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  • 1. Aluoja, Anu
    et al.
    Shlik, Jakov
    Vasar, Veiko
    Luuk, Kersti
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Development and psychometric properties of the Emotional State Questionnaire: a self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety1999In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are dimensions of emotional state that can be validly assessed with self-report measures. This article introduces a new self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety (Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q)) and presents data on its reliability and validity. The items of the EST-Q were derived from diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Thirty-three items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. The questionnaire was administered to 194 inpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders and to a population sample of 479 subjects. According to the results of factor analysis, five subscales were formed: Depression, Anxiety, Agoraphobia-Panic, Fatigue, and Insomnia. EST-Q and subscales showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.69-0.88). Significant differences in subscales between patients and population and across diagnostic groups confirmed the discriminant validity of the instrument. Depression, Anxiety, and Agoraphobia-Panic subscales distinguished corresponding diagnostic groups. Fatigue and Insomnia appeared to assess nonspecific psychopathology dimensions characteristic of several psychiatric disorders.

  • 2.
    Bonds, Olivia
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Mobbning: ur flera perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns elever som trycker ner andra i sin omgivning. När det är dags för rast finns det de som säger ”vad äcklig du är” och skrattar åt sin jämnåriga skolkamrat. Samtidigt sprider sig nya tekniker som gör skolan ännu mer försvarslös mot mobbning än tidigare. Inte ens i det egna hemmet kan ett barn vara garanterad att få slippa sin plågoande. Vad är egentligen mobbning? Hur tänker en mobbare? Och hur ser en vanlig skolmiljö ut år 2007?

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  • 3. Clark, Kelly
    et al.
    Visuri, Ingela
    Södertörn University, School of Historical and Contemporary Studies, The Study of Religions.
    Autism and the Panoply of Religious Belief, Disbelief and Experience2019In: Neurology and Religion / [ed] Joanna Collicutt, Alasdair Coles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 139-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the cognitive mechanisms that incline us towards theistic belief in superhuman agents have been well documented over the past twenty-five years, unbelief has not received nearly so much attention. Recent studies however suggest that just as with theistic belief, various psychic mechanisms and processes might incline one toward unbelief, such as a propensity for analytic thinking. It has also been suggested that the connection between atheism and analytic thinking may be mediated by mentalizing constraints in autism. In this essay, we will present and evaluate a few such studies and then consider some additional ideas that we hope will contribute to a fuller understanding of possible approaches to religion and spirituality in autistic individuals.

  • 4.
    Ebishima, Ken
    et al.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Takahashi, Hidetoshi
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Nakahachi, Takayuki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Relationship of the Acoustic Startle Response and Its Modulation to Adaptive and Maladaptive Behaviors in Typically Developing Children and Those With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study2019In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 13, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with persistent impairments in adaptive functioning across multiple domains of daily life. Thus, investigation of the biological background of both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors may shed light on developing effective interventions for improving social adaptation in ASD. In this study, we examined the relationship between adaptive/maladaptive behaviors and the acoustic startle response (ASR) and its modulation, which are promising neurophysiological markers for ASD translational research. Method: We investigated the ASR and its modulation in 11 children with ASD and 18 with typical development (TD), analyzing the relationship between startle measures and adaptive/maladaptive behaviors assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) Second Edition. Results: Peak-ASR latency was negatively correlated with the VABS total score and socialization domain score of adaptive behaviors, while the ASR magnitude for relatively weak stimuli of 75-85 dB was positively correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior scores. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) at the prepulse intensity of 70-75 dB was also correlated with VABS maladaptive behavior. However, these relationships did not remain significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the prolonged peak-ASR latency of ASD children might be associated with impairment in the developmental level of adaptive behavior, and that the greater ASR magnitude to relatively weak acoustic stimuli and smaller PPI of ASD children might increase the risk of maladaptive behavior. Future studies that have larger sample sizes will be important for further elucidating the neurophysiological factors that underpin adaptive as well as maladaptive behaviors in ASD.

  • 5.
    Emsing, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Trajectories of Mental Health Status Among Police Recruits in Sweden2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 753800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The stressful and complex nature of police work and its adverse effects on mental health are well-documented in police research. The mental health of police students however, has not been given the same attention. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the mental health of Swedish police recruits have not been undertaken since 2010.

    Objectives: The present study aims to examine whether there are differences in the mental health between two cohorts (2009 and 2020) of Swedish police recruits, as well as to compare the mental health of both cohorts with the general population data collected in 2002.

    Methods: Data was collected using the SCL-90-R survey. Data was analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and independent sample T-tests. Bi-variate analyses including t-test and chi-square were used to examine differences in sociodemographic variables between the two cohorts.

    Results: A total of 376 police recruits participated in the study. Results indicated no significant differences between the cohorts with regards to the three global indices of the SCL-90-R: Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Total (PST), and Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI). Recruits with a college degree had lower scores on GSI and PSDI, similar to respondents that where in a relationship vs. singles. A total of 15 (four female) recruits had GSI scores above the Swedish patient mean. Compared with the general population, males and females from the 2009, as well as females from the 2020 cohorts had lower or insignificantly different mean scores on all global indices, with males from the 2020 cohort having a significantly lower PST score.

