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  • 1. Aareleid, Tiiu
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Rahu, Mati
    Baburin, Aleksei
    Lung cancer in Estonia in 1968-87: time trends and public health implications.1994In: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 0959-8278, E-ISSN 1473-5709, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 419-425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia were studied for 20 years (1968-87). A steady upward trend was observed for men and women. The 1983-87/1968-72 age-standardized incidence rate ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.29) in men and 1.34 (95% CI 1.16-1.54) in women. The corresponding mortality rate ratio was 1.26 (95% CI 1.18-1.34) in men and 1.35 (95% CI 1.16-1.57) in women. The age-specific incidence and mortality rates increased clearly towards the younger birth cohorts. For men and women, the increase was most evident for the age group 45-64 years. In women there was a more rapid increase in incidence and mortality than in men. It may be a result of a substantial increase of tobacco smoking, particularly among women, after the World War II. The high and still rising occurrence of lung cancer is closely related to the high prevalence of smoking; in addition, high tar yields in domestic cigarettes could have been responsible for an elevated lung cancer risk during the past decades. There is not tobacco control programme in Estonia, and existing legislation and regulations do not defend the non-smoking population.

  • 2.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Sarkadi, Anna
    Instititutionen för kvinnors och barns hälsa vid Uppsala universitet.
    Working together: A study on co-produced parenting support services in a Swedish municipality2012In: Barn, ISSN 0800-1669, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 129-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes an evaluation of co-producing parenting support services in a rural municipalityin Sweden. The evaluation looked at the implementation process of a series of positive activities forchildren and their parents, data from the participating parents and the economy of the project.Methods included interviews, questionnaires, observations and a review of protocols, e-mails, andweb pages. Both qualitative and quantitative analytical methods were used. We identified two essentialcomponents for successful co-production: 1) The balance between the two actors (public and voluntarysector) in terms of interests, commitment and experienced positive impacts and 2) That bothactors remain within their core competencies. Parents were satisfied with the number and quality ofthe activities and reported improvement in their relationship with their child. Costs for the six sessionsprovided during the project were 1897 SEK/participant for the orienteering club and 2635 SEK/participantfor the riding club.

  • 3.
    Abdi Ali Ahmed, Yousra
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Development Studies.
    A Study on behavioral Health Interventions for Neglected tropical diseases: What is missing in current health interventions?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper understanding of the spread of NTDs but to also determine what is missing in the health interventions that are conducted in the countries affected by NTD.

    Method and theory: The method used in this paper is the theory testing approach which is the Social Cognitive Theory. Development in the 1970s by A. Badura, it’s based on the concept of interaction between personal, environmental and social factors.

    Results: The results showed that both the previous research and today’s health interventions lack the understanding of the roll social and personal factors play in the spread of NTD. They mainly target the environmental factors and medical. Therefore, the NTDs are still endemic despite the effort during many years.

  • 4. Adamsson, I
    et al.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Nord, C E
    Microbial ecology and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infections: Review2000In: Journal of chemotherapy, ISSN 1120-009X, E-ISSN 1973-9478, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 5-16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the ecological disturbances caused by four different anti-H. pylori regimens, to compare different methods for diagnosing H. pylori, and to study the genetic variability of H. pylori. The patients included in the study were all treated at the Center of Gastroenterology, Huddinge University Hospital, Karolinska Institute. All patients were H. pylori-positive before entering the study, confirmed by rapid urease test, histology, culture and urea breath test or PCR. Treatment regimens included in the study were omeprazole alone (OP), in combination with amoxicillin (OA), in combination with amoxicillin and metronidazole (OAM) and in combination with clarithromycin and metronidazole (OCM). Samples from the mouth (saliva and dental plaque), stomach (biopsies from the gastric mucosa in the corpus and in the antrum) and the intestine (feces) were collected before, during and after treatment. The oral microflora was challenged by the three treatment regimens including antimicrobial agents, with the emergence of resistant streptococci and staphylococci in the OCM group. Bacterial strains in the gastric mucosa increased in numbers during treatment in all treatment groups, probably due to the pH rise, which provides a better environment for the commensal microflora. This overgrowth was especially pronounced during treatment with omeprazole alone (OP), possibly due to the fact that a concomitant suppression exerted by the antimicrobial agents occurred in the other treatment groups. H. pylori was, on the other hand, suppressed during treatment in all treatment groups, possibly due to a direct effect of omeprazole and to the colonization resistance expressed by the normal microflora, An emergence of resistant commensal strains in the gastric mucosa was seen in the OCM and the OAM groups. The intestinal microflora was most altered in the OAM and the OCM groups, with persistent disturbances in the OCM group 4 weeks after treatment. The frequency of resistant Enterococcus spp, (OCM), Enterobacteriaceae spp, (OA and OAM) and Bacteroides spp, (OCM) was increased during and after treatment. Different detection methods for H. pylori were compared and PCR was shown to have higher sensitivity than other routine diagnostic tests. The patients in the present study seemed to be colonized with a single strain of H. pylori. Treatment failures in patients treated with OAM were caused by recrudescence. These four patients with relapsing H. pylori infection, were shown to be reinfected with the original H. pylori strain, indicating that H. pylori escapes treatment by a thus far unknown mechanism.

