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  • 1. Aareleid, Tiiu
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Rahu, Mati
    Baburin, Aleksei
    Lung cancer in Estonia in 1968-87: time trends and public health implications.1994Inngår i: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 0959-8278, E-ISSN 1473-5709, Vol. 3, nr 5, s. 419-425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia were studied for 20 years (1968-87). A steady upward trend was observed for men and women. The 1983-87/1968-72 age-standardized incidence rate ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.29) in men and 1.34 (95% CI 1.16-1.54) in women. The corresponding mortality rate ratio was 1.26 (95% CI 1.18-1.34) in men and 1.35 (95% CI 1.16-1.57) in women. The age-specific incidence and mortality rates increased clearly towards the younger birth cohorts. For men and women, the increase was most evident for the age group 45-64 years. In women there was a more rapid increase in incidence and mortality than in men. It may be a result of a substantial increase of tobacco smoking, particularly among women, after the World War II. The high and still rising occurrence of lung cancer is closely related to the high prevalence of smoking; in addition, high tar yields in domestic cigarettes could have been responsible for an elevated lung cancer risk during the past decades. There is not tobacco control programme in Estonia, and existing legislation and regulations do not defend the non-smoking population.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Iqra Shahzadi
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Preventing the spread of Tuberculosis via refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants entering Sweden: A study of health communication, prevention strategies, policies and recommendations2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har under många decennier sett en minskning av tuberkulos (TBC), men infektionen har kontinuerligt ökat från 2003. Majoriteten av TBC-fallen är personer som är födda utanför Sverige. Hälsotillståndet har förbättrats i Sverige men det finns fortfarande problem. Kommunikationen mellan flyktingar och sjukvårdsspecialister är bristande idag, vilket resulterar att endast ett fåtal genomgår hälsokontroller. Detta kan leda till en ökning av infektioner och sjukdomar i Sverige.

    Denna studie undersöker hur hälsokommunikationen idag fungerar mellan den svenska sjukvården, nyanlända immigranter, asylsökande och flyktingar, samt vilken typ av vård som finns tillgänglig för flyktingar med hög risk för att utveckla TBC. Specifikt syftar studien till att förstå på vilket sätt kommunikation brister på samt analysera vilka sätt det finns för att en reducering av TBC i Sverige ska kunna ske och hur kommunikationen kan förbättras. Studien har genomförts med hjälp av både primära källor i form av intervjuer och sekundära källor.

    Baserat på de intervjuer och sekundära källor som genomförts i studien dras slutsatsen att trots att den svenska sjukvården utvecklas positivt så finns det en hel del brister - hälsokommunikation är bristande idag mellan nyanlända flyktingar, sjukvårdspersonal och myndigheter. En av huvudorsakerna som informanterna i studien nämnt är språket, mycket av det som skrivs och sägs är på svenska. Det är viktigt att en mer välfungerad hälsokommunikation utvecklas mellan de nyanlända flyktingarna, sjukvårdspersonal och myndigheterna för att det ska kunna underlättas för flyktingar att söka vård och samarbeta med sjukvårdspersonal med deras arbete för att kunna förhindra spridning av TBC och andra sjukdomar och infektioner i Sverige. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Alshareef, Hanouf
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    The Effect of Water, Sewage and Hand Hygiene on Waterborne Diseases in Saudi Arabia2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Waterborne diseases are illnesses caused by microscopic organisms, like viruses, bacteria and  parasites, that transmitted via the fecal-oral route through ingestion of contaminated water or food or by direct person to person contact. The transmission cycle can be broken through safe water supplies, maintaining standards of sanitation and proper handwashing practices. Two waterborne diseases are considered in this study: hepatitis A and amebic dysentery. The study aimed to understand the important factors for preventing waterborne diseases in order to improve public health. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the effect of different drinking water sources, sewage systems and different active practices of soap use for hand washing on incidence of waterborne diseases in different regions in Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from Ministry of Health and Household Environment Survey provided by General Authority for Statistics. Statistical analysis performed by using general linear model and type II Analysis of Variance. In comparison of different drinking water sources, this study showed borderline rise in incidence of waterborne diseases with the use of private well water. Whereas different sewage systems had no clear effect on the incidence of waterborne diseases. The study also revealed that not using soap for hand washing would increase the risk for hepatitis A infection. Moreover, the study showed significant decline in waterborne diseases incidence when access to filtered water combined with regular soap use in the same linear model.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    The Effect of Water, Sewage and Hand Hygiene on Waterborne Diseases in Saudi Arabia Hanouf Alshareef
  • 4. Alvarez, J. L.
    et al.
    Kunst, A. E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bopp, M.
    Strand, B. H.
    Menvielle, G.
    Lundberg, O.
    Martikainen, P.
    Deboosere, P.
    Kalediene, R.
    Artnik, B.
    Mackenbach, J. P.
    Richardus, J. H.
    Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 15, nr 11, s. 1461-1467Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban and rural populations in several European countries. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the Eurothine Project, covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardised mortality rates, the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. RESULTS: The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were greater than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern European and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern European countries and in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Inequalities in mortality were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve access to treatment of vulnerable groups and thereby reduce TB mortality.

  • 5. Andersen, Ronald
    et al.
    Smedby, Björn
    Vågerö, Denny
    Cost containment, solidarity and cautious experimentation: Swedish dilemmas2001Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 52, s. 1195-1204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses secondary data analysis and a literature review to explore a “Swedish Dilemma”: Can Sweden continue to provide a high level of comprehensive health services for all regardless of ability to pay — a policy emphasizing “solidarity” — or must it decide to impose increasing constraints on health services spending and service delivery — a policy emphasizing “cost containment?” It examines recent policies and longer term trends including: changes in health personnel and facilities; integration of health and social services for older persons; introduction of competition among providers; cost sharing for patients; dismantling of dental insurance; decentralization of government responsibility; priority settings for treatment; and encouragement of the private sector. It is apparent that the Swedes have had considerable success in attaining cost containment — not primarily through “market mechanisms” but through government budget controls and service reduction. Further, it appears that equal access to care, or solidarity, may be adversely affected by some of the system changes.

  • 6.
    Andrén, Victoria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Region Västmanland, Sweden.
    Öjemyr, Torun Lindholm
    Region Västmanland, Sweden.
    Yourstone, Jenny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Psykologi.
    Damberg, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Västmanland County Hospital, Sweden.
    Gender and arson: psychosocial, psychological, and somatic offender characteristics at the time of the crime2023Inngår i: Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, ISSN 1478-9949, E-ISSN 1478-9957, Vol. 34, nr 1, s. 113-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberate fire-setting, such as the crime of arson, can have devastating, even lethal, consequences. This study compared factors at the time of arson by female and male offenders in Sweden between 2000–2010. The women (n = 100), and men (n = 100) included in this study were randomly chosen from among all individuals who had been convicted for arson during this period and who underwent forensic psychiatric investigations. Information regarding psychiatric and somatic characteristics, their psychosocial situation, and whether they were in contact with health or social services before the arsons were examined. The results showed that both women and men have complex psychiatric and somatic characteristics, as well as psychosocial situations. Women showed more self-destructive behaviour, lower Global Assessment of Functioning scores, and had been in contact with psychiatric health services to a greater extent than men. More women than men had children. These findings suggest that specific actions may be needed for preventing and treating women compared with men at risk for committing arson. 

  • 7.
    Arillo, Maria-Isabel
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Cutting the cord: a study on maternal mortality and obstetric care in disaster settings2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines global incentives to reduce maternal mortality, namely the fifth Millenium Developmnet Goal to reduce maternal mortality with 75% by 2015. More specifically it examines maternal mortality and obstetric care in situations of emergency. When exposed to extreme situations the risks of negative pregnancy- and delivey outcomes are increased. Data was collected from seconday sources and from interviews with health staff with experiences from humanitarian work in the field. The findings were analyzed using a theoretical framework explaining maternal mortality be referring to both direct and indirect causes. The two theoretical models used in the study are similar and reminds of each other when explaining maternal mortality. One is based on the assumption that an obstetric complication has occurred and differnt delays in recieving care is the main cause maternal mortality, whilst the other theory is more in depth and elaborates the underlying causes. The first theory is used a base tto analyze the data after which the other theory is applied in order to introdue a deeper dimension to the analysis. The findings suggest that direct causes accounts for 80 per cent of all maternal deaths, homorrhage being the largest, including in disasters. Further causes are infections, unsafe abortions, eclampsia and obstructed labor. Also, underlying socail factors such as gender inequality indirectly has a negative impact on maternal mortality. Moreover, findings suggest that obstetric care is prioritized in disaster relief response.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Azad, Azadé
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Patients’ with Multimorbidity and Psychosocial Difficulties and Their Views on Important Professional Competence for Rehabilitation Coordinators in the Return-to-Work Process2021Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, nr 19, artikkel-id 10280Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordinators may play a key role during the return-to-work (RTW) process for people on sickness absence. There are still few studies on the newly implemented rehabilitation coordinators (RECO) within Swedish healthcare, and none focus on their competence. The aim of this study was to explore how persons with multimorbidity and psychosocial difficulties describe the professional competence of the RECO they encountered during their RTW process. The study takes a relational and practical approach in defining professional competence, including both what professionals do and what they possess. Interviews with 12 people with multimorbidity and psychosocial difficulties who had encountered a RECO during their RTW process were analysed using thematic analysis. Six different themes were found: communicative and coordinating skills; advisory and guidance skills; engagement and advocacy skills; being persistent and flexible; being empathic and therapeutic; being professional and trustworthy. Most of these are found in research on RTW coordinators, but being persistent, and having advisory, guidance, advocacy and therapeutic skills have not been recognised as important competences previously. This study adds patients’ views on important professional competence that support the RTW process, which should be regarded in further developments of RECOs’ functions and their competence descriptions.

  • 9.
    Baars, Adája E
    et al.
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Rubio-Valverde, Jose R
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Hu, Yannan
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Regidor, Enrique
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, and CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública, Madrid, Spain.
    White, Chris
    Office for National Statistics, London, United Kingdom.
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    National Institute of Public Health, Warsaw, Poland.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Fruit and vegetable consumption and its contribution to inequalities in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy in ten European countries2019Inngår i: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 64, nr 6, s. 861-872Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess to what extent educational differences in total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) could be reduced by improving fruit and vegetable consumption in ten European countries.

    METHODS: Data from national census or registries with mortality follow-up, EU-SILC, and ESS were used in two scenarios to calculate the impact: the upward levelling scenario (exposure in low educated equals exposure in high educated) and the elimination scenario (no exposure in both groups). Results are estimated for men and women between ages 35 and 79 years.

    RESULTS: Varying by country, upward levelling reduced inequalities in DFLE by 0.1-1.1 years (1-10%) in males, and by 0.0-1.3 years (0-18%) in females. Eliminating exposure reduced inequalities in DFLE between 0.6 and 1.7 years for males (6-15%), and between 0.1 years and 1.8 years for females (3-20%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Upward levelling of fruit and vegetable consumption would have a small, positive effect on both TLE and DFLE, and could potentially reduce inequalities in TLE and DFLE.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia / University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lai, Taavi
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Centre for Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Avoidable mortality in Estonia: Exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.2011Inngår i: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 125, nr 11, s. 754-762Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study.

    METHODS: Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable).

    RESULTS: The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death.

    CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures.