    Conclusions: While the vast majority of recruits had results that where indicative of a low prevalence and intensity with regards to mental health disorders, some recruits did score above the Swedish patient mean. While mental preparedness is part of the curriculum for Swedish police recruits, interventions targeting the stigmas of poor mental health could be of value. The fact that educational attainment appears to have a positive impact on the mental health of police recruits, could be taken in to consideration when recruiting future police officers.

  • 6. Gold, Rinat
    et al.
    Butler, Pamela
    Revheim, Nadine
    Leitman, David I.
    Hansen, John A.
    Gur, Ruben C.
    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    Silipo, Gail S.
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Auditory Emotion Recognition Impairments in Schizophrenia: Relationship to Acoustic Features and Cognition2012In: American Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0002-953X, E-ISSN 1535-7228, Vol. 169, no 4, p. 424-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in the ability to perceive emotion based on tone of voice. The basis for this deficit remains unclear, however, and relevant assessment batteries remain limited. The authors evaluated performance in schizophrenia on a novel voice emotion recognition battery with well-characterized physical features, relative to impairments in more general emotional and cognitive functioning. Method: The authors studied a primary sample of 92 patients and 73 comparison subjects. Stimuli were characterized according to both intended emotion and acoustic features (e.g., pitch, intensity) that contributed to the emotional percept. Parallel measures of visual emotion-recognition, pitch perception, general cognition, and overall outcome were obtained. More limited measures were obtained in an independent replication sample of 36 patients, 31 age-matched comparison subjects, and 188 general comparison subjects. Results: Patients showed statistically significant large-effect-size deficits in voice emotion recognition (d=1.1) and were preferentially impaired in recognition of emotion based on pitch features but not intensity features. Emotion recognition deficits were significantly correlated with pitch perception impairments both across (r=0.56) and within (r=0.47) groups. Path analysis showed both sensory-specific and general cognitive contributions to auditory emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia. Similar patterns of results were observed in the replication sample. Conclusions: The results demonstrate that patients with schizophrenia show a significant deficit in the ability to recognize emotion based on tone of voice and that this deficit is related to impairment in detecting the underlying acoustic features, such as change in pitch, required for auditory emotion recognition. This study provides tools for, and highlights the need for, greater attention to physical features of stimuli used in studying social cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  • 7.
    Haraguchi, Hideyuki
    et al.
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Yamaguchi, Honami
    Tokorozawa City Child Support Center, Saitama, Japan.
    Miyake, Atsuko
    Tokyo Special Education Psychological Research Center, Tokyo, Japan.
    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki
    National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Horiguchi, Mari
    Research Center for Mental Health and Developmental Disorders, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inoue, Masahiko
    Tottori University, Tottori, Japan.
    Noro, Fumiyuki
    University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
    Kamio, Yoko
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan / Ochanomizu University, Tokyo, Japan.
    One-year outcomes of low-intensity behavioral interventions among Japanese preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders: Community-based study2020In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 76, article id 101556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for evidence-based practice for children with autism spectrum disorders in the community, especially in areas with a scarcity of qualified experts and high financial costs, there is a lack of evidence concerning the potential benefits of early interventions which may be affordable in the real world (e.g. low-intensity behavioral or eclectic interventions). This study examined behavioral changes in preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders who received low-intensity behavioral interventions (a mean of 5.5 h per week) or non-behavioral eclectic interventions delivered in community settings in Japan across a 1-year period and compared outcomes between the groups. We assessed children’s developmental quotient, adaptive behavior, autism symptom/severity, and maternal stress and depression at baseline and after 1 year. Our results revealed that children receiving interventions in their communities showed improvement in language and social development. Further, the degree of improvement in children receiving low-intensity behavioral interventions was significantly greater than in children receiving non-behavioral eclectic interventions. The improvement was associated with the intensity of total, especially one-to-one interventions. On the other hand, there were no group differences in the degree of improvement in other outcome measures. Our results suggest that some preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorder may benefit from low-intensity behavioral interventions for their language and social development. A greater intensity of one-to-one interventions was found to be associated with greater progress in language development and communication skills. The current study highlights the importance of implementing early interventions in the community, even at a low intensity.

  • 8.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre of Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Koposov, R.
    The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic / .
    The danger of being inattentive – ADHD symptoms and risky sexual behaviour in Russian adolescents2018In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, no 47, p. 42-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground Prior research has indicated that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms may be associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour (RSB). However, research on this association among adolescents has been comparatively limited and mainly confined to North America. The aim of this study was to examine if inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms were linked to RSB in a community cohort sample of Russian adolescents. Methods The study was based on a group of 537 adolescents from Northern Russia. Information on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity as well as conduct problems was obtained through teacher ratings, while information on RSB (previous unprotected sex, number of sexual partners, sex while intoxicated and partner pregnancies), substance use, perception of risk, and parenting behaviour was based on students’ self-reports. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. Results Teacher-rated inattention symptoms predicted RSB, independently of co-morbid conduct problems, substance use, risk perception, and different parenting styles (parental warmth, involvement and control). In addition, male sex, binge drinking and a lower assessment of perceived risk were all significantly associated with RSB in an adjusted model. Neither teacher-rated hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms nor conduct problems were linked to RSB in the full model. Conclusions Deficits in planning and organizing behaviours, being easily distracted and forgetful seem to be of importance for RSB in Russian adolescents. This highlights the importance of discriminating between different types of ADHD symptoms in adolescence to prevent risk behaviours and their potentially detrimental outcomes on health and well-being.

