deciduous patches, for example, are today more likely on areas that had deciduous cover also in the past and stood on forestland managed by farmers, but less likely on the same habitat managed by companies. We show that there are strong effects on present forest composition from historical ownership and forest composition. We argue that by including local data on past ownership combined with knowledge on use patterns management could be better adapted to local landscape dynamics compared to the application of overly generalized patterns or models of boreal dynamics that excludes interactions with management.

  • 29.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Stockholm University.
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University.
    Addressing semantics and historical data heterogeneities in ross-temporal landscape analyses2010In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 139, no 4, p. 516-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of recreating historical land cover dynamics, needed to nderstand trends and transient states in ecosystems, includes ifficulties such as the sensitivity of applied spatial analyses to eterogeneities in historical material. This paper compares the handling f quantitatively dominating categories in two matrix analyses of land over change within a Swedish boreal landscape (1725-1859). The focus is n how inconsistencies between historical maps can be handled without iolating the inherent semantic potential. The study shows that analyses f land cover support different indications of change depending on the reatment of dominating categories. The type of landscape and research uestions in focus should therefore be part of choosing matrix method nd classification scheme. The observed patterns need to be evaluated gainst drivers of change and semantic plasticity in classification chemes to separate ecological change from semantic confusion. This aper recommends aggregated classification schemes with maintained riginal relationships between categories in comprehensive analyses. owever, no pathway is persistent over time and categories should be llowed to disappear and new to appear. Analysis of historical dynamics ith extended transition matrixes is recommended to account for the ynamics of small categories in relation to dominating categories within landscape.

  • 30.
    Farzin, Maziar
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Det svenska områdesskyddet: Ett samspel mellan diskurs och institutioner2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has had laws protecting nature for about a hundred years. In this paper the views of nature and the values that serve as a rationale for protective measures are analyzed as results of a social process characterized by the dialectic relationship between institutions and discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is used to study this relationship and the discursive practices used by institutions, which reproduce or reshape views of nature that define the relationship between society and nature. Institutional design contributes to shaping discourse in the field of nature protection, while being originally shaped by discourse. In Sweden, the national park is an institution that reproduces a view of nature as the wild and untamed opposite of society, and the natural reserves reproduce a view of nature as holder of a multi-faceted set of values intertwined with society. However, the most recently formed national park, the marine national park of the Koster sea includes resource values that threaten the hegemony of arcadian discourse within the institution and indicates social change.

  • 31.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala centrum för hållbar utveckling, CSD Uppsala.
    Communal Land Ownership: Remnant of the Past?: The agricultural communities in the Commune of Canela, Norte Chico (1600-1998)2002Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Other land property forms than the private are often conceived as residues of the past, residues that paradoxically seem never to pass away. An example is the form of semi-communal land ownership of the agricultural communities of Chile’s Region IV. Using sociological and historical research methods, this study explores the origin and the emergence of this agrarian form during the last four centuries, through the community Canela Baja and the neighbouring latifundium El Totoral, as a contrasting case.

    Having on one hand, the form of communal land as the common denominator, we have on the other the social aspects resulting from particular histories of the form. Therefore, a distinction between imposed and spontaneous forms is introduced. Confronting the case study with research results from other socio-political and material conditions, the study suggest that while some of the present communal ownership forms are the outcome of political decisions, others are of long historical processes. The imposed forms are not so much communities; rather reserves or homelands.

    Differentiating it from both private property and the so called “tragedy of the commons“, communal land ownership is conceived as an institution of its own which in Chile shares the same historical origin in colonial land grants as private property. Since they have kept their territorial integrity permanently in an undivided form, the study suggest that these agrarian collectives have historically avoided their conversion into minifundium, being thus a resource management solution, which acted as a brake to land fragmentation. Thus, the communal form represents not only another historical pattern of development, but also another way of organising ownership and production than both the latifundium and minifundium.