  • 11.
    Bangah, Ramesh
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    The State of Needle Exchange Programs in Sweden and Hepatitis C Virus Incidence2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects up to 45,000 people in Sweden today. Although it is a very treatable disease, the prevalence of HCV is extremely high within the population of people who inject drugs (PWID). This study examines the direct effect of needle exchange programs (NEPs) on HCV rates in Sweden. Previous research has shown that NEPs reduce the transmission of other blood-borne diseases among PWID. Using an interrupted time series (ITS) analysis, this study investigates if there are statistically significant differences between HCV rates in Swedish counties before and after the implementation of NEPs. The study also investigates via linear regression to see if there is a relationship between sterile injecting equipment (needles and syringes) dispensed and HCV rates in the counties where NEPs exist. While there has been a steady decrease in HCV rates across the country as a whole, the ITS analyses show no statistically significant differences in HCV rates due to the opening of NEPs. Because of the relatively recent introduction of NEPs in Sweden, more data points post-intervention may be needed before we can truly see the effect they have on regional HCV rates. There is also no relationship between the number of needles and syringes dispensed and county HCV rates. However, Sweden falls far short of the 300 syringes/needles per user per year recommendation of the World Health Organization at this time. Standardized data collection and further research can help answer these questions more clearly. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Bergfeldt, Vendela
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Microbes that never sleep: A multidisciplinary study of the antibiotic resistance management in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses of this study are that reduction and rational usage of antibiotics reduces development of antibiotic resistance. In Sweden, the trends do not follow this pattern. Despite a decrease in prescriptions of antibiotics, there is an increase in the number of patients infected with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and ESBL selecting for carbapenem-resistance (ESBLCARBA). This study aims to study factors affecting antibiotic resistance management. An additional aim is to use a multidisciplinary approach for a subject that has mostly been studied with quantitative methods. First, linear regressions investigated any possible significant changes of prescription rates in outpatient care, hospital usage of antibiotic groups and antibiotic resistance. After this, nine interviews were conducted with physicians in outpatient care, hospital care and with representatives from the Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance (Strama), a network working for Swedish prevention against antibiotics resistance. There was a significant decrease in the number of prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care among all Swedish counties and a small, but significant increase of antibiotics used in hospitals. The number of patients infected with multidrug resistant bacteria also show a significant increase. The interviews revealed that health care workers in all counties follow the same guidelines and try to be as specific as possible in choosing antibiotics to hit specific bacteria. The respondents suggested migration and extended travelling as explanations to the growing number of cases of multidrug resistant bacteria. Further, two major factors emerged as important for an efficient antibiotic resistance management; Education/knowledge and Discussion. The results indicate a need for further research on rational usage of antibiotics and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospital care, rather than the reduction through prescriptions. The results indicate that rational usage has a bigger impact than reduction. Using a multidisciplinary approach gave a broader perspective on the issue and future studies should see the possibilities of mixing quantitative and qualitative studies.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Friberg, Emilie
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Engblom, Monika
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Svärd, Veronica
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Physicians’ experience of and collaboration with return-to-work coordinators in healthcare: a cross-sectional study in Sweden2023Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Return-to-work coordinators (RTWCs) give people on sick leave individualized support and coordinate between different stakeholders, including physicians.  The aim of this study was to explore physicians’ experience of RTWCs and investigate factors that influence how much physicians collaborate with RTWCs, or refer patients to them, in primary, orthopaedic, and psychiatric care clinics.

    Materials and methods: Of the 1229 physicians responding to a questionnaire, 629 physicians who had access to a RTWC in their clinic answered to questions about collaborating with RTWCs.

    Results: Among physicians who had access to a RTWC, 29.0% collaborated with a RTWC at least once a week. Physicians with a more favourable experience of RtWcs reported more frequent collaboration (adjusted OR 2.92, 95% CI 2.06–4.15). Physicians also collaborated more often with RTWCs if they reported to often deal with problematic sick-leave cases, patients with multiple diagnoses affecting work ability, and conflicts with patients over sickness certification.

    Conclusions: Physicians who had more problematic sick-leave cases to handle and a favourable experience of RTWCs, also reported collaborating more often with RTWCs. The results indicate that RTWCs’ facilitation of contacts with RtW stakeholders and improvements in the sickness certification process may be of importance for physicians.

  • 14.
    Blomqvist Mickelsson, Tony
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Towards Understanding Post-Socialist Migrants’ Access to Physical Activity in the Nordic Region: A Critical Realist Integrative Review2021Inngår i: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 10, nr 12, artikkel-id 452Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiences of, and access and barriers to, physical activity (PA) differ between individuals. This becomes perpetuated in a migration context. Although there is super-diversity between migrant groups, health research rarely accounts for this cultural diversity. More concerningly, the matter of context is rarely scrutinized or juxtaposed with the specifics of certain ethnic groups. This integrative review assessed the evidence on post-socialist migrants’ PA levels, constraints, and enablers for PA in the Nordic region. The results show that post-socialist female migrants have an especially high risk of being physically inactive. The qualitative work elucidates socio-cultural factors that impose specific constraints on females when attempting to engage in PA. Furthermore, in scrutinizing the context, Nordic nature (Friluftsliv) is a viable way for migrants to access PA with additional health benefits (e.g., mental). However, the Nordic environment also poses specific PA challenges, such as harsh winters. This can be understood by considering post-socialist migrants’ prior use of, and attitude to, nature. The review highlights the importance of understanding specifics about both migrant groups and contexts through a critical-realist lens in the pursuit of providing PA opportunities. Future PA programs need to understand the contextual, sociohistorical, and cultural settings in which they and migrants are embedded.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15. Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörns högskola, Lärarutbildningen.
    Smedman, Lars
    Policy measures and the survival of foster infants in Stockholm 1878-19252012Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 56-60Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: At the end of the 19th century, infant mortality was high in urban and rural areas in Sweden. In Stockholm, the mortality rate was particularly high among foster children. This study addresses the importance for health of targeted public policies and their local implementation in the reduction of excess mortality among foster children in Stockholm at the turn of the 19th century. In response to public concern, a law was passed in 1902 on inspections of foster homes. Stockholm city employed a handful of inspectors who visited foster homes and advised parents on child care and feeding. METHODS: Analysis of historical records from the City of Stockholm was combined with epidemiological analysis of mortality rates and hazard ratios on individual-level data for 112 746 children aged <1 year residing in one part of Stockholm between 1878 and 1925. Hazard ratios of mortality were calculated using Cox' regression analysis. RESULTS: Mortality rates of foster infants exceeded 300/1000 before 1903. Ten years later the mortality rates among foster children had declined and were similar to other children born in and out of wedlock. Historical accounts and epidemiological analysis of individual-level data over a longer time period showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted policy measures to foster children may have potentiated the positive health effects of other universal policies, such as improved living conditions, clean water and sanitation for the whole population in the city, contributing to an equalization of mortality rates between different groups.

  • 16.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för sociologi, idéhistoria, samtidshistoria och arkeologi, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Relatively poor, absolutely ill?: A study of regional income inequality in Russia and its possible health consequences2005Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, nr 5, s. 389-394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: To investigate whether the income distribution in a Russian region has a "contextual" effect on individuals' self rated health, and whether the regional income distributions are related to regional health differences. Methods: The Russia longitudinal monitoring survey (RLMS) is a survey (n = 7696) that is representative of the Russian population. With multilevel regressions both individual as well as contextual effects on self rated health were estimated. Main results: The effect of income inequality is not negative on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. When inequality levels are high, however, there is a tendency for men's health to be negatively affected. Regional health differences among men are in part explained by regional income differences. On the other hand, women do not seem to be affected in the same way, and individual characteristics like age and educational level seem to be more important. Conclusions: It seems that a rise in income inequality has no negative effect on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. On the other hand, when inequality levels are higher a rise tends to affect men's health negatively. A curvilinear relation between self rated health and income distribution is an interesting hypothesis. It could help to explain the confusing results that arise when you look at countries with a high degree of income inequality (USA) and those with lower income inequality (for example, Japan and New Zealand).

  • 17.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Self-rated health in East and West Europe: Another European health divide?2000Inngår i: Self-rated health in a European perspective / [ed] Nilsson P, Orth-Gomér K, Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden , 2000, s. 77-84Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Carlson, Per
    Statens Folkhälsoinstitut.
    Socialt kapital och psykisk hälsa2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Choi, M. J.
    et al.
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yang, J. W.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Internal Med, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea..
    Lee, S.
    Dept Psychiat, Seoul, South Korea.;Inst Behav Sci Med, Seoul, South Korea.;Yonsei Univ, Yongin Severance Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Coll Med, Yongin, South Korea. Yonsei Univ, Dept Psychiat, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea..
    Kim, J. Y.
    Yonsei Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oh, J. W.
    Yonsei Univ, Yongin Severance Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Coll Med, Yongin, South Korea. Yonsei Univ, Dept Psychiat, Wonju Coll Med, Wonju, South Korea..
    Lee, J.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Univ Hosp, Urol Inst, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Stubbs, B.
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.;South London & Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, Denmark Hill, London, England.;Anglia Ruskin Univ, Fac Hlth Social Care & Educ, Chelmsford, Essex, England..
    Lee, K. H.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Pediat, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Koyanagi, A.
    Univ Barcelona, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.;ICREA, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hong, S. H.
    Yonsei Univ, Severance Hosp, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Ghayda, R. A.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Univ Hosp, Urol Inst, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Hwang, J.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Dragioti, E.
    Linkoping Univ, Pain & Rehabil Ctr, Linkoping, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Med & Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Jacob, L.
    Univ Barcelona, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Versailles St Quentin En Yvelines, Fac Med, Versailles, France..
    Carvalho, A. F.
    Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth CAMH, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychiat, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Radua, J.
    Inst Invest Biomed August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.;Mental Hlth Res Networking Ctr CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.;Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, Dept Psychosis Studies, London, England.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Solna, Sweden..
    Thompson, T.
    Univ Greenwich, Sch Human Sci, London, England..
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin Univ, Cambridge Ctr Sport & Exercise Sci, Cambridge, England..
    Fornaro, M.
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Neurosci Reprod Sci & Dent, Naples, Italy..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Mental Hlth, Dept Prevent Intervent Psychiat Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan..
    Bettac, E. L.
    Washington State Univ Vancouver, Dept Psychol, Vancouver, WA USA..
    Han, Y. J.
    Inje Univ, Haeundae Paik Hosp, Hosp Med Ctr, Dept Pediat,Coll Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Kronbichler, A.
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Internal Med Nephrol & Hypertens 4, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Yon, D. K.
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul Natl Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat, Seoul, South Korea..
    Lee, S. W.
    Sejong Univ, Dept Data Sci, Coll Software Convergence, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shin, J. , I
    Lee, E.
    Dept Psychiat, Seoul, South Korea.;Inst Behav Sci Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Solmi, M.
    Univ Ottawa, Dept Psychiat, Ottawa, ON, Canada.;Ottawa Hosp, Dept Mental Hlth, Ottawa, ON, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Ottawa Hosp Res Inst OHRI, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Suicide associated with COVID-19 infection: an immunological point of view2021Inngår i: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, ISSN 1128-3602, Vol. 25, nr 20, s. 6397-6407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and leading cause of death. Beyond the deaths directly caused by the virus and the suicides related to the psychological response to the dramatic changes as socioeconomic related to the pandemic, there might also be suicides related to the inflammatory responses of the infection. Infection induces inflammation as a cytokine storm, and there is an increasing number of studies that report a relationship between infection and suicide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization status report and the PubMed database for keywords (COVID-19, suicide, infection, inflammation, cytokines), and reviewed five cytokine pathways between suicide and inflammation using two meta-analyses and two observational studies starting from November 31, 2020, focusing on the relationship between suicide and inflammation by infection. First, we discussed existing evidence explaining the relationship between suicidal behaviors and inflammation. Second, we summarized the inflammatory features found in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we highlight the potential for these factors to affect the risk of suicide in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 have high amounts of IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma, IP10, and MCP1, which may lead to Th1 cell response activation. Also, Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-4 and IL-10) were increased in COVID-19 infection. In COVID-19 patients, neurological conditions, like headache, dizziness, ataxia, seizures, and others have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic can serve as a significant environmental factor contributing directly to increased suicide risk; the role of inflammation by an infection should not be overlooked.

