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  • 1.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Intitutet.
    Sjöblom, S.
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, M.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, US.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, US / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Risk Factors Associated with Alcohol Use in Early Adolescence among American Inner-City Youth: A Longitudinal Study2020In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 358-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Early alcohol use is associated with an increased risk for later alcohol dependence, as well as social and mental health problems. In this study, we investigate the risk factors (internalizing and externalizing behaviors) associated with early alcohol consumption over a period of 1 year, and examine whether the association is sex-specific. Methods: U.S. inner-city adolescents (N = 1785, Mean age = 12.11) were assessed and reassessed in the sixth and seventh grades (Mean age = 13.10). Self-reported information was obtained on the lifetime level of alcohol consumption, internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress [PTS]), and externalizing behaviors (sensation seeking, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers). Associations between the variables were examined using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results: In an adjusted SEM analysis drinking by the sixth grade was primarily associated with externalizing behaviors, whereas PTS was linked to lower levels of alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption and greater externalizing behaviors by the sixth grade predicted higher alcohol consumption by the seventh grade, whereas anxiety and African American ethnicity were associated with less alcohol consumption. No sex differences were found in the association between internalizing and externalizing behaviors and drinking. However, in the adjusted SEM analysis female sex predicted higher lifetime consumption by the seventh grade. Conclusion: Sensation seeking behavior, conduct problems and affiliation with delinquent peers should be regarded as risk factors and taken into consideration when planning prevention efforts in order to decrease alcohol use in early adolescence.

  • 2.
    Raitasalo, Kirsimarja
    et al.
    Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, München, Germany / Stockholm University / ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Bye, Elin K
    Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    Stockholm University.
    Tigerstedt, Christoffer
    Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Alcohol, Helsinki, Finland.
    Törrönen, Jukka
    Stockholm University.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. CAN / Karolinska intitutet.
    Similar countries, similar factors? Studying the decline of heavy episodic drinking in adolescents in Finland, Norway and Sweden2021In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 116, no 1, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To (1) examine several factors associated with trends in heavy episodic drinking (HED) in Finland, Norway and Sweden, (2) investigate similarities in these associations across the countries and (3) analyse the contribution of these factors to the trend in HED and the differences across the countries.

    DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational study using five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) from Finland, Norway and Sweden between 1999 and 2015.

    PARTICIPANTS: A total of 18,128 male and 19,121 female 15- to 16-year-old students.

    MEASUREMENTS: Monthly HED, perceived access to alcohol, truancy, parental control, leisure time activities and daily smoking. The Cochran-Armitage test was used to examine linear time trends in HED. Logit regression models using the Karlson-Holm-Breen (KHB) method were fitted for each country separately, including all the independent variables together with time and adjusted for family status, parental education and gender.

    FINDINGS: In Finland, Norway and Sweden, perceived access to alcohol, truancy and daily smoking decreased significantly between 1999 and 2015 while risk perceptions, parental control and participation in sports increased in the same period. The confounding percentage of all the independent variables related to the trend in HED was 48.8%, 68.9% and 36.7% for Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. Decline in daily smoking (p<.001) and perceived access to alcohol (p<.001) were positively and increase in parental control (p<.001) negatively associated with the decline in HED in all three countries. Changes in truancy, going out with friends, and engaging in sports and other hobbies had little or no impact on the decline in HED or displayed no consistent results across the countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The decline in adolescent heavy episodic drinking in Finland, Norway and Sweden between 1999 and 2015 appears to be associated with a decline in adolescent daily smoking and perceived access to alcohol and an increase in parental control.

  • 3.
    Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. CAN, Centralförbundet för alkohol- och narkotikaupplysning; Karolinska Institutet; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Agahi, Neda
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Country report: Trends in older people's drinking habits, Sweden 2004-20172020In: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 459-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To examine if and how the drinking habits of older people aged 60-79 years in Sweden have changed during 2004-2017, with a specific focus on age groups and gender. Data and measures: A Swedish, nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional telephone survey covering the years 2004-2017 (n= 225,134) was used. Four aspects of alcohol consumption were investigated: proportion of alcohol consumers, frequency of drinking, amount per drinking occasion, and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. Results: Three of the four measures investigated showed increases in alcohol consumption in the older age groups, particularly among women. Proportion of alcohol consumers, frequency of drinking and prevalence of heavy episodic drinking during the past month increased in most older age groups among both women and men, while the average amount per drinking occasion remained stable. Thus, total consumption in older age groups has increased over time, since the proportion of drinkers and the frequency of drinking has increased. Increases were particularly marked among women and in the age groups 70-74 and 75-79 years. In age groups below 60 years, these measures showed either declines or stability. Conclusions: There has been a steady increase in alcohol consumption across all the older age groups studied, which implies that the changing drinking habits are not isolated only to certain birth cohorts. Instead there seems to be a continuous shift in older people's drinking habits which can be expected to continue. However, these increases are from very low levels, and older people's drinking is still at modest levels. Public health implications must be studied further.

  • 4.
    Raninen, Jonas
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs / Karolinska Institutet.
    Livingston, Michael
    La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    The theory of collectivity of drinking cultures: how alcohol became everyone's problem2020In: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 115, no 9, p. 1173-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Miguez-Burbano, M. J.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Quesada, J.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rodriguez, A.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Ruiz, P.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    O'Mellan, S.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Campa, A.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Rincon, H.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Wilkie, F.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Page, J. B.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Baum, M. K.
    University of Miami, School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States.
    Quality of life measures in the Miami HIV-1 infected drug abusers cohort: Relationship to gender and disease status2000In: Journal of Substance Abuse, ISSN 0899-3289, E-ISSN 1873-6491, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 395-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined activity, daily living, health, support, and outlook in HIV+ drug users. Methods: Using the physician-administered Spitzer Index, the study assessed 75 HIV-1 seropositive men (n = 51) and women (n = 24) enrolled in the Miami HIV-1 Infected Drug Abusers Study (MIDAS). Results: Total composite scores were significantly lower in the HIV-1 infected women than the men (p = .03). Significant gender differences were observed in activity assessment, independent of disease status, with women six times as likely to have lower activity scores (p = .0038). Most women (45%) in this category were homeless or marginally housed, compared to II percent of the men. Additionally, women with low activity scores had less social support than women with high activity scares. Cocaine use was significantly related to reports of normal activity, and varied across genders; more men used cocaine than women (p = .03). Conylared to non-AIDS participants, AIDS patients were more likely to have lower scores in health (p = .009) and poorer outlook (p = .03). Implications: These findings reveal specific deficits in areas of psychosocial capacity particularly in HIV-1 infected women who abuse drugs, that may need to be strengthened in order to enhance function and adherence to treatment, as well as well-being.

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