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  • 1.
    Bräutigam, Lars
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hillmer, Janine M.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Localized Expression of Urocortin Genes in the Developing Zebrafish rain2010In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 518, no 15, p. 2978-2995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family consists of four aralogous genes, CRH and urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3. In a previous tudy, we analyzed CRH in the teleost model organism zebrafish and its ranscript distribution in the embryonic brain. Here, we describe ull-length cDNAs encoding urotensin 1 (UTS1), the teleost UCN1 rtholog, and UCN3 of zebrafish. Major expression sites of uts1 in adult ebrafish are the caudal neurosecretory system and brain. By using T-PCR analysis, we show that uts1 mRNA is also present in ovary, aternally contributed to the embryo, and expressed throughout embryonic evelopment. Expression of ucn3 mRNA was detected in a range of adult issues and during developmental stages from 24 hours post fertilization nward. Analysis of spatial transcript distributions by whole-mount in itu hybridization revealed limited forebrain expression of uts1 and cn3 during early development. Small numbers of uts1-synthesizing eurons were found in subpallium, hypothalamus, and posterior iencephalon, whereas ucn3-positive cells were restricted to elencephalon and retina. The brainstem was the main site of uts1 and cn3 synthesis in the embryonic brain. uts1 Expression was confined to he midbrain tegmentum; distinct hindbrain cell groups, including locus oeruleus and Mauthner neurons; and the spinal cord. ucn3 Expression was ocalized to the optic tectum, serotonergic raphe, and distinct hombomeric cell clusters. The prominent expression of uts1 and ucn3 in rainstem is consistent with proposed roles of CRH-related peptides in tress-induced modulation of locomotor activity through monoaminergic rainstem neuromodulatory systems. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:2978-2995, 2010.

  • 2. Gabriel, Jens Peter
    et al.
    Mahmood, Riyadh
    Kyriakatos, Alexandros
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Calabrese, Ronald L.
    El Manira, Abdeljabbar
    Serotonergic Modulation of Locomotion in Zebrafish-Endogenous Release and Synaptic Mechanisms2009In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 29, no 33, p. 10387-10395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in shaping the activity of the spinal networks underlying locomotion in many vertebrate preparations. At larval stages in zebrafish, 5-HT does not change the frequency of spontaneous swimming; and it only decreases the quiescent period between consecutive swimming episodes. However, it is not known whether 5-HT exerts similar actions on the locomotor network at later developmental stages. For this, the effect of 5-HT on the fictive locomotor pattern of juvenile and adult zebrafish was analyzed. Bath-application of 5-HT (1-20 mu M) reduced the frequency of the NMDA-induced locomotor rhythm. Blocking removal from the synaptic cleft with the reuptake inhibitor citalopram had similar effects, suggesting that endogenous serotonin is modulating the locomotor pattern. One target for this modulation was the mid-cycle inhibition during locomotion because the IPSPs recorded in spinal neurons during the hyperpolarized phase were increased both in amplitude and occurrence by 5-HT. Similar results were obtained for IPSCs recorded in spinal neurons clamped at the reversal potential of excitatory currents (0 mV). 5-HT also slows down the rising phase of the excitatory drive recorded in spinal cord neurons when glycinergic inhibition is blocked. These results suggest that the decrease in the locomotor burst frequency induced by 5-HT is mediated by a potentiation of mid-cycle inhibition combined with a delayed onset of the subsequent depolarization.

  • 3.
    Havervall, Carolina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    CXCL13: A Prognostic Marker in Multiple Sclerosis2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the demyelinating autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) there is a great need for validated prognostic biomarkers that can give information about both prognosis and disease course. So far only clinical parameters have been shown to predict future outcome. CXCL13 is a potent B cell chemoattractant that has been suggested to be a potential biomarker candidate. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of CXCL13 as a prognostic biomarker for MS.

    Clinical, paraclinical, laboratory and MRI data about a large group of MS patients and controls were collected. CXCL13 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from these patients were determined by standard enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    In general CXCL13 were increased in CSF in MS, especially in relapsing-remitting MS during relapses, i.e. with ongoing inflammations in the central nervous system. CXCL13 is a good candidate prognostic marker for MS, since newly diagnosed MS with high CXCL13 levels showed worsened disease course within five years. Most importantly, MS conversion occurred in higher rate in possible MS patients with high concentrations of CXCL13 in CSF, and in a shorter time point. This observation may support an early treatment decision in these patients.

    In conclusion, this study provides support for an association between CXCL13 levels in the CSF and later development of disease severity in MS.