  • 20.
    Cullen, Pauline
    et al.
    Maynooth University, Maynooth, Ireland.
    Korolczuk, Elżbieta
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för historia och samtidsstudier, Etnologi.
    Challenging abortion stigma: framing abortion in Ireland and Poland2019Inngår i: Sexual and reproductive health matters, E-ISSN 2641-0397, Vol. 27, nr 3, artikkel-id 1686197Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abortion stigma, while observable as a global phenomenon, is constructed locally through various pathways and institutions, and at the intersection of transnational and local discourses. Stigmatisation of abortion has been challenged in varied ways by pro-choice adherents. This article investigates strategies for identifying and opposing stigmatisation of abortion in Ireland and Poland, focusing on campaigns aimed in one context, at repealing a near total prohibition of abortion, and in another, on resisting further restrictions concerning reproductive rights. We examine how mobilisation on sexual and reproductive health (SRH) in both contexts worked to address stigma and discrimination in SRH, drawing on the concept of framing and showing similarities between these two national contexts. Our analysis explains how the logic of inclusion and exclusion works in efforts at destigmatising abortion.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Cuypers, Koenraad Frans
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway.
    Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn
    Nord-Trøndelag County Council, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Psykologi.
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway.
    Wikström, Britt Maj
    Akerhus University, Lilleström, Norway.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University.
    Cultural activities and public health: research in Norway and Sweden. An overview2011Inngår i: Arts and Health, ISSN 1753-3015, E-ISSN 1753-3023, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 6-26Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Danovska, Ketija
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Vaccination Hesitancy Among Parents in Stockholm, Sweden: A qualitative study examining the effect of the incorporation of the “United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child” into Swedish Law in 20202020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: On 1 January 2020, the UNCRC was incorporated into the Swedish national law. The Convention argues that all children have the right to health, life, survival and development. The Articles of the UNCRC require higher authorities, health facilities and parents to act in the best interest of children, and to do everything to secure children’s rights. Interpreting the Convention, it is possible to conclude that all children have the right to safe and effective vaccines. Even though vaccines are accessible and free of charge to all children in Sweden, vaccination coverage for multiple vaccine-preventable diseases in Sweden has dropped. As one of the reasons for this drop in vaccination coverage is proposed vaccination hesitancy. To fulfil children’s rights as proposed in the UNCRC, vaccination hesitancy needs to be understood and addressed. 

    Aim: The objective of the study is to understand causes of vaccination hesitancy among parents living in Stockholm, Sweden and to examine how healthcare professionals in Stockholm County are working to eliminate vaccination hesitancy, in goal to promote children’s rights to health, life, survival and development after the UNCRC became a Swedish law on 1 January 2020. Additionally, to analyze if strategies applied by Stockholm County are truly addressing identified causes of vaccination hesitancy among parents living in Stockholm, Sweden and in that way increasing vaccination rates this year.

    Method: This study used a qualitative research strategy. Vaccination hesitancy in Sweden was studied using 20 semi-structured interviews with parents living in Stockholm, while effect of the UNCRC incorporation into Swedish law on vaccination hesitancy was studied using a semi-structured interview with one health professional working in Stockholm County. The gathered data was summarized, categorized and analyzed according to the proposed themes of two theories. The theoretical framework consisted of the Health Belief Model and Social-Ecological Model.

    Conclusion: It was possible to conclude that the choice of immunization among parents is shaped by; 1) sources and type of the received information on vaccines, vaccination and vaccine-preventable diseases included in the general Swedish child vaccination program, 2) their views on vaccine quality, safety, effectiveness and necessity for satisfying children’s rights to health, life, survival and development, 3) the level of knowledge of epidemiological concepts, mechanisms, infectious diseases and vaccines included in the vaccination program, and 4) the level of trust in the Swedish Government and healthcare, and belief if they are acting in the best interest of children. After the UNCRC incorporation into Swedish law, there have not been observed any changes in the strategic work of Stockholm County against vaccination hesitancy. For the past ten years, they are applying methods at the individual- and interpersonal level, which are not quite reaching vaccine hesitant parents living in Stockholm. Other methods at the community- and public policy level are needed. Due to unclear implications of the UNCRC entrance as a national law and COVID-19 pandemic, it is not possible to estimate if there are any changes in the vaccination rates this year.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Di Girolamo, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy / Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Nusselder, Wilma J
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Bopp, Matthias
    University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Costa, Giuseppe
    University of Turin, Torino, Italy.
    Kovács, Katalin
    Demographic Research Institute, Budapest, Hungary.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallin, Estonia.
    Martikainen, Pekka
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Pacelli, Barbara
    Regional Health and Social Care Agency of Emilia-Romagna, Bologna, Italy.
    Rubio Valverde, José
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Mackenbach, Johan P
    Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Progress in reducing inequalities in cardiovascular disease mortality in Europe2020Inngår i: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 106, s. 40-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether recent declines in cardiovascular mortality have benefited all socioeconomic groups equally and whether these declines have narrowed or widened inequalities in cardiovascular mortality in Europe.

    METHODS: In this prospective registry-based study, we determined changes in cardiovascular mortality between the 1990s and the early 2010s in 12 European populations by gender, educational level and occupational class. In order to quantify changes in the magnitude of differences in mortality, we calculated both ratio measures of relative inequalities and difference measures of absolute inequalities.

    RESULTS: Cardiovascular mortality has declined rapidly among lower and higher socioeconomic groups. Relative declines (%) were faster among higher socioeconomic groups; absolute declines (deaths per 100 000 person-years) were almost uniformly larger among lower socioeconomic groups. Therefore, although relative inequalities increased over time, absolute inequalities often declined substantially on all measures used. Similar trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease mortality separately. Best performer was England and Wales, which combined large declines in cardiovascular mortality with large reductions in absolute inequalities and stability in relative inequalities in both genders. In the early 2010s, inequalities in cardiovascular mortality were smallest in Southern Europe, of intermediate magnitude in Northern and Western Europe and largest in Central-Eastern European and Baltic countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower socioeconomic groups have experienced remarkable declines in cardiovascular mortality rates over the last 25 years, and trends in inequalities can be qualified as favourable overall. Nevertheless, further reducing inequalities remains an important challenge for European health systems and policies.

  • 24.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Trajectories of Mental Health Status Among Police Recruits in Sweden2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 753800Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The stressful and complex nature of police work and its adverse effects on mental health are well-documented in police research. The mental health of police students however, has not been given the same attention. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the mental health of Swedish police recruits have not been undertaken since 2010.

    Objectives: The present study aims to examine whether there are differences in the mental health between two cohorts (2009 and 2020) of Swedish police recruits, as well as to compare the mental health of both cohorts with the general population data collected in 2002.

    Methods: Data was collected using the SCL-90-R survey. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and independent sample T-tests. Bi-variate analyses including t-test and chi-square were used to examine differences in sociodemographic variables between the two cohorts.

    Results: A total of 376 police recruits participated in the study. Results indicated no significant differences between the cohorts with regards to the three global indices of the SCL-90-R: Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Total (PST), and Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI). Recruits with a college degree had lower scores on GSI and PSDI, similar to respondents that where in a relationship vs. singles. A total of 15 (four female) recruits had GSI scores above the Swedish patient mean. Compared with the general population, males and females from the 2009, as well as females from the 2020 cohorts had lower or insignificantly different mean scores on all global indices, with males from the 2020 cohort having a significantly lower PST score.

    Conclusions: While the vast majority of recruits had results that where indicative of a low prevalence and intensity with regards to mental health disorders, some recruits did score above the Swedish patient mean. While mental preparedness is part of the curriculum for Swedish police recruits, interventions targeting the stigmas of poor mental health could be of value. The fact that educational attainment appears to have a positive impact on the mental health of police recruits, could be taken in to consideration when recruiting future police officers.

  • 25. Espelt, A.
    et al.
    Borrell, Carme
    Roskam, Albert-Jan
    Rodríguez-Sanz, M
    Stirbu, Irina
    Dalmau-Bueno, A
    Regidor, Enrique
    Bopp, Matthias
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Artnik, Barbara
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Dzurova, D
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes mellitus across Europe at the beginning of the 21st century2008Inngår i: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 51, nr 11, s. 1971-1979Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, educational attainment and diabetes are inversely related, in terms of both morbidity and mortality rates. This underlines the importance of targeting interventions towards low SEP groups. Access and use of healthcare services by people with diabetes also need to be improved.

  • 26. Ezendam, Nicole P M
    et al.
    Stirbu, Irina
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Lundberg, Olle
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Educational inequalities in cancer mortality differ greatly between countries around the Baltic Sea2008Inngår i: European Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0959-8049, E-ISSN 1879-0852, Vol. 44, nr 3, s. 454-464Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Countries of the Baltic Sea region differ strongly with regard to the magnitude and pattern of the educational inequalities in cancer mortality.

  • 27. Farahmand, Bahman
    et al.
    Broman, G.
    de Faire, Ulf
    Vågerö, Denny
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Golf- a game of life and death: Reduced mortality in Swedish golf players2009Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 419-424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The specific health benefits achieved from different formsand patterns of leisure-time physical activity are not established.We analyzed the mortality in a cohort of Swedishgolf players. We used the Swedish Golf Federation’s membershipregistry and the nationwide Mortality Registry. Wecalculated standardized mortality ratios (SMR) with stratificationfor age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The cohortincluded 300 818 golfers, and the total number of deaths was1053. The overall SMR was 0.60 [95% confidence intervals(CIs): 0.57–0.64]. The mortality reduction was observed inmen and women, in all age groups, and in all socioeconomiccategories. Golfers with the lowest handicap (the mostskilled players) had the lowest mortality; SMR50.53(95% CI: 0.41–0.67) compared with 0.68 (95% CI: 0.61–0.75) for those with the highest handicap. While we cannotconclude with certainty that all the 40% decreased mortalityrates are explained by the physical activity associatedwith playing golf, we conclude that most likely this is part ofthe explanation. To put the observed mortality reduction incontext, it may be noted that a 40% reduction of mortalityrates corresponds to an increase in life expectancy of about5 years.

  • 28.
    Forsner, M.
    et al.
    Umeå University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Elvhage, Gudrun
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Socialt arbete.
    Ewalds-Kvist, B. M.
    Stockholm University / University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Lützén, K.
    The Swedish Association of Health Professionals.
    Moral Challenges When Suspecting Abuse and Neglect in School Children: A Mixed Method Study2021Inngår i: Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, ISSN 0738-0151, E-ISSN 1573-2797, Vol. 38, s. 599-610Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization (WHO), concludes that child maltreatment is a global concern calling for a multi sectoral interdisciplinary approach. School professionals, such as social workers, teachers, and health care professionals are in positions to discover and report maltreatment enabling social workers to intervene. However, a variety of reports reveal an evident gap between incidences and frequency of number of cases reported. A review of relevant research indicates that the problem of “not reporting” suggests that moral conflicts are activated in the process of decision-making. The aim was to gain a deeper understanding of school professionals’ experiences of reporting suspected neglect and abuse to the Social Welfare Board. In a mixed method approach 32 school professionals, such as teachers, social workers, nurses and psychologists participated in interviews and responded to questionnaires. Findings from the qualitative content analysis were compared to the quantitative analysis in a meta-analysis. Moral conflicts occur when faced with making decisions about how to best deal with a child’s situation. Thoughts about the child’s best interest and relationship with his/her parents as well as the informants´ own safety, were central. The comparative meta- analysis of both data sets revealed these conflicts commence with a moral sensitivity of possible negative consequences for the child. Moral sensitivity can be viewed as a “good” personal attribute, it paradoxically might lead to moral stress despite an open ethical climate. Based on the results of this study, further research on the interpersonal aspects of dealing with moral conflicts involved in reporting suspected child abuse is indicated.