  • 32.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    From Seascapes of Extinction to Seascapes of Confidence: Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries in Chile: El Quisco and Puerto Oscuro2008Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chile, the indiscriminate harvest for export of the edible shellfish, Concholepas concholepas or false abalone, propelled by a neo-liberal market economy during the 1970s, almost led to the extinction of the species, thereby threatening the dependant small-scale artisan fishers’ survival as well as the ecosystem. To reverse this, fishers’ organizations in Chile have adopted the state created regulatory measure, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR; locally known as Management Areas -- MAs). Replacing the former unsuccessful fishing regulatory measurements, the MEABR regime empowers the fishers with exclusive territorial use rights (TURF) to manage the species, often under commons institutions, thus creating new seascapes of confidence. However, as is often the case with new solutions, emergent problems are posed that threaten to undermine the reform. With the new regulated extraction measure and geographical expansion of this novel labour and production alternative, fishers experience a transition from ‘nomadic’ to sedentary fishing leading to a transformation of their lifestyle and skills. If MAs become permanent, fishing in rural areas may lead to tensions as the fishers settle on coastal lands without entitlement, or are hindered from developing their own fisheries infrastructure. The legal system does not seem to fully foresee the consequences of the reform, and prevailing power relations and private property rights work to disadvantage the fishers. Using a participatory approach for the first research location of El Quisco (Valparaíso Region), and interviews with key informants for the second research location of Puerto Oscuro (Coquimbo Region), fishers’ views of the Chilean TURF were evaluated. How fishers perceive this experience should be central for the success or failure of the MAs as a viable alternative to the earlier conditions of open access. While the assessment of El Quisco deals more with the performance of the MA, Puerto Oscuro is used to portray the seascapes of conflict that have emerged as ownership of the coastal land is contested. The study shows that while the reform has brought better incomes from the benthic resources, the overall economic importance of the MAs for the fishers is reduced relative to the incomes coming from fishing activities realized outside the MAs. Experiences in both cases have been otherwise positive in terms of the recuperation of the species, ecological concerns and strengthening fishers’ so-called soft assets. Nevertheless, many problems remain, among them the problem of access to the sea border and those related to ambiguous land rights to support coastal settlement and fishing infrastructure development.

  • 33.
    Gren, I. -M
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Aklilu, A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Forest carbon sequestration, pathogens and the costs of the EU's 2050 climate targets2018In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 9, no 9, article id 542Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon sequestration is suggested as a low-cost option for climate change mitigation, the functioning of which can be threatened by pathogen infestation. This study calculates the effects of infectious pathogens on the cost of achieving the EU's 2050 climate targets by combining the so-called production function method with the replacement cost method. Pathogens are then assumed to affect carbon sink enhancement through the impact on productivity of forest land, and carbon sequestration is valued as the replacement for costly reductions in emissions from fossil fuels for reaching the EU's 2050 climate targets. To this end, we have constructed a numerical dynamic optimization model with a logistic forest growth function, a simple allometr+ic representation of the spread of pathogens in forests, and reductions in emissions from fossil fuels. The results show that the annual value of forest carbon sequestration ranges between approximately 6.4 and 14.9 billion Euros, depending on the impact and dispersal of pathogens. Relatively large values are obtained for countries with large emissions from fossil fuels, e.g., Germany, France, Spain and Italy, which also face costs of pathogen together with countries with large forest area, such as Romania. © 2018 by the authors.

  • 34.
    Huber, Megha
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Coffee crops in the Babati district: A study about the development in Tanzania and the connection to Sweden’s consumption2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates the development of the cash crop coffee. It gives a historical background of the good and shows how it developed to be one of the most important and traded community in the world. Tanzania’s position and how it came to that position in the world market is shown. During a three week field study in the Babati District in 2004, some interviews with coffee farmers were made. These interviews were made with interpreters and were gathered with the help from the LAMP project. The connection to Swedish coffee consumption is also shown. One of the results was that if farmers move on to grow organic coffee they could get a larger profit. There is also an increasing demand after organic coffee in countries as Sweden so LAMP instructs the farmers in Babati to start growing organic coffee. Another result was that the farmers in the Babati district intercropped their coffee with other crops to spread the risks and lower the dependence to the world coffee market.

  • 35.
    Hultén, Hilda
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Sportfiske är stort vid Stockholms ström2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För den som vill fiska i Strömmen är det bara att ta sitt fiskespö och gå dit, fisket har varit fritt för allmänheten sedan 1436. Men sportfisket är inte okontroversiellt, all lax och öring i Strömmen är inplanterad och hotar de naturliga fiskbestånden i länet. Och man bör akta sig - fiske kan vara beroendeframkallande.

  • 36.
    Häckner, Lina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Climate Change and Agriculture in Babati: Awareness Strategies Constrains2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change caused by green house gas emissions, mainly carbon dioxide, is today’s most debated environmental issue. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, with the legally binding Kyoto protocol, is the emission regulatory framework. Tanzania has ratified both the conventions supporting carbon reductions.