  • 5. Agvald-Öhman, C
    et al.
    Lund, B
    Edlund, Charlotta
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Multiresistant coagulase-negative staphylococci disseminate frequently between intubated patients in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit2004In: Critical Care, ISSN 1364-8535, E-ISSN 1466-609X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. R42-R47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction The intensive care unit is burdened with a high frequency of nosocomial infections often caused by multiresistant nosocomial pathogens. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are reported to be the third causative agent of nosocomial infections and the most frequent cause of nosocomial bloodstream infections. CoNS are a part of the normal microflora of skin but can also colonize the nasal mucosa, the lower airways and invasive devices. The main aim of the present study was to investigate colonization and the rate of cross-transmissions of CoNS between intubated patients in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Materials and methods Twenty consecutive patients, ventilated for at least 3 days, were included. Samples were collected from the upper and lower airways. All samples were cultured quantitatively and CoNS were identified by morphology and biochemical tests. A total of 199 CoNS isolates from 17 patients were genetically fingerprinted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in order to identify clones and to monitor dissemination within and between patients. Results An unexpected high number of transmission events were detected. Five genotypes were each isolated from two or more patients, and 14/20 patients were involved in at least one and up to eight probable transmission events. Conclusions A frequent transmission of CoNS was found between patients in the intensive care unit. Although transmission of bacteria does not necessarily lead to infection, it is nevertheless an indication that infection control measures can be improved.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Iqra Shahzadi
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Preventing the spread of Tuberculosis via refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants entering Sweden: A study of health communication, prevention strategies, policies and recommendations2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has for many decades witnessed a decrease of the spread of tuberculosis (TB), but between the years of 2003-2012 a new pattern has emerged with refugees carrying TB entering the country and contributing to a situation where the infection has slowly begun to spread again. The communication between the refugees and the health professionals has been inefficient, which inevitably results in fewer refugees undergoing health examinations. This in turn can lead to an increase of infections and diseases.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the current health communication between Swedish health professionals and immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees, and to give an overview of what type of health care currently exist for refugees with a high risk of TB. This is done to understand what is missing in the communication process, what has been done in order to improve the situation, and how it can be further improved in order to prevent TB. In order to fulfill the purpose of this study, a qualitative method has been used combining text analysis of interviews and secondary sources.

    This study has shown based on the interviews and secondary sources that the Swedish prevention work regarding TB is developing positively in general, but the communication between newly arrived refugees, health professionals and authorities in Sweden is lacking due to the fact that most of what is written and said in this communication process is in Swedish. This makes it difficult for the refugees to understand what is communicated and is stated as one of the main reasons why many refugees do not undergo health examinations, combined with the lack of awareness. Therefore a better functioning health communication between refugees, authorities and health professionals is required to support refugees seeking health care, as well as co-operating with health professionals to prevent the spread of not only TB but other infections and diseases in Sweden.

  • 7. Akre, O
    et al.
    Ekbom, A
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Tretli, S
    Body size and testicular cancer2000In: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, ISSN 0027-8874, E-ISSN 1460-2105, Vol. 92, no 13, p. 1093-1096Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Alam, Sadaf Sakina
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Determination of gp120 & Trx80 dependent production of hydrogen peroxide in cell free & cell-dependent systems2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen specie (ROS), is most commonly associated with oxidative stress causing cytotoxic effects on living cells. Oxidative stress has been implicated in various conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune diseases and cancer. In addition H2O2 is produced as a defense mechanism against pathogens, as being released by activated phagocytes. In recent years, H2O2 has become established as an important regulator of signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Hydrogen peroxide is generated both intracellularly and extracellularly in response to various stimuli including cytokines and growth factors. There are different mechanisms by which H2O2 is generated, facilitating signal transduction in cells; through NOX-system in miyochondria, via singlet oxygen, receptor/ligand interaction or by redox active metal ions. The HIV glycoprotein 120 (gp120) is associated with HIV dementia and it is known as a neurotoxin that causes neuronal damage. It has been proposed that free radicals may be involved in the pathogenesis caused by gp120. In addition the truncated form of thioredoxin (Trx80) is known to stimulate HIV replication in HIV infected cells, however, the exact mechanism is not known. A possible way both proteins may mediate their activity is by inducing H2O2 production. The aim of this study was to investigate H2O2 production induced by the proteins gp120 and Trx80. In order to detect H2O2 production an assay based on the fluorescent compound Amplex Red, was established. The assay was used to detect H2O2 released by gp120 and Trx80 in a cell-free environment, in a cell-system and in the presence of metal ions (copper ions) with a physiological reductant (ascorbate). We did not detect H2O2 production induced by gp120 and Trx80 respectively, using our assay, however, other ROS such as hydroxyl radicals may have been generated although they were not detectable with our method. Hence, further studies are needed in order to fully understand how gp120 and Trx80 mediate their activity.