  • 29. Friel, Sharon
    et al.
    Marmot, Michael
    McMichael, Anthony J.
    Kjellstrom, Tord
    Vågerö, Denny
    Global health equity and climate stabilisation: a common agenda2008Inngår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 372, nr 9650, s. 1677-1683Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although health has improved for many people, the extent of health inequities between and within countries is growing. Meanwhile, humankind is disrupting the global climate and other life-supporting environmental systems, thereby creating serious risks for health and wellbeing, especially in vulnerable populations but ultimately for everybody. Underlying determinants of health inequity and environmental change overlap substantially; they are signs of an economic system predicated on asymmetric growth and competition, shaped by market forces that mostly disregard health and environmental consequences rather than by values of fairness and support. A shift is needed in priorities in economic development towards healthy forms of urbanisation, more efficient and renewable energy sources, and a sustainable and fairer food system. Global interconnectedness and interdependence enable the social and environmental determinants of health to be addressed in ways that will increase health equity, reduce poverty, and build societies that live within environmental limits.

  • 30. Geyer, Siegfried
    et al.
    Hemström, Örjan
    Peter, Richard
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholms universitet.
    Education, income, and occupational class cannot be used interchangeably in social epidemiology: Empirical evidence against a common practice2006Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 60, s. 804-810Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: Education, income, and occupational class are often used interchangeably in studies showing social inequalities in health. This procedure implies that all three characteristics measure the same underlying phenomena. This paper questions this practice. The study looked for any independent effects of education, income, and occupational class on four health outcomes: diabetes prevalence, myocardial infarction incidence and mortality, and finally all cause mortality in populations from Sweden and Germany.Design: Sweden: follow up of myocardial infarction mortality and all cause mortality in the entire population, based on census linkage to the Cause of Death Registry. Germany: follow up of myocardial infarction morbidity and all cause mortality in statutory health insurance data, plus analysis of prevalence data on diabetes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to calculate the effects of education, income, and occupational class before and after mutual adjustments.Setting and participants: Sweden (all residents aged 25-64) and Germany (Mettman district, Nordrhein-Westfalen, all insured persons aged 25-64).Main results: Correlations between education, income, and occupational class were low to moderate. Which of these yielded the strongest effects on health depended on type of health outcome in question. For diabetes, education was the strongest predictor and for all cause mortality it was income. Myocardial infarction morbidity and mortality showed a more mixed picture. In mutually adjusted analyses each social dimension had an independent effect on each health outcome in both countries.Conclusions: Education, income, and occupational class cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. Although correlated, they measure different phenomena and tap into different causal mechanisms.

  • 31.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Sverige.
    Ensamkommande barns placering vid SiS särskilda ungdomshem: Vilka place­ras, hur mår de och vilka insatser får de?2019Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 22-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet asylsökande barn har globalt ökat dramatiskt de senaste åren och Sverige har under flera år mottagit ensamkommande ungdomar. Deras behov har tillgodosetts genom samarbete mellan ett stort antal aktörer. De senaste åren har antalet ensamkommande ungdomar som placerats för tvångsvård vid SiS särskilda ungdomshem ökat. Syftet med denna artikel är att beskriva vad som kännetecknar ensamkommande ungdomar som placeras på SiS särskilda ungdomshem, beträffande bakgrund, asylstatus, hälsa och tillgång till sociala nätverk samt att beskriva de insatser som genomförs vid placering av ensamkommande ungdomar på SiS. Resultaten baseras på en genom-gång av avidentifierade journaler från 25 ensamkommande ungdomar som varit placerade på SiS under 2015, och visar att gruppen som sådan består av en majoritet pojkar, flertalet har traumatiska upplevelser i sitt förflutna, en majoritet har en dokumenterad psykisk ohälsa, tillgången till sociala nätverk i Sverige är begränsad och flertalet saknar uppehållstillstånd i Sverige.

  • 32.
    González Díaz, K.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cisneros Örnberg, J.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Reitan, Therese
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Offentlig förvaltning. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Balancing conflicting interests: stakeholders’ interpretations of ‘moderation’ in Swedish gambling advertising legislation2024Inngår i: International Gambling Studies, ISSN 1445-9795, E-ISSN 1479-4276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    On January 1st, 2019, a license-based system allowing online commercial companies to operate and advertise in the Swedish market was introduced. According to the Gambling Act, advertising should be ‘moderate’. Legislative changes are windows of opportunities where stakeholder interpretation and adaption may result in new agenda-setting based on conflicting interests. This article examines how stakeholder groups initially perceived and interpreted this key concept of moderation. Data from semi-structured interviews, seminars and press conferences, as well as policy documents and statements, were analyzed using a framework method approach. Contrary to what is stated in the legislation, stakeholders defined ‘moderation’ in terms of both content and volume. Although industry and media representatives requested further guidance for interpreting ‘moderation’, they favored self-regulation and allowing market consolidation. There was a notable ambivalence within and between stakeholder groups concerning balancing freedom of expression, market protection, consumer protection and public health. In conclusion, legislation is a blunt steering instrument when key concepts are largely left to stakeholders, with opposing interests, to interpret. Our study shows the incremental and interactive character of policy-making, where new legislation resulted in new policy responses. Case law and market consolidation take time and regulatory interventions need to take this into account.