  • 9.
    Isaksson, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Westermark, C.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Koposov, R. A.
    UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine,, USA; Säter Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Risky sexual behaviour among Russian adolescents: association with internalizing and externalizing symptoms2021In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 15, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is regarded as a major health problem during adolescence. Russia has one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy, abortion and newly diagnosed HIV infections in the world, but research on RSB in Russian youth has been limited. To address this deficit, this study examined the role of several factors, including internalizing and externalizing symptoms, in RSB among Russian adolescents. Methods: Self-reported data were collected from 2573 Russian adolescents aged 13–17 years old (59.4 % girls; Mean age = 14.89) regarding RSB (unprotected sex, early pregnancy, multiple sexual partners and substance use during sexual encounters). Information was also obtained on externalizing (conduct problems and delinquent behaviour) and internalizing (depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress) symptoms, as well as interpersonal risk and protective factors (affiliation with delinquent peers, parental involvement and teacher support). Hierarchical multiple binary logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between these variables and RSB. Results: Boys reported engaging in more RSB than girls. Externalizing symptoms and affiliation with delinquent peers were most strongly associated with RSB, whereas symptoms of anxiety were negatively associated with RSB. There was an interaction effect for sex and affiliation with delinquent peers on RSB with boys reporting RSB when having more delinquent peers. Neither parental involvement nor teacher support were protective against RSB. Conclusions: Early detection of and interventions for RSB and associated externalizing symptoms may be important for adolescent physical and mental wellbeing. Affiliation with delinquent peers should, especially among boys, be regarded as a risk marker for RSB.

  • 10.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet & Stockholm Health Care Services, Region Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Martina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Vermeiren, Robert
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, USA; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Community Violence Exposure and Eating Disorder Symptoms among Belgian, Russian and US Adolescents: Cross-Country and Gender Perspectives2023In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Isaksson, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University / Karolinska Institutet.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis G
    Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
    Koposov, Roman
    University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA / Säter Psychiatric Clinic.
    The Role of Gender in the Associations Among Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, Anger, and Aggression in Russian Adolescents2020In: Journal of Traumatic Stress, ISSN 0894-9867, E-ISSN 1573-6598, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 552-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to anger and aggressive behavior in adult and veteran populations. However, research on the associations among anger, aggression, and PTSD in adolescents is lacking, particularly regarding differences between the sexes. To address this research gap, we used self-report data from Russian adolescents (N = 2,810; age range: 13-17 years) to perform a full path analysis examining the associations between PTSD symptoms and the emotional (anger traits) and cognitive (rumination) components of anger as well as physical/verbal and social aggression, after adjusting for depressive symptoms. We also examined the interaction effects between PTSD symptoms and sex on anger and aggression. The results indicated that girls scored higher on measures of anger and PTSD symptoms, ds = 0.20-0.32, whereas boys scored higher on measures of physical and verbal aggression, d = 0.54. Clinical levels of PTSD symptoms were associated with anger rumination, β = .16, and trait anger, β = .06, and an interaction effect for PTSD symptoms and sex was found for aggression, whereby boys with clinical levels of PTSD symptoms reported more physical/verbal and social aggression, βs = .05 and .20, respectively. Our findings suggest that PTSD symptoms may have an important impact on anger, anger rumination, and aggression during adolescence. In particular, boys seem to have an increased risk for aggressive behavior in the presence of PTSD symptoms. The present results highlight the importance of taking anger and aggression into account when evaluating PTSD.

  • 12.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larm, Peter
    The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Johan
    The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Raninen, Jonas
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Social Work. The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs (CAN), Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden; La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
    The factor structure of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire in a national sample of Swedish adolescents: Comparing 3 and 5-factor models.2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 3, article id e0265481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is one of the most common screening instruments for emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents. Although exploratory factor analyses support the originally proposed 5-factor structure of SDQ as well as a 3-factor model, the evidence from confirmatory factor analyses is more mixed. Some of the difficulties items in SDQ are positively worded and it has been proposed that this leads to method effects, i.e. these items share variance that is due to the method used rather than to a substantive construct. Also, there seems to be minor factors in some subscales. This study tests a series of 3- and 5- factor models pertaining to the factor structure of SDQ, also considering method effects and minor factors. The sample consists of a nationally representative cohort of Swedish adolescents born in 2001 (n = 5549). Results show a relatively better fit of the 5-factor model compared with the 3-factor model although neither of these had a satisfactory fit. Model fit was improved when specifying cross-loadings of the positively worded difficulties items on the prosocial scale as well as minor factors on the hyperactivity scale. Although no model provided a completely satisfactory fit to the data, the results show that the 5-factor model performs better than the 3-factor model and has an acceptable fit. We conclude that for the purposes of epidemiological research, SDQ has acceptable factorial validity, provided that researchers consider method effects and minor factors.