  • 4.
    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.
    et al.
    Columbia Univ, Nathan S Kline Inst Psychiat Res, Orangeburg, NY USA.
    Jakubovitz, Aaron
    Nathan S Kline Inst Psychiat Res, Orangeburg, NY 10962 USA.
    Scaramello, Nayla
    Nathan S Kline Inst Psychiat Res, Orangeburg, NY 10962 USA.
    Laukka, Petri
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen..
    Silipo, Gail
    Nathan S Kline Inst Psychiat Res, Orangeburg, NY 10962 USA.
    Javitt, Daniel C.
    Columbia Univ, Nathan S Kline Inst Psychiat Res, Orangeburg, NY USA.
    Are Schizophrenia Patients Amusical?: The Role of Pitch and Rhythm in Auditory Emotion Recognition Impairments in Schizophrenia2013In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 73, no 9, p. 18S-18SArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Tikka, Pia
    et al.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Embodied Protonarratives Embedded in Systems of Contexts: A Neurocinematic Approach2015In: Neuroscience and Media: New Understandings and Representations / [ed] Grabowski, Michael, Routledge, 2015, p. 76-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Tikka, Pia
    et al.
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    Phenomenological Considerations on Time Consciousness under Neurocinematic Search Light2014In: Cinéma & cie : international film studies journal, ISSN 2036-461X, Vol. XIV, no 22-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Film narratives are intrinsically time-dependent designs. This article proposes a model of narrative nowness, based on Husserl's concepts of retention and protention on one hand, and Francisco Varela's neurophenomenological exploration of time consciousness on the other, relating this further to narrative experience and its neural epiphenomena. Only recently has brain research been equipped with the possibility of dealing with temporal frames relevant for time consciousness in the scope of whole narratives. The study of cinema using neuroscientific methods and insights is referred to as neurocinematics. We promote neurocinematics as a complementary method of traditional film research, rather than an approach of brain sciences in general. Neurocinematic methods may provide film studies with new tools for re-evaluating established filmmaking conventions and developing new ways to study, for instance, the film viewer's experience and related aspects of time consciousness.

  • 7.
    Tikka, Pia
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland .
    Kaipainen, Mauri Y.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Media Technology.
    From naturalistic neuroscience to modeling radical embodiment with narrative enactive systems2014In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 8, p. 794-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mainstream cognitive neuroscience has begun to accept the idea of embodied mind, which assumes that the human mind is fundamentally constituted by the dynamical interactions of the brain, body, and the environment. In today’s paradigm of naturalistic neurosciences, subjects are exposed to rich contexts, such as video sequences or entire films, under relatively controlled conditions, against which researchers can interpret changes in neural responses within a time window. However, from the point of view of radical embodied cognitive neuroscience, the increasing complexity alone will not suffice as the explanatory apparatus for dynamical embodiment and situatedness of the mind. We suggest that narrative enactive systems with dynamically adaptive content as stimuli,may serve better to account for the embodied mind engaged with the surrounding world. Among the ensuing challenges for neuroimaging studies is how to interpret brain data against broad temporal contexts of previous experiences that condition the unfolding experience of nowness. We propose means to tackle this issue, as well as ways to limit the exponentially growing combinatoria of narrative paths to a controllable number.

  • 8. Tikka, Pia
    et al.
    Väljamäe, Aleksander
    de Borst, Aline
    Pugliese, Roberto
    Ravaja, Niklas
    Kaipainen, Mauri
    Södertörn University, School of Communication, Media and it, Media technology.
    Takala, Tapio
    Enactive cinema paves way for understanding complex real-time social interaction in neuroimaging experiments2012In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 6, p. 298-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline general theoretical and practical implications of what we promote as enactive cinema for the neuroscientific study of online socio-emotional interaction. In a real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) setting, participants are immersed in cinematic experiences that simulate social situations. While viewing, their physiological reactions - including brain responses - are tracked, representing implicit and unconscious experiences of the on-going social situations. These reactions, in turn, are analysed in real-time and fed back to modify the cinematic sequences they are viewing while being scanned. Due to the engaging cinematic content, the proposed setting focuses on living-by in terms of shared psycho-physiological epiphenomena of experience rather than active coping in terms of goal-oriented motor actions. It constitutes a means to parametrically modify stimuli that depict social situations and their broader environmental contexts. As an alternative to studying the variation of brain responses as a function of a priori fixed stimuli, this method can be applied to survey the range of stimuli that evoke similar responses across participants at particular brain regions of interest.

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