  • 9.
    Alkemar, Gunnar
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Stockholms universitet, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ribosome and ribosomal RNA Structure: An experimental and computational analysis of expansion segments in eukaryotic ribosomal RNA2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes which incorporate amino acids into peptide chains during translational process in all types of living cells. The eukaryotic ribosome is larger compared to its prokaryotic counterpart. The size differences are due to a larger protein part and that the rRNA contains eukaryote specific expansion segments (ES). Cryo-EM reconstruction has visualized many ES on the ribosomal surface which have given clues about function and structural features. However, the secondary structures of most ES are unknown or ill defined. In this thesis, the secondary and also to a certain extent the tertiary structures of several ES are determined by using computational methods and biochemical experimental techniques. The juxtaposition of ES6 close to ES3 in the Cryo-EM image of the yeast ribosome suggested that ES3 and ES6 might interact. A computational analysis of more than 2900 sequences shows that a complementary helical region of seven to nine contiguous base pairs can form between ES3 and ES6 in almost all analyzed sequences. Biochemical in situ experiments support the proposed interaction. Secondary structure models are presented for ES3 and ES6 in 18S rRNA and ES39 in 28S rRNA, where homologous structural elements could be modeled in the experimentally analyzed ribosomes from fungi, plants and mammals. The structure models were further supported by computational methods where the ES6 structure and the ES39 structure could be formed in more than 6000 and 900 sequences respectively. A tertiary structure model of ES3 and ES6 including the helical interaction is presented. An in vitro transcribed and folded ES6 sequence differed from that observed in situ, suggesting that chaperones, ribosomal proteins, and/or the tertiary rRNA interaction could be involved in the in vivo folding of ES6. An analysis of the similarities between ES39 structures suggests that it might be under selective constraint to preserve its secondary structure.

  • 10.
    Alsterdal, Lotte
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Dilemman i omsorgsarbete: att stödja personer med funktionsnedsättningar i deras boende2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11. Aluoja, Anu
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, Sociology. Södertörn University, Department of Society and History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Shlik, Jakov
    Vasar, Veiko
    Luuk, Kersti
    Symptoms of depression in the Estonian population: prevalence, sociodemographic correlates and social adjustment2004In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12. Aluoja, Anu
    et al.
    Shlik, Jakov
    Vasar, Veiko
    Luuk, Kersti
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Development and psychometric properties of the Emotional State Questionnaire: a self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety1999In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 53, no 6, p. 443-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anxiety and depression are dimensions of emotional state that can be validly assessed with self-report measures. This article introduces a new self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety (Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q)) and presents data on its reliability and validity. The items of the EST-Q were derived from diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV and ICD-10. Thirty-three items were rated on a five-point frequency scale. The questionnaire was administered to 194 inpatients with depressive and anxiety disorders and to a population sample of 479 subjects. According to the results of factor analysis, five subscales were formed: Depression, Anxiety, Agoraphobia-Panic, Fatigue, and Insomnia. EST-Q and subscales showed acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.69-0.88). Significant differences in subscales between patients and population and across diagnostic groups confirmed the discriminant validity of the instrument. Depression, Anxiety, and Agoraphobia-Panic subscales distinguished corresponding diagnostic groups. Fatigue and Insomnia appeared to assess nonspecific psychopathology dimensions characteristic of several psychiatric disorders.