  • 33.
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    Univ Cartagena, Res Grp Hlth Econ, Cartagena, Colombia.;Univ Coast, Res Grp Hosp Management & Hlth Pol, Barranquilla, Colombia..
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    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.;Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway..
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    IRCCS, Dept Oncol, Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
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    Univ New South Wales, Transport & Rd Safety TARS Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
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    Univ Genoa, Genoa, Italy..
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    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Al Shifa Sch Publ Hlth, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
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    Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.;Univ New South Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
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    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
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    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Univ Valley Cuernavaca, Sch Med, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
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    Inst Canc Res Prevent & Clin Network ISPRO, Florence, Italy..
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    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden..
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    Univ Porto, Appl Mol Biosci Unit, Porto, Portugal..
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    Natl Inst Hlth, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Bogota, Colombia..
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    Costa Rican Dept Social Secur, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, Sch Dent, San Pedro, Costa Rica..
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    Inst Hlth Carlos III, Natl Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Planning & Econ, Madrid, Spain..
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    Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Taipei, Taiwan..
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    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
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    Addis Ababa Univ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Aksum Univ, Dept Clin Pharm, Aksum, Ethiopia..
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    Disha Fdn, Gurgaon, India..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
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    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Hlth Res Sect, Kathmandu, Nepal..
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    United Nations World Food Programme, New Delhi, India..
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    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
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    Haramaya Univ, Sch Pharm, Harar, Ethiopia..
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    Univ Bologna, Dept Med & Surg Sci, Bologna, Italy..
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    Univ Fed Sergipe, Dept Psychol, Sao Cristovao, Brazil..
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    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Auckland Univ Technol, Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
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    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Maternal & Child Nursing & Publ Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
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    Univ Porto, Dept Chem, Porto, Portugal..
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    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
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    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
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    Brandeis Univ, Heller Sch Social Policy & Management, Waltham, MA USA.;Univ Memphis, Sch Publ Hlth, Memphis, TN 38152 USA..
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    Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, CA USA.;AT Still Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Mesa, AZ USA..
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    Robert Koch Inst, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Monitoring, Berlin, Germany..
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    Bielefeld Univ, Dept Publ Hlth Med, Bielefeld, Germany..
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    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    James Cook Univ, Coll Publ Hlth Med & Vet Sci, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
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    Univ Washington, Sch Med, Dept Otolaryngol Head & Neck Surg, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
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    IRCCS, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Mario Negri Inst Pharmacol Res, Milan, Italy..
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Lab Studies & Res Act Hlth LERAS, Noncommun Dis Dept, Porto Novo, Benin.;Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah Univ, Neurosurg Dept, Fes, Morocco..
    Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ & Res, Div Human Nutr & Hlth, Wageningen, Netherlands..
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    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Ghandour, Lilian A.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Ghimire, Mamata
    Univ Tsukuba, Dept Hlth Care Policy & Management, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Univ Warwick, Unit Acad Primary Care, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageed
    Univ Hail, Dept Family & Community Med, Hail, Saudi Arabia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw Z.
    Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Reprod Hlth & Hlth Serv Management, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Coll Nursing & Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02125 USA..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Univ Oklahoma, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Oklahoma City, OK USA.;Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Ctr Clin & Epidemiol Res, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, Hlth Improvement Directorate, London, England..
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Univ Hosp Polyclin Vittorio Emanuele, Integrated Tumor Registry, Catania, Italy..
    Guo, Yuming
    Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Commissioner Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;West Virginia Univ, Dept Hlth Policy Management & Leadership, Morgantown, WV USA.;Rajasthan Univ Hlth Sci, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Rajeev
    West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Commissioner Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA.;West Virginia Univ, Dept Hlth Policy Management & Leadership, Morgantown, WV USA.;Rajasthan Univ Hlth Sci, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India..
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Alma Gutierrez, Reyna
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon de la Fuente Muniz, Dept Epidemiol & Psychosocial Res, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Gvs, Murthy
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Hyderabad, India..
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sch Med, Tehran, Iran.;Johns Hopkins Univ, Dept Radiol, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Hagos, Tekleberhan Beyene
    Mekelle Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Inst Biomed Sci, Dept Anat & Embryol, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Med, Biomed Sci Div, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Dept Family & Community Med, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Sch Hlth & Environm Studies, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Med Sch, Perth, WA, Australia.;Sir Charles Gairdner Hosp, Neurol Dept, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Vital & Hlth Stat, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Cardiol Dept, Trivandrum, Kerala, India..
    Maria Haro, Josep
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Dept Med, Barcelona, Spain..
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Publ Hlth Dept, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.;Univ Hosp Antwerp, Unit Epidemiol & Social Med, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Simon, I
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Heibati, Behzad
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Air Pollut Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Henok, Andualem
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Heredia-Pi, Ileana
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Francisco Hernandez-Llanes, Norberto
    Natl Commission Against Addict, Secretary Hlth, Subdirectorate Regulat Guidelines & Tech Procedur, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Herteliu, Claudiu
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hibstu, Desalegn Ts Tsegaw
    Hawassa Univ, Dept Reprod Hlth, Hawassa, Ethiopia..
    Hoogar, Praveen
    Manipal Univ, Transdisciplinary Ctr Qualitat Methods, Manipal, Karnataka, India..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan.;NHGRI, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Dept Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Hosseini, Mostafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Hostiuc, Mihaela
    Carol Davila Univ Med & Pharm, Dept Legal Med & Bioeth, Bucharest, Romania.;Emergency Hosp Bucharest, Dept Internal Med, Bucharest, Romania..
    Hu, Guoqing
    Cent S Univ, Xiangya Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Stat, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Dept Psychiat, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Birzeit Univ, Inst Community & Publ Hlth, Birzeit, Palestine.;Qatar Univ, Doha, Qatar..
    Idrisov, Bulat
    Bashkir State Med Univ, Infect Dis Dept, Ufa, Russia..
    Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Bucharest, Romania..
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Univ Liberia, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Monrovia, Liberia..
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Res Inst Endocrine Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Med Res Council South Africa, Noncommun Dis Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Deakin Univ, Inst Phys Act & Nutr, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia..
    Jackson, Maria D.
    Univ West Indies, Dept Community Hlth & Psychiat, Jamaica, NY USA..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Univ Colombo, Fac Grad Studies, Colombo, Sri Lanka.;Univ Colombo, Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo, Sri Lanka..
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Inst Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Heidelberg, Germany.;Capital Med Univ, Beijing Inst Ophthalmol, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Czestochowa Tech Univ, Inst Hlth & Nutr Sci, Czestochowa, Poland.;Univ Opole, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Opole, Poland..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Sch Publ Hlth, Cork, Ireland..
    Kadel, Rajendra
    London Sch Econ & Polit Sci, Dept Hlth Policy, Personal Social Serv Res Unit, London, England..
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Mekelle Univ, Nutr & Dietet, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Kapil, Umesh
    ACS Med Coll & Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Malignancies Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kassa, Tesfaye D. Dessale
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal
    Univ Glasgow, MRC CSO Social & Publ Hlth Sci Unit, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Kawakami, Norito
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Mental Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kebede, Seifu
    Salale Univ, Midwifery Program, Fiche, Ethiopia..
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Pharm Dept, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Univ Nairobi, Odel Campus, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    Med Res Council South Africa, Noncommun Dis Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Khader, Yousef
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Alramtha, Jordan..
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Khan, Md Nuruzzaman
    Univ Newcastle, Sch Publ Hlth & Med, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.;Jatiya Kabi Kazi Nazrul Islam Univ, Dept Populat Sci, Mymensingh, Bangladesh..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, SNU Med Res Ctr, Seoul, South Korea.;Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Hlth Policy & Management, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khater, Mona M.
    Cairo Univ, Dept Med Parasitol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Dept Nutr & Hlth Sci, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kim, Cho-Il
    Korea Hlth Ind Dev Inst, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Xiamen Univ Malaysia, Sch Med, Sepang, Malaysia..
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Simmons Coll, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kisa, Adnan
    Univ Oslo, Dept Hlth Management & Hlth Econ, Oslo, Norway.;Tulane Univ, Dept Global Community Hlth & Behav Sci, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA..
    Kivimaki, Mika
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kochhar, Sonali
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Erasmus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Med Ctr Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sher Ashmir Inst Med Sci, Dept Internal & Pulm Med, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain..
    Krishan, Kewal
    Panjab Univ, Dept Anthropol, Chandigarh, India..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Yuksek Ihtisas Univ, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey.;Hacettepe Univ, Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kulkarni, Veena S.
    Arkansas State Univ, State Univ, AR 72467 USA..
    Kumar, Pushpendra
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Balaji, Arjun Lakshmana
    Rajiv Gandhi Univ Hlth Sci, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Univ Queensland, Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland.;Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Populat & Work Abil Program, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lam, Hilton
    Natl Inst Hlth, Inst Hlth Policy & Dev Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Lami, Faris Hasan
    Acad Med Sci, Dept Community & Family Med, Baghdad, Iraq..
    Lan, Qing
    NCI, Div Canc Epidemiol & Genet, Rockville, MD USA..
    Lang, Justin J.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Hlth Promot & Chron Dis Prevent Branch, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Lansky, Sonia
    Municipal Hlth Dept Belo Horizonte, Belo Horizonte City Hall, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Larsson, Anders O.
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Med Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.;Akad Sjukhuset, Dept Clin Chem & Pharmacol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Latifi, Arman
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Lee, Paul H.
    Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Sch Nursing, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Asbestos Dis Res Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Leung, Janni
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Ctr, CERIMP, Local Hlth Unit, Florence, Italy.;Univ Florence, Dept Hlth Sci, Florence, Italy..
    Li, Yichong
    Shenzen Inst Cardiovasc Dis, Dept Clin & Epidemiol Res, Shenzhen, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Lee-Ling
    Univ Malaya, Dept Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.;Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Dept Med & Therapeut, Shatin, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Linn, Shai
    Univ Haifa, Sch Publ Hlth, Haifa, Israel..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Ctr Chron Dis Control, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lobato-Cordero, Andrea
    Natl Inst Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energies, Quito, Ecuador..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    King Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle
    Harvard Univ, Ariadne Labs, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Philippines Manila, Dev & Commun Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Machado, Isis Eloah
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Sch Nursing, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Madotto, Fabiana
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Monza, Italy..
    Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy
    Damietta Univ, Dumyat, Egypt..
    Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy
    Aswan Fac Med, Opthamol Dept, Aswan, Egypt..
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia..
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, KURC, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Community Based Participatory Res Ctr CBP, Tehran, Iran..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Dept Maternal & Child Nursing & Publ Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Mapoma, Chabila Christopher
    Univ Zambia, Dept Populat Studies, Lusaka, Zambia..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Doctor Peset Univ Hosp, Psychiat Dept, Valencia, Spain.;Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain..
    Maulik, Pallab K.
    George Inst Global Hlth, Res, New Delhi, India.;Univ New South Wales, Sch Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Biol & Biol Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mckee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Hlth Serv Res & Policy, London, England..
    Mehta, Varshil
    Sevenhills Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Meier, Toni
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Agr & Nutr Sci, Halle, Germany.;Competence Cluster Nutr & Cardiovasc Hlth NUTRICA, Innovat Off Nutricard, Halle, Germany..
    Mekonen, Tesfa
    Bahir Dar Univ, Psychiat, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Meles, Kidanu Gebremariam
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Melese, Addisu
    Debre Tabor Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Debre Tabor, Ethiopia..
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Univ West Florida, Dept Publ Hlth, Pensacola, FL USA..
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund UNFPA, Peru Country Off UNFPA, Lima, Peru..
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Med, Biomed Sci Div, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Mensah, George A.
    Univ Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa.;NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Comprehens Canc Ctr, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Ethiopian Acad Med Sci, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Dept Hypertens & Internal Med, Szczecin, Poland..
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.;Curtin Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Mini, G. K.
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Trivandrum, Kerala, India.;Amrita Inst Med Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Kochi, Kerala, India..
    Mirica, Andreea
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.;Natl Inst Stat Romania, Presidents Off, Bucharest, Romania..
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Kyrgyz State Med Acad, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.;Natl Ctr Cardiol & Internal Dis, Dept Atherosclerosis & Coronary Heart Dis, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan..
    Moazen, Babak
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Frankfurt Univ Appl Sci, Inst Addict Res ISFF, Dept Hlth & Social Work, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin
    Salahaddin Univ, Dept Biol, Erbil, Iraq..
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Inst, Nutr & Cohort Studies Dept, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Clin Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Res Unit, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Moraga, Paula
    Univ Lancaster, Lancaster, England..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Sci & Engn Fac, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Jalu, Moti Tolera
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia.;St Pauls Hosp, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Dept Hlth Management & Econ, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Mukhopadhyay, Satinath
    Inst Postgrad Med Educ & Res, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Kolkata, India..
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Univ Sains Malaysia, Sch Med Sci, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Initiat Non Commun Dis, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Epidemiol, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Najafi, Farid
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Epidemiol Dept, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Nansseu, Jobert Richie
    Minist Publ Hlth, Dept Dis Epidem & Pandem Control, Lebanon, NH USA.;Univ Yaounde, Fac Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Publ Heath, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Nayak, Mudavath Siva Durga Prasad
    Rajiv Gandhi Univ Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Nejjari, Chakib
    Univ Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Fes, Morocco.;Mohammed Vi Univ Hlth Sci, Int Sch Publ Hlth, Casablanca, Morocco..
    Neupane, Subas
    Univ Tampere, Sch Hlth Sci, Tampere, Finland..
    Neupane, Sudan Prasad
    Univ Oslo, Norwegian Ctr Addict Res SERAF, Oslo, Norway.;Innlandet Hosp Trust, Norwegian Natl Advisory Unit Concurrent Subst Abu, Brumunddal, Norway..
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Univ Embu, Dept Biol Sci, Embu, Kenya..
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Nguyen, Trang Huyen
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Semarang State Univ, Publ Hlth Dept, Kota Semarang, Indonesia.;Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Med, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Monash Univ, Ctr Cardiovasc Res & Educ Therapeut, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Monash Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Hlth Policy Consult, Res Unit, Accra, Ghana..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Western Sydney Univ, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Oladimeji, Olanrewaju
    HSRC, HIV AIDS STIs & TB HAST Programme, Durban, South Africa.;Univ Namibia, Fac Hlth Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Osakhati, Namibia..
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Univ Lagos, Dept Psychiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Autonomous Univ Chile, Providencia, Chile..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Ikoyi, Nigeria..
    Oommen, Anu Mary
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Community Hlth, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Oren, Eyal
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;San Diego State Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, San Diego, CA 92182 USA..
    Orpana, Heather M.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Appl Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Sch Psychol, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Ortega-Altamirano, Doris D., V
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Hlth Syst Res, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Ortiz, Justin R.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Maryland, Ctr Vaccine Dev, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Global Hlth Nursing, Chuo Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Oyekale, Abayomi Samuel
    North West Univ, Agr Econ Grp, Mafikeng, South Africa..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Jagadguru Sri Shivarathreeswara Univ, Dept TB & Resp Med, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Pana, Adrian
    Bucharest Univ Econ Studies, Dept Stat & Econometr, Bucharest, Romania.;Ctr Hlth Outcomes & Evaluat, Bucharest, Romania..
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Parry, Charles D. H.
    Stellenbosch Univ, Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;Med Res Council South Africa, Alcohol Tobacco & Other Drug Use Res Unit, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Parsian, Hadi
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Dept Clin Biochem, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Patle, Ajay
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India.;Int Inst Hlth Management Res, New Delhi, India..
    Patton, George C.
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Populat Hlth Grp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Paudel, Deepak
    Save Children, Hlth Nutr & HIV AIDS Program, Kathmandu, Nepal.;Ludwigs Maximillians Univ, Ctr Int Hlth, Munich, Germany..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Sch Publ Hlth, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael R.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai Mental Hlth Ctr, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Basic Med Sci Dept, Durban, South Africa..
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Econ & Business, Groningen, Netherlands.;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    PHFI, Gurugram, India.;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Noncommun Dis Epidemiol, London, England..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran..
    Radfar, Amir
    AT Still Univ, Mesa, AZ USA.;Medichem, St Joan Despi, Spain..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Mol & Cell Biol Res Ctr, Sari, Iran.;Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Immunol, Sari, Iran..
    Rahim, Fakher
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Thalassemia & Hemoglobinopathy Res Ctr, Hlth Res Inst, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, INCAS, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Deakin Univ, Natl Ctr Farmer Hlth, Sch Med, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Deakin Univ, Natl Ctr Farmer Hlth, Sch Med, Waurn Ponds, Vic, Australia.;BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;La Trobe Univ, Austin Clin Sch Nursing, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India.;Univ Gottingen, Dept Econ, Gottingen, Germany..
    Rajsic, Sasa
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Raju, Sree Bhushan
    Nizams Inst Med Sci, Dept Nephrol, Hyderabad, India..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Dept Publ Hlth & Mortal Studies, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan.;Univ Hlth Sci, Publ Hlth Dept, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal
    Yonsei Univ, Inst Poverty Alleviat & Int Dev, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr Publ Hlth Educ & Training, London, England.;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England..
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Reis, Cesar
    Loma Linda Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Prevent Med & Occupat Med, Loma Linda, CA USA..
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Western Sydney Univ, Sch Social Sci, Penrith, NSW, Australia.;Western Sydney Univ, Psychol Dept, Penrith, NSW, Australia..
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci, Dept Pediat, Sari, Iran..
    Roever, Leonardo
    Univ Uberlandia, Dept Clin Res, Uberlandia, MG, Brazil..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Clin Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Res Unit, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Room, Robin
    La Trobe Univ, Ctr Alcohol Policy Res, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia.;Stockholm Univ, Ctr Social Res Alcohol & Drugs, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran..
    Rostami, Ali
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Hlth Res Inst, Babol Sar, Iran.;Babol Univ Med Sci, Infect Dis & Trop Med Res Ctr, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Roy, Ambuj
    AIIMS, Dept Cardiol, New Delhi, India..
    Sabde, Yogesh Damodar
    Indian Council Med Res, Natl Inst Res Environm Hlth, Bhopal, India..
    Saddik, Basema
    Univ Sharjah, Coll Med, Sharjah, U Arab Emirates..
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Maragheh, Iran..
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Mashhad Univ Med Ci, Dept Med Biotechnol, Mashhad, Iran..
    Saleem, Zikria
    Panjab Univ, Coll Pharm, Chandigarh, India..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Stanford Univ, Ctr Hlth Policy, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, Ctr Primary Care & Outcomes Res, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Salvi, Sundeep Santosh
    Chest Res Fdn, Clin Res Div, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Sanabria, Juan
    Marshall Univ, Dept Surg, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Nutr & Prevent Med, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    Nephrol Grp, LIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Santomauro, Damian Francesco
    Univ Queensland, Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Policy & Epidemiol Grp, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Milicevic, Milena M. M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Inst Social Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res, Hlth Econ & Financing Res Grp, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Appl & Environm Sci, Fac Med, Dept Hlth & Soc, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Univ British Columbia, Sch Populat & Publ Hlth, Vancouver, BC, Canada.;Isfahan Univ Med Sci, Cardiovasc Res Inst, Esfahan, Iran..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ Kwazulu Natal, Dept Publ Hlth Med, Howard Coll Campus, Durban, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Utkal Univ, UGC Ctr Adv Study Psychol, Bhubaneswar, India.;Udyam Global Assoc Sustainable Dev, Bhubaneswar, India..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Univ North Carolina Charlotte, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Charlotte, NC USA..
    Saxena, Sonia
    Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, London, England..
    Saylan, Mete
    Bayer, Market Access, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Schaub, Michael P.
    Univ Zurich, Swiss Res Inst Publ Hlth & Addict, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Postgrad Program Epidemiol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Hlth Sci Dept, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schoettker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    South African Med Res Council, Unit Hypertens & Cardiovasc Dis, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, HART, Mafikeng, South Africa..
    Schwendicke, Falk
    Char Univ Med Ctr Berlin, Dept Operat & Prevent Dent, Berlin, Germany..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Shiraz Univ Med Sci, Noncommun Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Shaikh, Masood A. Ali
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Lab Sci, Sari, Iran.;Islamic Azad Univ, Dept Basic Sci, Sari, Iran..
    She, Jun
    Fudan Univ, Dept Pulm Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Harvard Univ, BWH Div Gen Internal Med & Primary Care, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Nationwide Children sHosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Pharm, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Natl Inst Infect Dis, Tokyo, Japan..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shishani, Kawkab
    Washington State Univ, Pullman, WA 99164 USA..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Martin Luther Univ Halle Wittenberg, Inst Epidemiol Biostat & Informat, Halle, Germany..
    Shukla, Sharvari Rahul
    Symbiosis Int Univ, Symbiosis Inst Hlth Sci, Pune, Maharashtra, India..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Dept Psychol, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Columbia Univ, Dept Hlth & Behav Studies, New York, NY USA..
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Hlth Sci Dept, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Da Silva, Natacha Torres
    Portuguese Inst Sport & Youth, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Fed Minist Hlth, Dept Hlth Ind Complex & Innovat Hlth, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.;Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain Narain
    Sch Prevent Oncol, Patna, Bihar, India.;Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Sitas, Freddy
    Univ New South Wales, Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Soares Filho, Adauto Martins
    Fed Minist Hlth, Dept Dis & Noncommun Dis & Hlth Promot, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Soofi, Moslem
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Res Ctr Environm Determinants Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Univ Washington, Dept Global Hlth, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Hosp Princess IISP, Pneumol Serv, Res Inst, Madrid, Spain.;Autonomous Univ Madrid, Pneumol Serv, Madrid, Spain..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Div Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Steckling, Nadine
    Univ Hosp Munich, Inst & Outpatient Clin Occupat Social & Environm, Munich, Germany.;Univ Hlth Sci Med Informat & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth, Hlth Serv Res & Hlth Technol Assessment, Hall In Tirol, Austria..
    Stein, Dan J.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
    Ahmadu Bello Univ, Dept Community Med, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Sur, Patrick J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol Law & Soc, Irvine, CA USA..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain.;Carlos III Hlth Inst, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Tabuchi, Takahiro
    Osaka Int Canc Inst, Canc Control Ctr, Osaka, Japan..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    New York Med Coll, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA..
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Community Med Dept, Tehran, Iran.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin
    Haramaya Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Thapa, Subash
    Univ Southern Denmark, Dept Publ Hlth, Odense, Denmark..
    Thomas, Nihal
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp CMC, Dept Endocrinol, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland..
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Med Sch, Dept Ophthalmol, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Hanoi Univ, Dept Hlth Econ, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Troeger, Christopher E.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Neurol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tsilimparis, Nikolaos
    Univ Heart Ctr Hamburg, Dept Vasc Med, Hamburg, Germany..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Parc Sanit St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, St Boi De Llobregat, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Ullah, Irfan
    Gomal Univ, Gomal Ctr Biochem & Biotechnol, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan.;Mufti Mehmood Mem Teaching Hosp, Programmat Management Drug Resistant TB Unit, TB Culture Lab, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Div Hlth Sci, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Argentine Soc Med, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Hosp Velez Sarsfield, Intens Care Unit, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    UKK Inst, Tampere, Finland..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Natl Univ Singapore, Yong Loo Lin Sch Med, Singapore, Singapore.;Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Dept Med & Surg Sci, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey Konstantinovitch
    Minist Hlth FRIHOI, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia.;Sechenov First Moscow State Med Univ, Dept Informat & Internet Technol, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Natl Res Univ Higher Sch Econ, Dept Hlth Care Adm & Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Ctr Dis Burden, Bergen, Norway..
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wagnew, Fasil Wagnew Shiferaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Dept Nursing, Debremarkos, Ethiopia..
    Waheed, Yasir
    Fdn Univ, Fdn Univ Med Coll, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Psychiat, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.;Canc Registry Norway, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway..
    Weldegebreal, Fitsum
    Haramaya Univ, Dept Med Lab Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Weldegwergs, Kidu Gidey
    Mekelle Univ, Clin Pharm Unit, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Demog Change & Ageing Res Area, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up, German Natl Cohort, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Widecka, Justyna
    Pomeranian Med Univ, Zdroje Hosp, Szczecin, Poland..
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Univ Melbourne, Australian Inst Muscular Skeletal Sci, Dept Med & Neurol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;La Trobe Univ, Dept Psychol & Counselling, Heidelberg, Vic, Australia..
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    NHS Scotland, Informat Serv Div, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Strathclyde, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Sch Med, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Univ Tokyo, Dept Diabet & Metab Dis, Tokyo, Japan..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Prevent Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Div Injury Prevent & Mental Hlth Provement, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Pharm, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yirsaw, Biruck Desalegn
    Univ South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Yisma, Engida
    Addis Ababa Univ, Sch Alaide Hlth Sci, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yotebieng, Marcel
    Ohio State Univ, Coll Publ Hlth, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Univ Kinshasa, Sch Publ Hlth, Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Dept Hlth Pol & Management, Jackson, MS USA.;Tsinghua Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zachariah, Geevar
    Mother Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Trichur, India..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    ACS Med Coll & Hosp, New Delhi, India..
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Babol Univ Med Sci, Student Res Comm, Babol Sar, Iran..
    Zhang, Xueying
    Univ Texas Houston, Houston, TX USA..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    PHFI, Indian Inst Publ Hlth, Gurugram, India..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gakidou, Emmanuela
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Alcohol use and burden for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162018Inngår i: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 392, nr 10152, s. 1015-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for death and disability, but its overall association with health remains complex given the possible protective effects of moderate alcohol consumption on some conditions. With our comprehensive approach to health accounting within the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016, we generated improved estimates of alcohol use and alcohol-attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 195 locations from 1990 to 2016, for both sexes and for 5-year age groups between the ages of 15 years and 95 years and older.