    Tanzania has a very varied climate with two rainfall regimes dominating the country, bimodal and unimodal. Scientific literature predicts a 2,2-4°C average increase in temperature for Tanzania, all studies also predict a higher increase in the cooler period and lower in the warm period. Rainfall predictions are less certain but in general a 10 % average increase is expected but the distribution uneven, both between rain periods and geographically. Tanzanian reports estimate a 5-45 % increase in rainfall in bimodal regions and a 5-15 % decrease in unimodal regions. The distribution of increase in bimodal regions will be uneven, with an increase in the long rain period and a decrease in the short rain period.

    Agriculture is indisputably the most important source of income in Tanzania standing for 80% of employment and 50% of GNP. Climate change will therefore inevitably affect the economy and livelihood of people. Developing countries are also more vulnerable due to lower adaptation capacity. Effects on Tanzania are predicted to be both positive and negative. Maize production, the major staple, is predicted an average 33% decline while cash crops like coffee and cotton are predicted to increase. To be able to adapt there first has to be a perception of need to adapt, adaption strategies then have to be developed and barriers worked through. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the level of awareness, strategies and barriers existing for adaption to climate change on national, regional and local level, Tanzania nationally and Babati regionally and locally. The research questions are; How do people perceive climate change? What are the strategies for adapting to climate change? What are the barriers for adaption to climate change? At national level policy framework and strategies were used to answer the research questions. At regional and local level a field study was conducted in Babati to answer the research questions at these levels.

    The study showed that Tanzania nationally has declared their conviction in climate change and state that the issue has to be addressed. Agriculture is identified as one of the most vulnerable areas however climate change is not mainstreamed into agricultural and environmental policy framework. In Babati district no policy was found on climate change and official perception varied. Concerns were related to timing and amount of rainfall, the results were the same for farmers. Global climate change was also known for both studied groups and existed as a parallel truth with the local reason for changes. A number of adaption strategies are also identified nationally, both used and potential, where small scale irrigation is the primary adaptive step. Switching to draught resistant crops is also prioritized in the North eastern region. In Babati adaption strategies were promoted, even though there was not a general policy or perception, by officials to switch to short-term crops and planting of trees. Switching cops was also the most commonly used strategy by farmers along with traditional diversification. Nationally a large number of barriers are also identified including, lack of funding, poverty, HIV, lack of infrastructure and analytic capacity. Officials in Babati also mentioned the lack of money, deforestation, lack of clouds, education, irrigation and seeds. The farmers in Babati were not so clear about what they needed to adapt, irrigation, livestock backup, diversification and switching crops were mentioned, not differing much from used strategies.

  • 37.
    Häggmark Svensson, T.
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    The Ex-Post Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Load Reductions From Nine Countries to the Baltic Sea Between 1996 and 20102019In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 5119-5134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy efforts to improve Baltic Sea water quality will be expensive if the ambitious targets agreed are to be achieved. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ex-post cost-effectiveness of nitrogen load reductions to the Baltic Sea made between 1996 and 2010. We first calculate the counterfactual change in nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea and compare to observed loads. The costs of the net reductions are evaluated using a Baltic-wide cost-effectiveness model, which includes a wide set of nitrogen abatement measures in the littoral countries. Results show that the net nitrogen reductions achieved through environmental policy, about 145,000 tons total nitrogen, could have been obtained at 12% of the realized cost, through reallocation of abatement between countries. The total budget spent on abatement could, if used in a cost-effective manner, be sufficient for a doubling of the net nitrogen load reduction. Milestone targets, in combination with a compensation scheme between countries, could help to reduce policy costs. 