  • 13. Alvarez, J. L.
    et al.
    Kunst, A. E.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Bopp, M.
    Strand, B. H.
    Menvielle, G.
    Lundberg, O.
    Martikainen, P.
    Deboosere, P.
    Kalediene, R.
    Artnik, B.
    Mackenbach, J. P.
    Richardus, J. H.
    Educational inequalities in tuberculosis mortality in sixteen European populations2011In: The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, ISSN 1027-3719, E-ISSN 1815-7920, Vol. 15, no 11, p. 1461-1467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in tuberculosis (TB) mortality by level of education in male, female, urban and rural populations in several European countries. DESIGN: Data were obtained from the Eurothine Project, covering 16 populations between 1990 and 2003. Age- and sex-standardised mortality rates, the relative index of inequality and the slope index of inequality were used to assess educational inequalities. RESULTS: The number of TB deaths reported was 8530, with a death rate of 3 per 100000 per year, of which 73% were males. Educational inequalities in TB mortality were present in all European populations. Inequalities in TB mortality were greater than in total mortality. Relative and absolute inequalities were large in Eastern European and Baltic countries but relatively small in Southern European countries and in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Inequalities in mortality were observed among both men and women, and in both rural and urban populations. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic inequalities in TB mortality exist in all European countries. Firm political commitment is required to reduce inequalities in the social determinants of TB incidence. Targeted public health measures are called for to improve access to treatment of vulnerable groups and thereby reduce TB mortality.

  • 14.
    Ambagtsheer, Frederike
    et al.
    Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Gunnarson, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    de Jong, Jessica
    Central Division of the National Police, the Netherlands.
    Lundin, Susanne
    Lund University.
    van Balen, Linde
    Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Orr, Zvika
    The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel.
    Byström, Ingela
    Lund University.
    Weimar, Willem
    Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal: A Case Study Report2016In: Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Results and Recommendations / [ed] Frederike Ambagtsheer & Willem Weimar, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Ambagtsheer, Frederike
    et al.
    Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Gunnarson, Martin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    van Balen, Linde
    Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Ivanovski, Ninoslav
    University of St. Cyril and Methodius, Macedonia.
    Lundin, Susanne
    Lund University.
    Byström, Ingela
    Lund University.
    Weimar, Willem
    Erasmus MC University Hospital Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
    Organ Recipients who Paid for Kidney Transplantation abroad: A Report2016In: Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Results and Recommendations / [ed] Frederike Ambagtsheer & Willem Weimar, Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16. Andersen, Ronald
    et al.
    Smedby, Björn
    Vågerö, Denny
    Cost containment, solidarity and cautious experimentation: Swedish dilemmas2001In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 52, p. 1195-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses secondary data analysis and a literature review to explore a “Swedish Dilemma”: Can Sweden continue to provide a high level of comprehensive health services for all regardless of ability to pay — a policy emphasizing “solidarity” — or must it decide to impose increasing constraints on health services spending and service delivery — a policy emphasizing “cost containment?” It examines recent policies and longer term trends including: changes in health personnel and facilities; integration of health and social services for older persons; introduction of competition among providers; cost sharing for patients; dismantling of dental insurance; decentralization of government responsibility; priority settings for treatment; and encouragement of the private sector. It is apparent that the Swedes have had considerable success in attaining cost containment — not primarily through “market mechanisms” but through government budget controls and service reduction. Further, it appears that equal access to care, or solidarity, may be adversely affected by some of the system changes.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Gustaf
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Ungdomsdiabetes: ett livslångt kontrollbehov2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Arillo, Maria-Isabel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Cutting the cord: a study on maternal mortality and obstetric care in disaster settings2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines global incentives to reduce maternal mortality, namely the fifth Millenium Developmnet Goal to reduce maternal mortality with 75% by 2015. More specifically it examines maternal mortality and obstetric care in situations of emergency. When exposed to extreme situations the risks of negative pregnancy- and delivey outcomes are increased. Data was collected from seconday sources and from interviews with health staff with experiences from humanitarian work in the field. The findings were analyzed using a theoretical framework explaining maternal mortality be referring to both direct and indirect causes. The two theoretical models used in the study are similar and reminds of each other when explaining maternal mortality. One is based on the assumption that an obstetric complication has occurred and differnt delays in recieving care is the main cause maternal mortality, whilst the other theory is more in depth and elaborates the underlying causes. The first theory is used a base tto analyze the data after which the other theory is applied in order to introdue a deeper dimension to the analysis. The findings suggest that direct causes accounts for 80 per cent of all maternal deaths, homorrhage being the largest, including in disasters. Further causes are infections, unsafe abortions, eclampsia and obstructed labor. Also, underlying socail factors such as gender inequality indirectly has a negative impact on maternal mortality. Moreover, findings suggest that obstetric care is prioritized in disaster relief response.