  • 13.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Japan.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute and Stockholm Health Care Services, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, US; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Enuresis in young offenders: a study on prevalence and mental health comorbidity2024In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 15, article id 1328767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Enuresis is a common disorder in the school-age period, and is often associated with a variety of behavioral, psychological, and social problems. While early studies suggested an association between enuresis and delinquent behavior, there has been no recent research assessing the prevalence of enuresis and its comorbid psychopathology in young offenders. The aim of this study was to therefore assess the prevalence of enuresis and its associated psychiatric comorbidity in incarcerated young offenders.

    Methods: The prevalence of past and current enuresis and comorbid psychopathology was assessed using a semi-structured psychiatric interview and self-reports from 366 incarcerated male young offenders [age 14 to 19 years (mean age = 16.4)] from Northern Russia.

    Results: Seventy-three (20.0%) adolescents reported a previous history of enuresis, and in addition almost 10% of the youth reported current enuresis symptoms. Delinquent youth with enuresis did not significantly differ from other youth in the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses when assessed by a clinical diagnostic interview, but had significantly higher levels of self-reported mental health problems, and suicidal ideation and attempts.

    Conclusion: Problems with enuresis are common among delinquent youth and may be associated with increased mental health problems. Given the potentially increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior in young offenders with enuresis, comprehensive mental health screening of those who are detected with this condition should be considered in the juvenile justice system.

  • 14.
    Koposov, Roman A.
    et al.
    Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, United States; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Bulimia Symptoms in Russian Youth: Prevalence and Association With Internalizing Problems2022In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 797388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThere has been limited research on bulimia symptoms in adolescents from the general population outside the United States. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Russian youth and explore the associations between a clinical level of self-reported probable bulimia nervosa (BN) and internalizing problems, binge drinking and functional impairment by gender. MethodsData were collected from a representative sample of school students (N = 2,515, 59.5% female) from Northern Russia [age M (SD) = 14.89 +/- 1.13 years]. Probable BN and internalizing psychopathology were assessed using self-report scales. Chi-square and independent sample t-tests were used to compare respondents' demographic characteristics and disordered eating behaviors. GLM multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess the associations between probable BN, functional impairment and mental health problems (MHP) by gender. ResultsAnalyses showed that the 3-month prevalence of probable BN was higher in girls (3.9%) than in boys (1.2%). Probable BN was associated with depressive and anxiety symptoms, somatic anxiety, somatic complaints, binge drinking and functional impairment. Boys reported a higher level of problem scores in relation to probable BN. ConclusionsOur findings suggest that bulimia symptoms are prevalent in Russian adolescents and are associated with MHP and functional impairment. Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated MHP is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 15.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway;Sechenov First Moscow State Med University, Moscow, Russia.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Dept Prevent Intervent Psychiat Disorders, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden;Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, USA;Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Among Incarcerated Adolescents: Prevalence, Personality, and Psychiatric Comorbidity2021In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 12, article id 652004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Incarcerated adolescents represent a risk group for non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), but research on this population has been limited and no studies have been conducted in Russia. To address this deficit, this study examined NSSI and the factors associated with it among youth in a juvenile correctional facility in Russia. Methods: NSSI and psychopathology were assessed using a psychiatric interview and self-report questionnaire in 368 incarcerated male adolescents aged 14-19 years (mean age 16.4 years, S.D. 0.9) from Northern Russia. Results: 18.2% (N = 67) of the study participants had a history of NSSI and also had higher rates of anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, community violence exposure and scored higher on most of the Youth Self-Report problem scales. In addition, 31.3% of the NSSI group reported previous suicidal ideation and had thought about a specific suicide method compared to 12.0% in the No-NSSI group. Adolescents with NSSI also differed significantly from the No-NSSI group on self-directedness (lower) and self-transcendence (higher) personality traits. Conclusion: NSSI is common in incarcerated adolescents in Russia and is associated with extensive psychiatric comorbidity, suicidal ideation and specific personality traits.

  • 16.
    Koposov, Roman
    et al.
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis
    Yale University School of Medicine, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, USA; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Bulimia symptoms and anger and aggression among adolescents2023In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 833Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous research has indicated that anger and aggression may be elevated in adolescents with a bulimia nervosa (BN) diagnosis. However, as yet, little is known about whether bulimia symptoms are linked to anger and aggression in adolescents in the general population. To address this deficit this study aimed to explore the associations between a clinical level of bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and anger, anger rumination and aggression in community-based adolescents, and determine whether gender is important in this context.

    METHODS: This study was conducted on a representative sample of youth from northwestern Russia (n = 2613, age 13-17 years old, 59.5% female) using self-report scales. A proxy variable for a CLBS was created using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale. Aggression, anger and anger rumination were assessed by the Trait Anger Scale of the State Trait Anger Expression Inventory, the Anger Rumination Scale, and scales created to assess physically and verbally aggressive behavior. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the associations between the study variables.