    Methods: Using 694 data sources of individual and population-level alcohol consumption, along with 592 prospective and retrospective studies on the risk of alcohol use, we produced estimates of the prevalence of current drinking, abstention, the distribution of alcohol consumption among current drinkers in standard drinks daily (defined as 10 g of pure ethyl alcohol), and alcohol-attributable deaths and DALYs. We made several methodological improvements compared with previous estimates: first, we adjusted alcohol sales estimates to take into account tourist and unrecorded consumption; second, we did a new meta-analysis of relative risks for 23 health outcomes associated with alcohol use; and third, we developed a new method to quantify the level of alcohol consumption that minimises the overall risk to individual health.

    Findings: Globally, alcohol use was the seventh leading risk factor for both deaths and DALYs in 2016, accounting for 2.2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 1.5-3.0) of age-standardised female deaths and 6.8% (5.8-8.0) of age-standardised male deaths. Among the population aged 15-49 years, alcohol use was the leading risk factor globally in 2016, with 3.8% (95% UI 3.2-4-3) of female deaths and 12.2% (10.8-13-6) of male deaths attributable to alcohol use. For the population aged 15-49 years, female attributable DALYs were 2.3% (95% UI 2.0-2.6) and male attributable DALYs were 8.9% (7.8-9.9). The three leading causes of attributable deaths in this age group were tuberculosis (1.4% [95% UI 1. 0-1. 7] of total deaths), road injuries (1.2% [0.7-1.9]), and self-harm (1.1% [0.6-1.5]). For populations aged 50 years and older, cancers accounted for a large proportion of total alcohol-attributable deaths in 2016, constituting 27.1% (95% UI 21.2-33.3) of total alcohol-attributable female deaths and 18.9% (15.3-22.6) of male deaths. The level of alcohol consumption that minimised harm across health outcomes was zero (95% UI 0.0-0.8) standard drinks per week.

    Interpretation: Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for global disease burden and causes substantial health loss. We found that the risk of all-cause mortality, and of cancers specifically, rises with increasing levels of consumption, and the level of consumption that minimises health loss is zero. These results suggest that alcohol control policies might need to be revised worldwide, refocusing on efforts to lower overall population-level consumption.

  • 34.
    Gunnarson, Martin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande, Centrum för praktisk kunskap. Avdelningen för etnologi, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, Lunds universitet.
    Lundin, Susanne
    Avdelningen för etnologi, Institutionen för kulturvetenskaper, Lunds universitet.
    The Complexities of Victimhood: Insights from the Organ Trade2015Inngår i: Somatechnics, ISSN 2044-0138, E-ISSN 2044-0146, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 32-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to explore the complexity of the concept of the victim within the context of organ trading. By examining the intricate phenomenon of organ trade, we show how prevailing notions of victimhood form the basis of concrete social practices. The empirical basis for this exploration comprises in-depth interviews conducted during fieldwork in South Africa and Kosovo. We also draw on research undertaken at various expert meetings. What our research in these locations attests to is that one-dimensional and generalised conceptualisations of victimhood are rife, and that these tend to be founded on a pre-theorised opposition between agency and victimhood. For persons who become practically and intimately involved in dealing with cases of organ trade – such as investigators and prosecutors – such conceptualisations do not hold. What is required is an understanding of victimhood that takes into account its complexity. In this paper, we explore attempts to grasp and reduce this complexity, and argue against generalised concepts of victimhood and for concepts that are sensitive to contextual and relational variations.

