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  • 1.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    ProBenefit: Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Ecuadorian Amazon2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Legislation on benefit sharing dates back to 1992 and the commandment of the UNConvention on Biological Diversity, hence implementation still has few cases to fall back on(CBD, 1992). The case study of the project ProBenefit presented by the thesis highlights howlack of deliberation can undermine a democratic process. The objective of the thesis is thatProBenefit’s attempt to implement the standards of the CBD on access and benefit sharingwill highlight not only problems met by this specific project, but difficulties that generallymeet democratic processes in contexts of high inequality. To define if the project ProBenefitsucceeded in carrying out a deliberative process the project will be analyzed by the criteria:access to information, representation, legitimacy and involvement.The population in the project area of ProBenefit had a long history of social marginalization,which made it hard for foreign projects to gain legitimacy. The lack of independentorganizations and the late establishment of the project, which resulted in time shortage, madeit impossible to prevent the distrust of the local population. The failure of the projectcoordinators to ensure active participation of all stakeholders resulted in a late and lowinvolvement of the local participants. The absence of independent organization also madedemocratic legitimacy of the process questionable. Even if ProBenefit had a vision ofdemocratic deliberation the project was unable to break down the prevailing unequal powerdistribution which resulted in an unsustainable process and failure. The conclusion of thethesis is that the attainment of deliberation foremost depends on how a project deals with theexisting distribution of power and how it succeeds in involving all stakeholders.

  • 2.
    Fridner, A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Belkić, K.
    Karolinska Institutet / Claremont Graduate University, USA / University of Southern California, USA.
    Marini, M.
    Padua University Hospital, Italy.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholm University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Schenck-Gustafsson, K.
    Karolinska Institutiet / Karolinska University Hospital.
    Why don't academic physicians seek needed professional help for psychological distress?2012In: Swiss Medical Weekly, ISSN 1424-7860, E-ISSN 1424-3997, Vol. 142, no JULY, article id w13626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Suicidal thoughts, burnout and other signs of psychological distress are prevalent among physicians. There are no studies concerning help-seeking for psychological distress among university hospital physicians, who face a particularly challenging, competitive work environment. We compare psychologically-distressed university hospital physicians who have not sought needed help with those who have sought such help. We thereby aim to identify factors that may hinder help-seeking and factors that may trigger seeking help. METHODS: Analysis was performed among university hospital physicians reporting recent suicidal thoughts and/or showing other indications of current psychological illhealth. These distressed physicians were a subgroup (42.7%) from the cross-sectional phase I HOUPE study (Health and Organization among University Hospital Physicians in Europe): 366 from Sweden and 150 from Italy. Having sought professional help for depression or burnout was the outcome variable. Multiple logistic regression was performed with socio-demographic factors as covariates. RESULTS: Altogether 404 (78.3%) of these distressed physicians had never sought professional help for depression/burnout. Physicians who were currently involved in medical research, taking night call, surgical specialists, male, or Italian were least likely to have sought help. Physicians who faced harassment at work or who self-diagnosed and self-treated were more likely to have sought help. CONCLUSION: Very few of these university hospital physicians with signs of psychological distress sought help from a mental-health professional. This has implications for physicians themselves and for patient care, clinical research, and education of future physicians. More study, preferably of interventional design, is warranted concerning help-seeking among these physicians in need.

  • 3.
    Rojas, Yerko
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    The stratification of social capital and its consequences for self-rated health in Taganrog, Russia2006In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 62, no 11, p. 2732-2741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Russian public health and its social determinants have been the theme of several recent studies. In one of these, Rose [(2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435] puts forward a composite model as a way of getting away from two traditions: one that postulates that social capital influences health independently of human capital attributes (education, social class, income, etc.) and one that postulates that human capital is the main determinant of health, while social capital is more or less irrelevant. In this study, we investigate the composite model, conceptualising social capital as a type of capital, on the basis of Bourdieu. By doing this, not only do the relations between social capital and other types of capital become relevant, but also whether the effect of social capital on health differs depending on the possession of other types of capital. We used the Taganrog survey of 1998 which used structured interviews with the family members of 1009 households and the response rate was 81%. We found that social capital is stratified by education, and also that its effect on health varies depending on the volume of educational capital possessed. It also seems to be extremely important to specify different types of social capital, in order to get a better overview of possible mechanisms by means of which different types of capital might affect health.

  • 4.
    Schenk, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, Filosofi.
    Johanson, Gunnar
    Institute of environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    A quantitative comparison of the safety margins in the European indicative occupational exposure limits and the derived no-effect levels for workers under REACH2011In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 121, no 2, p. 408-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new European Union (EU) REACH legislation requires Derived No-Effect Levels (DNEL) to be calculated for substances produced in quantities above 10 tonnes/year. Meanwhile, the setting of occupational exposure limits (OEL) continues both at the member state and the EU level. According to REACH, Indicative OEL Values (IOELVs) from the Commission may under some circumstances be used as worker-DNELs. On the other hand, worker-DNELs will be derived for several thousand substances, far more than the roughly 100 substances for which IOELVs have been established. Thus, the procedure to set health-based OELs may become influential on that of DNELs and vice versa. In this study, we compare the safety margins of 88 SCOEL recommendations with those of the corresponding worker-DNELs, derived according to the default approach as described in the REACH guidance document. Overall, the REACH safety margins were approximately six times higher than those derived from the SCOEL documentation but varied widely with REACH/SCOEL safety margin ratios ranging by two orders of magnitude, from 0.3 to 58 (n=88). The discrepancies may create confusion in terms of legal compliance, risk management and risk communication. We also found that the REACH guidance document, although encompassing detailed advice on many issues, including default assessment factors for species and route extrapolation, gives no quantitative guidance on when and how to depart from defaults.

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