    RESULTS: A CLBS was more prevalent in girls than in boys (13.4% vs. 3.5%). The association with anger and aggression was stronger in both genders with a CLBS, compared to those adolescents without a CLBS. In the CLBS group, boys as compared to girls scored higher on verbal and physical aggression, anger rumination and social aggression. In both the CLBS and Non-CLBS groups higher anger and aggression scores were associated with increasing age.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that aggression and anger rumination are elevated in adolescents with BN symptoms, and that the associations between anger, aggression and BN symptoms may be stronger in boys. As previous research has indicated that the presence of aggressive behaviors may affect the prognosis of BN and complicate management of the disorder, clinician screening for these behaviors in adolescents with BN symptoms may facilitate the provision of more effective treatment, especially among boys.

  • 17.
    Larsen, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lilja, Marie
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Sturidsson, Knut
    Karolinska Institutet / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Blatny, Marek
    Institute of Psychology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic..
    Hrdlicka, Michal
    University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala Univeristy / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic.
    Bulimia symptoms in Czech youth: prevalence and association with internalizing problems2020In: Eating and Weight Disorders, ISSN 1124-4909, E-ISSN 1590-1262, Vol. 25, p. 1543-1552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Although clinical studies suggest that bulimia symptoms are common in youth, research on the prevalence of such symptoms and of their association with comorbid internalizing problems in the general population has been limited. This study aimed to evaluate the gender-specific prevalence of bulimia symptoms in Czech youth and explored the association between a clinical level of self-reported bulimia symptoms (CLBS) and internalizing problems by gender, controlling for age, socio-economic status and puberty status. Method The study was conducted on a representative national sample of Czech youth (N = 4430, 57.0% female) using self-report scales. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to examine the associations. Results The 3-month CLBS prevalence was higher in girls (11.4%) than in boys (3.8%) and in both genders a CLBS was associated with higher levels of comorbid internalizing problems. Discussion Timely recognition of bulimia symptoms and associated risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 18.
    Lindén, Claudia
    Södertörn University, School of Gender, Culture and History, Comparative literature.
    Axel Munthe och iscensättningen av en alternativ maskulinitet2009In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-162Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Oh, Hans
    et al.
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change).
    Lincoln, Karen D
    University of Southern California , Los Angeles , CA , USA.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Fundació Sant Joan de Deu , Barcelona , Spain / CIBERSAM , Madrid , Spain.
    Allergies, infections, and psychiatric disorders among Black Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life2022In: Ethnicity and Health, ISSN 1355-7858, E-ISSN 1465-3419, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: An emerging body of literature shows that allergies and infections are associated with psychiatric disorders, though there is little research to confirm these associations among Black Americans in the United States. Design: We analyzed data from the National Survey of American Life, and used multivariable logistic regression models to examine the associations between past 12-month allergies/infections and past 12-month psychiatric disorders, adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, tobacco use, lifetime diabetes, and body mass index. Results: We found that allergies/infections were associated with mood, anxiety, and eating disorders, but not alcohol or substance use disorders. We detected effect modification by ethnicity, with stronger odds for mood, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders, with no significant associations for substance use or eating disorders among Caribbean Blacks. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the importance of screening for psychiatric disorders among Black individuals complaining of allergies/infections, and the need to also treat allergies/infections among people with psychiatric disorders.

  • 20. Osby, U
    et al.
    Correia, N
    Brandt, L
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University.
    Mortality and causes of death in schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden2000In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 45, no 1-2, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of mortality for all patients with a first hospital diagnosis of schizophrenia in Stockholm County, Sweden, during 1973 to 1995 was performed, by linking the in-patient register with the national cause-of-death register. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by 5-year age classes and 5-year calendar time periods. The number of excess deaths was calculated by reducing the observed number of deaths by those expected. Our results confirmed a marked increase in mortality in schizophrenia both in males and females. Natural (somatic) causes of death was the main cause of excess deaths, with more than half of the excess deaths in females, and almost half of the excess deaths in males. Suicide was the specific cause of the largest number of excess deaths in males, while in females it was cardiovascular disease. SMRs were increased in both natural and unnatural causes of death, with 2.8 for males and 2.4 for females for all deaths, but were highest in suicide with 15.7 for males and 19.7 for females, and in unspecified violence with 11.7 for males and 9.9 for females. SMRs in suicide were especially high in young patients in the first year after the first diagnosis.

  • 21. Osby, U
    et al.
    Hammar, N
    Brandt, L
    Wicks, S
    Thinsz, Z
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University.
    Time trends in first admissions for schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis in Stockholm County, Sweden2001In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 47, no 2-3, p. 247-254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have reported decreasing time trends in first diagnosed schizophrenia patients. The aim of this: study was to analyze time trends for first admissions with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or a diagnosis of either schizophrenia or paranoid psychosis during 1978-1994 in Stockholm County, Sweden, with a population of around 1.8 million. Information about first psychiatric admission with the diagnosis schizophrenia or paranoid psychosis for residents of Stockholm County was obtained from the Swedish population-based psychiatric inpatient register. Age-adjusted average yearly changes in first hospitalization rates were estimated in a Poisson regression model. Time trends in first admission rates were calculated from 1978 to 1994, while admissions during 1971 to 1977 were observed only to eliminate later re-admissions. First admissions for schizophrenia declined by 1.9% annually for females and by 1.3% for males, while first admissions for schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis together were unchanged over the study period for both genders. Our results indicate that the incidence of schizophrenia and paranoid psychosis taken together was essentially the same over the studied time period in Stockholm County, and that the apparent decline in first admission rates for schizophrenia may be an effect of changes in clinical diagnosis over time.