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  • 35.
    Hunt, G.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark; Institute for Scientific Analysis, Alameda, CA, United States.
    Sanders, E.
    Institute for Scientific Analysis, Alameda, CA, United States.
    Petersen, M. A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Bogren, Alexandra
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi.
    “Blurring the Line”: Intoxication, Gender, Consent, and Sexual Encounters Among Young Adults2022Inngår i: Contemporary Drug Problems, ISSN 0091-4509, E-ISSN 2163-1808, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 84-105Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social concern about sexual practices and sexual consent among young adults has increased significantly in recent years, and intoxication has often played a key role in such debates. While many studies have long suggested that alcohol plays a role in facilitating (casual) sexual encounters, intoxication has largely either been conceptualized as a risk factor, or researchers have focused on the pharmacological effects of alcohol on behaviors associated with sexual interaction and consent. To date little work has explored how young adults define and negotiate acceptable and unacceptable levels of intoxication during sexual encounters, nor the ways in which different levels of intoxication influence gendered sexual scripts and meanings of consent. This paper explores the latter two research questions using data from 145 in-depth, qualitative interviews with cisgender, heterosexual young adults ages 18–25 in the San Francisco Bay Area. In examining these interview data, by exploring the relationship between intoxication and sexual consent, and the ways in which gender plays out in notions of acceptable and unacceptable intoxicated sexual encounters, we highlight how different levels of intoxication signal different sexual scripts. Narratives about sexual encounters at low levels of intoxication highlighted the role of intoxication in achieving sexual sociability, but they also relied on the notion that intoxicated consent was dependent on the social relationship between the partners outside drinking contexts. Narratives about sexual encounters in heavy drinking situations were more explicitly gendered, often in keeping with traditionally gendered sexual scripts. In general we found that when men discussed their own levels of intoxication, their narratives were more focused on sexual performance and low status sex partners, while women’s and some men’s narratives about women’s levels of intoxication were focused on women’s consent, safety, and respectability. Finally, some participants rely on “consent as a contract” and “intoxication parity”—the idea that potential sexual partners should be equally intoxicated—to handle relations of power in interpersonal sexual scripts. Since these notions are sometimes deployed strategically, we suggest that they may serve to “black-box” gendered inequalities in power between the parties involved.

  • 36.
    Hökby, Sebastian
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Alvarsson, Jesper
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Psykologi. Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Carli, Vladimir
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Hadlaczky, Gergö
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Effects of Screen Time on Depressive Symptoms among Swedish Adolescents: The Moderating and Mediating Role of Coping Engagement Behavior.2023Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 20, nr 4, artikkel-id 3771Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies suggest that hourly digital screen time increases adolescents' depressive symptoms and emotional regulation difficulties. However, causal mechanisms behind such associations remain unclear. We hypothesized that problem-focused and/or emotion-focused engagement coping moderates and possibly mediates this association over time. Questionnaire data were collected in three waves from a representative sample of Swedish adolescents (0, 3 and 12 months; n = 4793; 51% boys; 99% aged 13-15). Generalized Estimating Equations estimated the main effects and moderation effects, and structural regression estimated the mediation pathways. The results showed that problem-focused coping had a main effect on future depression (b = 0.030; p < 0.001) and moderated the effect of screen time (b = 0.009; p < 0.01). The effect size of this moderation was maximum 3.4 BDI-II scores. The mediation results corroborated the finding that future depression was only indirectly correlated with baseline screen time, conditional upon intermittent problem-coping interference (C'-path: Std. beta = 0.001; p = 0.018). The data did not support direct effects, emotion-focused coping effects, or reversed causality. We conclude that hourly screen time can increase depressive symptoms in adolescent populations through interferences with problem-focused coping and other emotional regulation behaviors. Preventive programs could target coping interferences to improve public health. We discuss psychological models of why screen time may interfere with coping, including displacement effects and echo chamber phenomena.

  • 37.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Risk and Protective Factors for Problematic Drinking in Early Adolescence: A Systematic Approach2020Inngår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 231-238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use during early adolescence is associated with other risk behaviors as well as future health problems. Within the design of a larger prospective research program, a cohort of U.S. inner-city sixth-grade students (N = 1573, mean age = 12.10) were assessed and reassessed in the seventh-grade. Self-reported information was obtained on problems related to alcohol, fixed markers of risk (e.g. sex, age, SES), individual and interpersonal factors (e.g. internalizing and externalizing symptoms) and contextual factors (e.g. substance availability). Alcohol-related problems in seventh grade were foremost predicted by individual and interpersonal factors in the sixth grade including depressive symptoms, conduct problems, a decreased perception of wrongdoing, and affiliation with delinquent peers. In addition, alcohol use in the sixth grade and being of Hispanic or White ethnicity was also associated with subsequent alcohol-related problems. Interventions should be directed towards assessing and treating individual risk factors such as depression and externalizing symptoms.

  • 38.
    Jacob, L.
    et al.
    University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux 78180, France / CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Smith, L.
    Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Haro, J. M.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, A.
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Serious physical injury and depressive symptoms among adolescents aged 12–15 years from 21 low- and middle-income countries2020Inngår i: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 264, s. 172-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about the relationship between physical injury and depression in youths from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between serious physical injury and depressive symptoms among adolescents in 21 LMICs. Methods: Data from the Global School-based Student Health Survey (2003–2008) were analyzed. Serious physical injury and depressive symptoms in the past 12 months were assessed with self-report measures. The association between serious physical injury and depressive symptoms was examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis. Results: The final sample consisted of 44,333 adolescents aged 12–15 years. After adjustment for sex, age, food insecurity, alcohol consumption, and country, an increasing number of serious physical injuries in the past 12 months was associated with increments in the odds for depressive symptoms in a dose-dependent fashion. Those who had ≥6 serious injuries (vs. no injuries) were 2.79 (95%CI=2.23–3.48) times more likely to have depressive symptoms. The pooled odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) for the association between at least one serious physical injury and depressive symptoms obtained by meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates was 1.83 (1.67–2.01) with a moderate level of between-country heterogeneity (I2=56.0%). Limitations: This was a cross-sectional study and causality of the association cannot be deduced. Conclusions: Serious physical injury may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among adolescents in LMICs. Efforts to prevent physical injury and the provision of adequate health care for those who are injured may improve mental wellbeing among adolescents in this setting.

  • 39.
    Juzak, Damian
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Internationell hälsa.
    Effect of population characteristics and seasonal variation on anthrax epidemiology2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Anthrax is a disease caused by the spores of Bacillus anthracis and can have a high fatality rate. It is a zoonosis and mostly affecting animals. In this study I want to find out risk factors on population scale for anthrax cases and deaths in humans and animals, and look at the relation of anthrax with weather patterns.

    Methods

    I searched for anthrax outbreaks in different countries, mainly yearly reports. I looked at human cases, human deaths, livestock deaths and wildlife deaths. Different risk factors were considered: country size, population characteristics, Human Development Index (HDI), total cattle number, cattle per human ratio, mean annual temperature, mean temperature of the warmest 1 and 3 months, annual precipitation and minimum and maximum precipitation in 1 month and 3 months. Linear regression was used. Statistics were repeated without China because it was often the single outlier in the figures. Statistics were also repeated with the countries aggregated in continents because of the modifiable area unit problem.

    Results

    Data was found for 28 countries resulting in 36 data points. There was a significant relation between human cases and cattle number, human deaths, country size and population size. There were also significant relations between wildlife deaths and population size, country size and mean temperature of the warmest month. Without China relations between human cases and maximum precipitation in 1 and 3 months, and between livestock deaths and country size were significant. For continents a significant relation between human cases and cattle ratio, cattle deaths and HDI.

    Conclusion

    This study mainly shows that high cattle numbers and cattle deaths due to anthrax are risk factors for human cases. Also seasonal precipitation is a risk factor. Bigger country size and population size may be indirect risk factors as these usually accompany higher cattle numbers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 40. Kaleta, Dorota
    et al.
    Usidame, Bukola
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elżbieta
    Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Prevalence and factors associated with hardcore smoking in Poland: Findings from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (2009–2010)2014Inngår i: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 14, s. 583-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Kamio, Y.
    et al.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Haraguchi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry,Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Sociologi. Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan .
    Ogino, K.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan / Tokyo Metropolitan Children’s Medical Center, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ishitobi, M.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brief Report : Best Discriminators for Identifying Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder at an 18-Month Health Check-Up in Japan2015Inngår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, nr 12, s. 1447-1453Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the best discriminative items for identifying young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), we conducted a secondary analysis using longitudinal cohort data that included the Japanese version of the 23-item modified checklist for autism in toddlers (M-CHAT-JV). M-CHAT-JV data at 18 months of age and diagnostic information evaluated at age 3 or later from 1851 Japanese children was used to isolate six highly discriminative items. Using data from two different community samples (n = 1851, n = 665) these items were shown to have comparable psychometric values with those of the full version. Our results suggest that these items might work as a short form screener for early identification of ASD in primary care settings where there are time constraints on screening. © 2015 The Author(s)

  • 42.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    What determines gender inequalities in social capital in Ukraine?2019Inngår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 100383Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social capital is a social determinant of health that has an impact on equity and well-being. It may be unequally distributed among any population. The aims of this study are to investigate the distribution of different forms of social capital between men and women in Ukraine and analyse how potential gender inequalities in social capital might be explained and understood in the Ukrainian context.

    Method: The national representative cross-sectional data from the European Social Survey (wave 6) was used with a sample of 1377 women and 797 men. Seven outcomes that represent cognitive and structural social capital were constructed i.e. institutional trust, generalised trust, reciprocity, safety, as well as bonding, bridging and linking forms. Multivariate logistic regression and post-regression Fairlies decompositions were used for the analyses.

    Results: There are several findings that resulted from the analyses i), access to institutional trust, linking and bridging social capital is very limited; ii), the odds for almost all forms of social capital (besides safety) are lower for men; iii), feeling about income and age explain most of the gender differences and act positively, as well as offsetting the differences.

    Conclusion: Social capital is unequally distributed between different population groups. Some forms of social capital have a stronger buffering effect on women than on men in Ukraine. Reducing gender and income inequalities would probably influence the distribution of social capital within the society.