  • 38. Israelsson, Carin
    et al.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Swedish Dairy Production: Intereviews in Kronoberg County Sweden : ALFA Nº II-0439-A2006Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Johansson, Johanna
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    SLU (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences).
    Inspired by structured decision making: a collaborative approach to the governance of multiple forest values2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 2000s, consensus-oriented decision making has become increasingly common in the management of natural resources because of the recognition that collaborative processes may enhance the legitimacy of decision making and facilitate effective implementation. Previous research has identified a number of problems with the design and practical facilitation of collaborative processes. Structured decision making (SDM) has been developed as an alternative suitable for decision making characterized by complexity, stakeholder controversy, and scientific uncertainty. Our aim was to investigate the feasibility and practical relevance of collaboration and dialogue inspired by SDM in the sphere of forest management. The methods used included analyses of meetings records and semistructured interviews with participating stakeholders and organizers of a collaborative process focused on improving the management of Swedish forests in the young forest phase. The results show that the SDM rationale of step-by-step teamwork, the involvement of experts, and guidance by an independent facilitator has a number of merits. These merits included the creation of genuine discussion with careful consideration of different interests and values, thus building trust among stakeholders and the Swedish Forest Agency. However, at the end of the process, some issues still remained unclear, including how the decision options would be made practically useful and accessible to forest owners. Furthermore, concerns were raised about the lack of novelty of the options. As a result, there was uncertainty about the extent to which the options would contribute to a more varied forest landscape given the multiple values involved. We conclude with some remarks on the potential future of engaging SDM in the forestry sector.

  • 40. Karlsson, Mikael
    Genmodifiering av skogsträd i perspektivet hållbar utveckling2004In: Inte bara träd: hållbart mångbruk av skogslandskapet / [ed] Gunilla Almered Olsson, Gabriel Bladh, Bengt Månsson, Lars Nyberg, Stockholm: Carlsson , 2004Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41. Karlsson, Mikael
    Konflikthantering för hållbar utveckling: om människor och skyddade skogar i Tanzania2004In: Inte bara träd: hållbart mångbruk av skogslandskapet / [ed] Gunilla Almered Olsson, Gabriel Bladh, Bengt Månsson, Lars Nyberg, Stockholm: Carlsson , 2004Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Kihlström, Rebecka
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Kvinnliga jägare i Sverige2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Klang, Linda
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Opportunities and obstacles in the certification process: A case study on the development of the organic production and agriculture in Babati, Tanzania2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organic products have become more and more talked- about in today’s industrial world. The demand for organic products is increasing and the market is continuing to grow bigger. It is important to maintain what these products stand for, being environmental friendly, and to do so strict certification policies are needed. EU has today an international certification body called Regulation (EC) 834/2007 that needs to be followed for export to and within EU.

    Parts of Tanzania today have certification of some organic products but not in Babati, that lies in the northern of Tanzania in Manyara region where this case study was done. In Babati most of the farmers are smallholder farmers and many of them, founds it difficult to afford an international certification. For the smallholder farmers to get a certification there are two alternatives. One is to go together with other smallholder farmers and apply for a certification like EUs Regulation (EC) 834/2007 as a group and then get to pay lower fees. The other alternative is to go together and start local certification bodies that have fees that are adjusted to local farmers’ income.

    This case study was conducted between February and March of 2010 in villages around Babati and Babati town. Interviews were held with both organic- and non organic farmers. My goal was to find out if it was possible for Babati to develop the organic agriculture and have an organic market in the future. My conclusion ends up by perceiving that Babati has a very good chance of fulfilling the Regulation (EC) 834/2007 standards. However the farmers’ economical status is an obstacle for the farmers to get an international certification, because of the high cost in inspections and reinspections.  But through a local certification body that is adjusted to the smallholder farmers and the environment the farmers can get their certificate and the organic market can be developed in Babati.

     

  • 44.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Sjödin, Daniel
    Örebro universitet.
    Wildfires, responsibility and trust: public understanding of Sweden's largest wildfire2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 319-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wildfires present a growing risk to many countries, and climate change is likely to exacerbate this risk. This study analyzes how people directly affected by a wildfire understand its causes and consequences, as well as the future risk of wildfires. The point of departure is that social understanding of wildfires has an important influence on the consequences that emerge in the wake of a wildfire. The empirical case analyzed here is the largest forest fire in modern Swedish history, and the material basis of the study is a postal survey to all individuals directly affected by the fire. The results revealed a complex picture of the respondents’ understanding of the wildfire. Even if the fire was human caused, there was little blame toward forest companies and fire departments. Many positive consequences, such as a long-term increase in biodiversity, were attached to the disaster, and there was a belief that organizations will learn from it and take action to limit wildfires in the future. Simultaneously, the majority of the respondents believed that climate change may lead to an increased risk of forest fires in the future. These findings illustrate the complexity of people's perceptions of the fire and its aftermath.