  • 22.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden; Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Sweden; Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA..
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Prevalence and early risk factors for bulimia nervosa symptoms in inner-city youth: gender and ethnicity perspectives2021In: Journal of Eating Disorders, E-ISSN 2050-2974, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research on risk factors associated with bulimia nervosa symptoms (BN) in ethnic minorities has been limited. This study adds to the existing literature by providing the ethnicity- and gender-specific prevalence of BN in US inner-city youth and by exploring the longitudinal associations between a clinical level of BN and early risk factors assessed one year previously.

    METHODS: The study was conducted on a representative sample of predominantly ethnic minority youth (N = 2794; 54.1% female; age 11-16 years old (M(SD) = 12.77(1.29)); 60.0% African-American, 26.1% Hispanic American, 13.9% White). Self-reported information was obtained on BN and early risk factors (e.g., depressive and anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress, somatic complaints). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine the longitudinal associations.

    RESULTS: The 3-month BN prevalence was higher in girls (5.1%) than in boys (2.3%) (ratio 2.22:1). Significant differences in BN rates were found between White and African American students (higher in Whites), whereas Hispanic-Americans did not differ significantly from either group. Individuals with BN had significantly higher levels of early risk factors one year prior.

    CONCLUSIONS: Timely recognition of BN and associated early risk factors is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 23.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden; Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Sala Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Schwab-Stone, Mary
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Longitudinal Associations Between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Problems in Inner-City Youth: Ethnicity and Gender Perspectives.2023In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 38, no 13-14, p. 8619-8644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of agreement on whether children and adolescents with different cultural/ethnic backgrounds react to trauma in a similar fashion. This study adds to the existing literature by providing ethnicity and gender perspectives on the longitudinal associations between the degree of community violence exposure (CVE) and mental health problems in U.S. inner-city youth. The study was conducted on a representative sample of predominantly ethnic minority youth (N = 2,794; 54.1% female; age 11-16 years old (M [SD] = 12.77 [1.29]); 60.0% African-American, 26.1% Hispanic American, 13.9% White). Self-reported information was obtained on CVE in year 1 and on mental health problems (depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress, alcohol use, and conduct problems) in year 1 and year 2. Multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) were used to compare mental health problems in youth from the three ethnic groups in relation to the different degrees of CVE experienced one year prior, while controlling for their baseline mental health problem levels, age, and socio-economic status. Mental health problems in year 2 increased in a similar fashion in relation to the degree of severity of CVE in year 1 in all three ethnic groups. The interaction effects suggested a gender-specific response to CVE, where girls in the three ethnic groups reported higher levels of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to the same degree of CVE, as compared to boys. Adolescents from different ethnic backgrounds respond similarly to differing degrees of CVE with an increase in mental health problems over time. In response to a similar degree of exposure, girls tend to experience greater levels of internalizing problems than boys. Timely recognition of traumatic exposure and associated mental health problems is important for early prevention and intervention strategies.

  • 24.
    Saunderson, Jonathan Marshall
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stickley, Andrew
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Department of Preventive Intervention for Psychiatric Disorders, National Institute of Mental Health, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sturidsson, Knut
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Division of Psychology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koposov, Roman
    Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.
    Sukhodolsky, Denis G
    Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Child Study Center, Yale University Medical School, New Haven, CT, USA; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Division of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Säter Forensic Psychiatric Clinic, Säter, Sweden.
    Posttraumatic Stress and Perceived Interpersonal Provocation in Adolescents2023In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 38, no 3-4, p. 3191-3214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine the impact of posttraumatic stress on the choice of responses to and attribution of intentionality in peer provocation in adolescent boys and girls. Methods: A sample of 2678 adolescents from Northern Russia, aged 13-17 years (59.3% female; 95.7% ethnic Russian) completed self-reports on posttraumatic stress and rated hypothetical peer provocation scenarios that teenagers can encounter in their daily lives. Results: Adolescents with clinically significant levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (n=184 (6.8%)) reported a different pattern of reactions to peer provocation as compared to all other adolescents. Boys and girls with high levels of posttraumatic symptoms reported that they would be less likely to discuss conflict situations and more likely to react with physical aggression. Compared to their male counterparts, girls with high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were more likely to endorse hostile intentions, avoid provocations, and were less likely to endorse verbally aggressive responses. In provocation scenarios that involved physical aggression, girls with high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were less likely to endorse verbal aggressive responses and more likely to endorse physically aggressive responses than girls without clinically significant levels of posttraumatic symptoms. Girls with high levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms were also more likely to avoid socially aggressive situations than non-traumatized girls, whereas boys had an opposite pattern. Conclusions: High levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms may play a significant role in the endorsement of aggressive reactions in conflicts with peers and patterns of reactions may be gender-specific. A history of posttraumatic stress should be carefully evaluated in children and adolescents seeking treatment for aggressive behavior.