  • 43.
    Karim, Abdul
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Internationell hälsa.
    A statistical approach to understand Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever prevalence in Pakistan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Geographically, Pakistan is in the western part of south Asia at about 24-37 °N latitudes and62-75 °E longitudes. Livestock and agriculture are two major sectors in Pakistan and play animportant role in the country economy.The tick infestation in livestock is not only devastating for animals and their products but alsobecome the cause of transmission of pathogens into humans. Crimean Congo fever (CCHF) isa viral tick-borne fatal disease. The dissemination of ticks and amplification of Crimean Congofever (CCHF) pathogen throughout the tick-animals-tick cycle, increases risk of transmissionto humans many times. In Pakistan, cases are reported in all areas, particularly those areaswhich lie on the border to CCHF endemic countries. There is a high prevalence of CCHF inboth Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa regions. Baluchistan is bordering with Afghanistanand Iran and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with Afghanistan. Linear regression analysis revealed apositive significant association of high level of CCHF cases in livestock, with camels, goatsand sheep. The literacy rate is negatively significantly corelated with the numbers of cases.Statistical analysis of border effect revealed a high positive significant correlation of CCHFprevalence in areas near to borders. Both Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) haslow literacy rate than other regions of Pakistan. Islamabad (capital city) has a higher literacyrate than all other regions but there is still a high CCHF prevalence. This is not only becauseof high population density but people from other regions, particularly from Baluchistan andKPK come here for animals selling or to seeking medical facilities in the large city hospitals.The study gives a proof that illiteracy and borders are the major respondent factors in theCCHF incidences and prevalence in an area. There is a need to raise awareness about ticksand tick-borne disease in the public and establishment of monitoring system across the bordersto prevent the spread of CCHF virus.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Kim, Jae Han
    et al.
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Kim, Jong Yeob
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, Seul
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, San
    Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Stubbs, Brendon
    Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, UK..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu/CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010, Barcelona, Spain..
    Dragioti, Elena
    Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden..
    Jacob, Louis
    Research and Development Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Dr. Antoni Pujadas, 42, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona 08830, Spain; Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France..
    Carvalho, Andre F
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Radua, Joaquim
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Imaging of Mood- and Anxiety-Related Disorders (IMARD) group, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Mental Health Research Networking Center (CIBERSAM), Barcelona, Spain; Centre for Psychiatric Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thompson, Trevor
    Department of Psychology, University of Greenwich, London, UK..
    Smith, Lee
    The Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK..
    Oh, Hans
    School of Social Work, University of Southern California, CA 90015, USA..
    Yang, Lin
    Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Canada; Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada..
    Fornaro, Michele
    Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive Sciences and Dentistry, Federico II University, Naples, Italy..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    de Pablo, Gonzalo Salazar
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón (IiSGM), CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Tizaoui, Kalthoum
    Department of Basic Sciences, Medicine Faculty of Tunis, Tunis El Manar University, 15 Rue Djebel Lakdar, Tunis 1007, Tunisia..
    Yon, Dong Keon
    Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Lee, Seung Won
    Department of Data Science, Sejong University College of Software Convergence, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Hwang, Jimin
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA..
    Il Shin, Jae
    Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea..
    Fusar-Poli, Paolo
    Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-detection (EPIC) lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; OASIS service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; National Institute of Health Research Maudsley Biomedical Research Centre, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK..
    Environmental Risk Factors, Protective Factors, and Biomarkers for Postpartum Depressive Symptoms: An Umbrella Review2022Inngår i: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 140, artikkel-id 104761Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed an umbrella review on environmental risk/protective factors and biomarkers for postpartum depressive symptoms to establish a hierarchy of evidence. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until 12 January 2021. We included systematic reviews providing meta-analyses related to our research objectives. Methodological quality was assessed by AMSTAR 2, and the certainty of evidence was evaluated by GRADE. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021230784). We identified 30 articles, which included 45 environmental risk/protective factors (154594 cases, 7302273 population) and 9 biomarkers (2018 cases, 16757 population). The credibility of evidence was convincing (class I) for antenatal anxiety (OR 2.49, 1.91-3.25) and psychological violence (OR 1.93, 1.54-2.42); and highly suggestive (class II) for intimate partner violence experience (OR 2.86, 2.12-3.87), intimate partner violence during pregnancy (RR 2.81, 2.11-3.74), smoking during pregnancy (OR 2.39, 1.78-3.2), history of premenstrual syndrome (OR 2.2, 1.81-2.68), any type of violence experience (OR 2.04, 1.72-2.41), primiparity compared to multiparity (RR 1.76, 1.59-1.96), and unintended pregnancy (OR 1.53, 1.35-1.75).

  • 45.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University Medical Center, Netherlands.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University, USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University, USA; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Community Violence Exposure and School Functioning in Youth: Cross-Country and Gender Perspectives2021Inngår i: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 692402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many children and adolescents experience violent events which can be associated with negative consequences for their development, mental health, school, and social functioning. However, findings between settings and on the role of gender have been inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate cross-country and gender differences in the relationship between community violence exposure (CVE) and school functioning in a sample of youths from three countries. Methods: A self-report survey was conducted among school students (12-17 years old) in Belgium (Antwerp, N = 4,743), Russia (Arkhangelsk, N = 2,823), and the US (New Haven, N = 4,101). Students were recruited from within classes that were randomly selected from within schools that had themselves been randomly selected (excepting New Haven, where all students were included). CVE was assessed with the Screening Survey of Exposure to Community Violence. School functioning was assessed with four measures: the Perceived Teacher Support scale, Negative Classroom Environment scale, and Academic Motivation and Perception of Safety at School scales. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance were performed to assess differences in the levels of school-related problem behaviors in boys and girls, who reported different degrees of CVE. Results: Participants in all three countries reported a relatively high prevalence of violence exposure (36.2% in Belgium, 39.3% in Russia and 45.2% in the US who witnessed violence), with a higher proportion of girls than boys witnessing violent events (varied from 37.4 to 51.6% between the countries), whereas boys reported more episodes of victimization by violence than girls (varied from 32.3 to 49.9% between the countries). Youths who experienced increased CVE (from no exposure to witnessing to victimization) reported an increase in all school functioning problems in all of the countries and this association was not gender-specific. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regardless of differences in the level of CVE by country and gender, violence exposure is negatively associated with school functioning across countries. Nonetheless, even though reactions to community violence among adolescents may be expressed in a similar fashion, cross-country differences in social support systems should also be taken into account in order to provide culturally sensitive treatment modalities.

  • 46.
    Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, Företagsekonomi. Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Izmir, O.
    Gümüşhane University, Gümüşhane, Türkiye.
    Oypan, O.
    Hatay Mustafa Kemal University, Türkiye.
    Ozer, S.
    Abdullah Gül University, Türkiye.
    Identification of the drivers of and barriers to COVID-19 vaccine intake behavior using a mixed-method design: implications from a developing country2023Inngår i: Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, ISSN 2530-7614, E-ISSN 2444-569X, Vol. 8, nr 4, artikkel-id 100413Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Various COVID-19 vaccines are available across the world. However, short phases of clinical trials for emergency use and myriad rumors about and misinformation on vaccines spread through different media sources, induce confusion and trigger vaccine hesitancy behavior. Although clinical trials demonstrated promising results in the ability of vaccines to protect, social endeavor is required for vaccines to succeed. Mitigation of the pandemic is only possible through widespread acceptance of the vaccine. Thus, identifying the factors that impact vaccine intake is crucial. This study determined factors that affect intentions toward vaccination using a mixed-method approach, in which qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted together. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used in the quantitative study, and content analysis is employed in the qualitative study. The final sample of this mixed-method study consists of 568 participants for the quantitative study and 237 for the qualitative study. They were selected using an online questionnaire. Findings suggest that social, psychological, attitudinal, perceptual, and informational factors play a crucial role in shaping people's intentions toward vaccines, ultimately influencing their decision to accept or reject vaccination. Results of both the qualitative and quantitative studies, in parallel with each other, indicated similar barriers against and drivers toward vaccine intake behavior, providing strong insights into the reasons behind vaccine acceptance and hesitancy. Based on the insights gained in this study, a set of recommendations were compiled for policymakers.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47. Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Mann, Vera
    Leon, David A.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Byberg, Liisa
    Vågerö, Denny
    Morning cortisol does not mediate the association of size at birth with blood pressure in children born from full-term pregnancies2005Inngår i: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 62, s. 661-666Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective It had been suggested that programming of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis may underlie the associations of reduced size at birth with raised blood pressure in later life. We investigated whether morning salivary cortisol mediates the inverse association of birthweight with systolic blood pressure in children.Design Subjects and measurements – a historical cohort study involving 1152 Swedish children aged 5–14 years, who took part in a family study comprised of mother, father, and two full-sibs delivered in 1987–1995 after 38–41 weeks gestation within 36 months of each other. Birthweight and gestational age were available from obstetric records. Blood pressure, weight, height and puberty stage were measured at a clinic. Cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay in morning salivary samples taken at home, within 30 min of waking.Results Morning cortisol showed a weak negative association with length of gestation in siblings, was not related to birthweight or to systolic or diastolic blood pressure. There was no change in the strength of the negative association between birthweight and systolic blood pressure on adjustment for cortisol (−1·4 mmHg/kg, 95% CI −2·7, −0·2; adjusted for age, sex, puberty stage, weight and height, and cortisol).Conclusions Morning cortisol was not associated with size at birth, and did not mediate the birthweight–blood pressure association in children born from full-term pregnancies. It is possible that basal cortisol levels are of more importance in explaining associations of size at birth with later blood pressure in older subjects, or in populations with more varied length of gestation. Alternatively, our results may be caused by misclassification of the hypothalamo–pituitary-adrenal activity.

  • 48. Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Byberg, Liisa
    Fritzell, Jonas
    Vågerö, Denny
    Early and adult life social influences on circulatory disease mortality [abstract]2004Inngår i: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, E-ISSN 1803-1048, Vol. 14, nr Suppl. 1, s. 45-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49. Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Plavinskaja, Svetlana
    Parfenova, Nina
    Shestov, Dmitri B.
    Danziger, Phoebe Day
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskaper, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Cancer mortality in women and men who survived the siege of Leningrad (1941-1944)2009Inngår i: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 124, nr 6, s. 1416-1421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of Leningrad suffered from severe starvation, coldand psychological stress during the siege in World War II in1941–1944. We investigated the long-term effects of the siege oncancer mortality in 3,901 men and 1,429 women, born between1910 and 1940. All study subjects were residents of St. Petersburg,formerly Leningrad, between 1975 and 1982. One third of themhad experienced the siege as children, adolescents or young adults(age range, 1–31 years at the peak of starvation in 1941–1942).Associations of siege exposure with risk of death from cancer werestudied using a multivariable Cox regression, stratified by genderand period of birth, adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol and socialcharacteristics, from 1975 to 1977 (men) and 1980 to 1982, respectively(women), until the end of 2005. Women who were 10–18 years old at the peak of starvation were taller as adults (ageadjusteddifference, 1.7 cm; 95% CI, 0.5–3.0) and had a higherrisk of dying from breast cancer compared with unexposedwomen born during the same period (age-adjusted HR, 9.9; 95%CI, 1.1–86.5). Mortality from prostate cancer was nonsignificantlyhigher in exposed men. The experience of severe starvation andstress during childhood and adolescence may have long-termeffects on cancer in surviving men and women.

  • 50. Koupil, Ilona
    et al.
    Rahu, Kaja
    Rahu, Mati
    Karro, Helle
    Vågerö, Denny
    Major improvements, but persisting inequalities in infant survival in Estonia 1992-20022006Inngår i: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, E-ISSN 1803-1048, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 8-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inequality in adult health increased in Estonia during the transition period after 1991. We examined inequality in infant survival from 1992 to 2002. Methods: All 132 854 singleton live births reported to the Estonian Medical Birth Registry in 1992–2001 were linked to the Estonian Mortality Database. The effect of mother's education, nationality, marital status, and place of residence on neonatal (0–27 days) and post-neonatal (28–364 days) death was evaluated in logistic regression with adjustments for maternal age, parity, smoking, sex of the infant, birth weight, and gestational age. Results: Infant mortality decreased substantially. Risk of death in neonatal period was lowest in Tartu, with a decline from 4.9/1000 in infants born in 1992–1996 to 2.1/1000 in those born in 1997–2001. Decline in neonatal mortality in other regions was from 9.2/1000 to 5.1/1000. Persisting regional differences were unexplained by mothers' nationality, education, or marital status, or the infants' length of gestation. Decline in post-neonatal mortality was less marked and although risk differences between different socio-economic groups decreased, mothers' marital status and education in particular remained strongly associated with risk of post-neonatal death [odds ratio for infants born to mothers with basic or lower education compared to university education 3.70 (95% confidence interval 2.34–5.85) in 1992–1996 and 3.56 (2.06–6.14) in 1997–2001]. Conclusions: Infant survival improved appreciably in Estonia after 1991 and risk differences between social groups decreased. The improvements were not accompanied by reduction in the strength of the effects of social characteristics on infant death measured as risk ratios.

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