  • 45.
    Lindqvist, Beatriz
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, Ethnology.
    Al dente - Svensk konsumtion av italienskhet2013In: Från matproduktion till gastronomi / [ed] Paulina Rytkönen, Madeleine Bonow, Per Wramner, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2013, p. 115-133Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Ma, Shiyu
    et al.
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Vanhellemont, Margot
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Wasof, Safaa
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Boeckx, Pascal
    Ghent University, Gent, Belgium.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cousins, Sara A.O.
    Stockholm University.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    University of Picardy Jules Verne, Amiens, France.
    Kolb, Annette
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Lemke, Isa
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Liira, Jaan
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Naaf, Tobias
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Orczewska, Anna
    University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Plue, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Wulf, Monika
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Local soil characteristics determine the microbial communities under forest understorey plants along a latitudinal gradient2019In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 36, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The soil microbial community is essential for maintaining ecosystem functioning and is intimately linked with the plant community. Yet, little is known on how soil microbial communities in the root zone vary at continental scales within plant species. Here we assess the effects of soil chemistry, large-scale environmental conditions (i.e. temperature, precipitation and nitrogen deposition) and forest land-use history on the soil microbial communities (measured by phospholipid fatty acids) in the root zone of four plant species (Geum urbanum, Milium effusum, Poa nemoralis and Stachys sylvatica) in forests along a 1700km latitudinal gradient in Europe. Soil microbial communities differed significantly among plant species, and soil chemistry was the main determinant of the microbial community composition within each plant species. Influential soil chemical variables for microbial communities were plant species-specific; soil acidity, however, was often an important factor. Large-scale environmental conditions, together with soil chemistry, only explained the microbial community composition in M. effusum and P. nemoralis. Forest land-use history did not affect the soil microbial community composition. Our results underpin the dominant role of soil chemistry in shaping microbial community composition variation within plant species at the continental scale, and provide insights into the composition and functionality of soil microbial communities in forest ecosystems.

  • 47.
    Ma, Shiyu
    et al.
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Wasof, Safaa
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Brunet, Jörg
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cousins, Sara Ao
    Stockholm University.
    Decocq, Guillaume
    University of Picardy Jules Verne, Amiens, France.
    Kolb, Annette
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Lemke, Isa
    University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Liira, Jaan
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Naaf, Tobias
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Orczewska, Anna
    University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.
    Plue, Jan
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Wulf, Monika
    Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), Müncheberg, Germany.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Ghent University, Melle-Gontrode, Belgium.
    Plant-soil feedbacks of forest understorey plants transplanted in nonlocal soils along a latitudinal gradient2019In: Plant Biology, ISSN 1435-8603, E-ISSN 1438-8677, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 677-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is driving movements of many plants beyond, as well as within, their current distributional ranges. Even migrant plants moving within their current range may experience different plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) because of divergent nonlocal biotic soil conditions. Yet, our understanding to what extent soil biotic conditions can affect the performance of within-range migrant plants is still very limited. We assessed the emergence and growth of migrant forest herbs (Milium effusum and Stachys sylvatica) using soils and seeds collected along a 1,700 km latitudinal gradient across Europe. Soil biota were manipulated through four soil treatments, i.e., unsterilized control soil (PSFUS ), sterilized soil (PSFS ), sterilized soil inoculated with unsterilized home soil (PSFS+HI ) and sterilized soil inoculated with unsterilized foreign soil (PSFS+FI , expected to occur when both plants and soil biota track climate change). Compared to PSFS , PSFUS had negative effects on the growth but not emergence of both species, while PSFS+FI only affected S. sylvatica across all seed provenances. When considering seeds' origins, seedling emergence and growth responses to nonlocal soils depended on soil biotic conditions. Specifically, the home-away distance effect on seedling emergence differed between the four treatments, and significant responses to chemistry either disappeared (M. effusum) or changed (S. sylvatica) from PSFUS to PSFS . Soil biota emerge as an important driver of the estimated plant migration success. Our results of the effects of soil microorganisms on plant establishment provide relevant information for predictions of the distribution and dynamics of plant species in a changing climate.

  • 48.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics.
    Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters’ harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We divide the impact of carnivores into two effects: one effect affects game harvests, and the other effect affects the hunters’ direct preferences for the presence of carnivores on hunting land. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 49.
    Mensah, Justice Tei
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Persson, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Economics. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden2019In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 106, article id 101942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

  • 50.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå universitet.
    Nordin, Annika
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rist, Lucy
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå universitet.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Umeå universitet.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years’ rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

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