  • 25.
    Schröder, Sara
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Att besegra de inre demonerna: en artikelserie om depressionsbehandling2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
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  • 26.
    Shor-Posner, G.
    et al.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Lecusay, Robert
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Miguez, M. J.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Moreno-Black, G.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Zhang, G. Y.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Rodriguez, N.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Burbano, X.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Baum, M.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Wilkie, F.
    Dept. of Psychiat./Behav. Sci. (D21), Division of Disease Prevention, Miami, United States.
    Psychological burden in the era of Haart: Impact of selenium therapy2003In: International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, ISSN 0091-2174, E-ISSN 1541-3527, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 55-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine the impact of nutritional (selenium) chemoprevention on levels of psychological burden (anxiety, depression, and mood state) in HIV/AIDS. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled selenium therapy (200 mug/day) trial was conducted in HIV+ drug users from 1998-2000. Psychosocial measures (STAI-State and Trait anxiety, BDI-depression, and POMS- mood state), clinical status (CD4 cell count, viral load), and plasma selenium levels were determined at baseline and compared with measurements obtained at the 12-month evaluation in 63 participants (32 men, 31 women). Results: The majority of the study participants reported elevated levels of both State (68%) and Trait (70%) anxiety. Approximately 25% reported overall mood distress (POMS > 60) and moderate depression (BDI > 20). Psychological burden was not influenced by current drug use, antiretroviral treatment, or viral load. At the 12-month evaluation, participants who received selenium reported increased vigor (p = 0.004) and had less anxiety (State, p = 0.05 and Trait, p = 0.02), compared to the placebo-treated individuals. No apparent selenium-related affect on depression or distress was observed. The risk for state anxiety was almost four times higher, and nearly nine times greater for trait anxiety in the placebo-treated group, controlling for antiretroviral therapy, CD4 cell decline (> 50 cells) and years of education. Conclusions: Selenium therapy may be a beneficial treatment to decrease anxiety in HIV+ drug users who exhibit a high prevalence of psychological burden.

  • 27.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, KodairaJapan.
    Koposov, Roman
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsö, Norway.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, USA.
    Ruchkin, Vladislav
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    ADHD and depressive symptoms in adolescents: the role of community violence exposure2019In: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, ISSN 0933-7954, E-ISSN 1433-9285, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 683-691Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Comorbid depression is common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As yet, however, little is known about the factors associated with co-occurring depression in this population. To address this research gap, the current study examined the role of community violence exposure in the association between ADHD symptoms and depression.

    METHODS: Data came from 505 Russian adolescents [mean age 14.37 (SD = 0.96)] who had teacher-reported information on ADHD symptoms that was collected in conjunction with the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA). Adolescent self-reports of witnessing and being a victim of community violence were also obtained while depressive symptoms were self-assessed with an adapted version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations.

    RESULTS: In univariable analyses, both witnessing and being a victim of violence were associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms in adolescents with ADHD symptoms compared to non-ADHD adolescents who had not experienced community violence. However, in the multivariable analysis only being a victim of violence continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for depression [odds ratio (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-16.35].

    CONCLUSION: Exposure to community violence may be associated with depression in adolescents with ADHD symptoms. Clinicians should enquire about exposure to community violence in adolescents with ADHD/ADHD symptoms. Early therapeutic interventions to address the effects of violence exposure in adolescents with ADHD may be beneficial for preventing depression in this group.

  • 28.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan / University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / Instituto de Salud Carlos III, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Takahashi, H.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA / Uppsala University.
    Inoue, Y.
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    Kamio, Y.
    National Centre for Neurology and Psychiatry (NCNP), Tokyo, Japan.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and physical multimorbidity: A population-based study2017In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 45, p. 227-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Ruchkin, V.
    Uppsala University / Yale University Medical School, New Haven, USA.
    Oh, H.
    University of Southern California, USA.
    Narita, Z.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.
    Koyanagi, A.
    Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain / nstituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid , Spain.
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population2019In: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 56, p. 91-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 

  • 30.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, LA, USA.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
    Shirama, Aya
    Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, media exposure, and psychotic experiences among Asian and Latino Americans2020In: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, ISSN 1323-1316, E-ISSN 1440-1819, Vol. 74, no 10, p. 572-573Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Stickley, Andrew
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Waldman, Kyle
    Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Ueda, Michiko
    Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Spain / ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki
    National Institute of Mental Health, Tokyo, Japan.
    Narita, Zui
    The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.
    Inoue, Yosuke
    National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
    DeVylder, Jordan E
    Fordham University, New York, USA.
    Oh, Hans
    University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Childhood neglect and suicidal behavior: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication2020In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 103, article id 104400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although child neglect is common, there has been comparatively little research on it or its specific forms and their effects on mental health in adulthood.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to different forms of childhood neglect and lifetime suicidal behavior among a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S. general population.

    METHODS: Data were analyzed from 5665 adults that were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on 'care', 'supervisory' and 'medical' neglect in childhood and lifetime suicidal behavior (ideation, plan, attempt). Lifetime psychiatric disorders were based on the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.

    RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, any neglect was associated with significantly increased odds for all forms of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, odds ratio [OR]: 1.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.29; plan, OR: 2.27, 95 % CI: 1.78-2.91; attempt, OR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.63-2.59, all p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses all individual forms of neglect were significantly associated with all forms of suicidal behavior. However, when all forms of neglect were included together in the fully adjusted models, care neglect was no longer significantly associated with any form of suicidal behavior.

    CONCLUSION: Different forms of childhood neglect are associated with suicidal behavior in adults independent of common mental disorders. Future studies should focus on childhood neglect subtypes in order to better understand the effects of neglect on adult mental health.

  • 32.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Anorexia Nervosa and the Body Uncanny: A Phenomenological Approach2013In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder that is closely related to questions of selfhood and social roles. The pursuit of excessive thinness is part of a search for identity in which the control of the body—its size and needs— becomes central. This need for control appears to be triggered by a state of bodily alienation in which the body is perceived to be foreign and horrifying to its bearer. The relentless dieting and excessive exercise pursued by the anorexic person eventually leads to a state of starvation in which the relationship of control between the person and her body becomes reversed: the body now controls the thoughts, feelings and actions of the anorexic person in an uncanny and life threatening way. In this paper an attempt is made to better understand the ways in which the body becomes alien in anorexia nervosa by way of a phenomenological analysis. The analysis is exemplified and supported by stories told by girls suffering from the illness. The aim of the paper is to show that anorexia nervosa is neither a bodily dysfunction, nor a cultural product, only. Rather, the disorder is best understood as an illness in which the autonomous nature of one’s own body becomes overwhelming in a fatal and characteristic way. The different ways of becoming bodily alienated interact in anorexia in establishing an uncanniness of the body that is both conspicuous—to people around the ill person—and hard to escape—for the person herself.

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    anorexiaSvenaeus
  • 33.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Depression and the Self: Bodily Resonance and Attuned Being-in-the-World2013In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 20, no 7-8, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the relationship between selfhood and depression, by focusing upon the lived body’s capacity to “resonate” with the world and thus open up an “attuned” space of meaning. Persons will become differently tuned in different situations because they embody different patterns of resonance—what is most often referred to as different temperaments—but the self may also suffer from idiosyncrasies in mood profile that develop into deficiencies of resonance, making the person in question ill. In many cases of depression one might describe this as a being out of tune in the sense of being oversensitive to the sad, anxious and boring tune qualities of the world. This phenomenological model allows us to describe a spectrum of various normal sensitivities which might favor certain moods over others, but also to identify pathologies, like depression, in which the body is out of tune and makes the being-in-the-world overwhelmingly unhomelike.

  • 34.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    När vi får det bättre blir vi missbrukare av dagdrömmar: Recension av Paulsens och Rücks nya böcker om ångest och olycka2020In: Respons : recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap, ISSN 2001-2292, no 6Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Psychopharmacology and the Self2013In: Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry / [ed] K. W. M Fulford et al., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 1171-1184Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Tabletter för känsliga själar: den antidepressiva revolutionen2008Book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The Body as Alien, Unhomelike and Uncanny: Some Further Clarifications2013In: Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology, ISSN 1071-6076, E-ISSN 1086-3303, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 99-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Svenaeus, Fredrik
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    The phenomenology of suffering in medicine and bioethics2014In: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, ISSN 1386-7415, E-ISSN 1573-0980, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 407-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article develops a phenomenology of suffering with an emphasis on matters relevant to medical practice and bioethics. An attempt is made to explain how suffering can involve many different things-bodily pains, inability to carry out everyday actions, and failure to realize core life values-and yet be a distinct phenomenon. Proceeding from and expanding upon analyses found in the works of Eric Cassell and Elaine Scarry, suffering is found to be a potentially alienating mood overcoming the person and engaging her in a struggle to remain at home in the face of loss of meaning and purpose in life. Suffering involves painful experiences at different levels that are connected through the suffering-mood but are nevertheless distinguishable by being primarily about (1) my embodiment, (2) my engagements in the world together with others, and (3) my core life values. Suffering is in essence a feeling (a mood), but as such, it has implications for and involves the person's entire life: how she acts in the world, communicates with others, and understands and looks upon her priorities and goals in life. Suffering-moods are typically intense and painful in nature, but they may also display a rather subconscious quality in presenting things in the world and my life as a whole in an alienating way. In such situations, we are not focused directly upon the suffering-mood-as in the cases of pain and other bodily ailments-but rather, upon the things that the mood presents to us: not only our bodies, but also other things in the world that prevent us from having a good life and being the persons we want to be. Such suffering may in many cases be transformed or at least mitigated by a person's identifying and changing her core life values and in such a manner reinterpreting her life story to become an easier and more rewarding one to live under the present circumstances.

  • 39.
    Svensson, Anna
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Inte bara piller: en artikelserie om äldredepression, om dem som drabbats och om vilken hjälp de får.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
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  • 40.
    Törning, Ulrica
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Sexualbrottslingen - monster eller människa?2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lås in pedofilerna och kasta bort nyckeln. Tvångskastrera våldtäktsmännen. Samhällets dom mot sexualbrottslingarna är hård och vägen tillbaka för många omöjlig.

    Möt sexualbrottslingen och de som arbetar med män vars handlingar väcker avsky.

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    FULLTEXT01
1 - 40 of 40
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