  • 19.
    Baburin, Aleksei
    et al.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia / University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland.
    Lai, Taavi
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Centre for Health Equity Studies, Stockholm University/Karolinska Institutet.
    Avoidable mortality in Estonia: Exploring the differences in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in 2005-2007.2011In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 125, no 11, p. 754-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: A considerable increase in social inequalities in mortality was observed in Eastern Europe during the post-communist transition. This study evaluated the contribution of avoidable causes of death to the difference in life expectancy between Estonians and non-Estonians in Estonia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study.

    METHODS: Temporary life expectancy (TLE) was calculated for Estonian and non-Estonian men and women aged 0-74 years in 2005-2007. The ethnic TLE gap was decomposed by age and cause of death (classified as preventable or treatable).

    RESULTS: The TLE of non-Estonian men was 3.53 years less than that of Estonian men, and the TLE of non-Estonian women was 1.36 years less than that of Estonian women. Preventable causes of death contributed 2.19 years to the gap for men and 0.78 years to the gap for women, while treatable causes contributed 0.67 and 0.33 years, respectively. Cardiorespiratory conditions were the major treatable causes of death, with ischaemic heart disease alone contributing 0.29 and 0.08 years to the gap for men and women, respectively. Conditions related to alcohol and substance use represented the largest proportion of preventable causes of death.

    CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in health behaviours underlie the ethnic TLE gap in Estonia, rather than inequalities in access to health care or the quality of health care. Public health interventions should prioritize primary prevention aimed at alcohol and substance use, and should be implemented in conjunction with wider social policy measures.

  • 20. Bergander, L
    et al.
    Wahlström, Niklas
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Alsberg, T
    Bergman, Jan
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Rannug, A
    Rannug, U
    Characterization of in vitro metabolites of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR.2003In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 233-241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tryptophan photoproduct 6-formylindolo[3,2-b] carbazole (FICZ) exhibits the highest aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) binding affinity reported so far. In different cells, in vitro, both extracts of UV-irradiated tryptophan and the synthesized pure compound FICZ induce a rapid and transient expression of AhR-regulated genes. The transient induction suggests that the biotransformation gene battery induced by AhR activation takes part in a metabolic degradation of the ligand, whereby a low steady-state level is regained. The down-regulation of AhR-regulated gene expression was previously shown to be dependent on cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). Metabolism of FICZ generates five major metabolites, which appeared as three peaks (M1-M3) in the high performance liquid chromatography. The aim of the present study was to use rat liver S9 from Aroclor-pretreated rats to produce large enough quantities of FICZ metabolites for structure characterization and to determine their product precursor relationship. NMR analysis of large combined fractions of the metabolites indicated that M3 and M2 contained 2 isomers, respectively. By means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (negative ion electrospray mode) and NMR spectroscopy (by H-1-NMR, correlation spectroscopy, and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy techniques) five metabolites of FICZ were identified, and their structures were elucidated. The molecular weights of the two M3 isomers were 300 and both M2 and M1 compounds demonstrated molecular weights of 316, corresponding to addition of one (M3) and of two oxygen (M2 and M1), respectively. The structures were assigned as 2- and 8-hydroxy (M3), 2,10- and 4,8-dihydroxy (M2) and 2,8-dihydroxy derivatives of indolo[3,2-b] carbazole-6-carboxaldehyde (6-formylindolo[ 3,2-b] carbazole).

  • 21.
    Bergfeldt, Vendela
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Microbes that never sleep: A multidisciplinary study of the antibiotic resistance management in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hypotheses of this study are that reduction and rational usage of antibiotics reduces development of antibiotic resistance. In Sweden, the trends do not follow this pattern. Despite a decrease in prescriptions of antibiotics, there is an increase in the number of patients infected with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA), Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) and ESBL selecting for carbapenem-resistance (ESBLCARBA). This study aims to study factors affecting antibiotic resistance management. An additional aim is to use a multidisciplinary approach for a subject that has mostly been studied with quantitative methods. First, linear regressions investigated any possible significant changes of prescription rates in outpatient care, hospital usage of antibiotic groups and antibiotic resistance. After this, nine interviews were conducted with physicians in outpatient care, hospital care and with representatives from the Swedish Strategic Programme for the Rational Use of Antimicrobial Agents and Surveillance of Resistance (Strama), a network working for Swedish prevention against antibiotics resistance. There was a significant decrease in the number of prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care among all Swedish counties and a small, but significant increase of antibiotics used in hospitals. The number of patients infected with multidrug resistant bacteria also show a significant increase. The interviews revealed that health care workers in all counties follow the same guidelines and try to be as specific as possible in choosing antibiotics to hit specific bacteria. The respondents suggested migration and extended travelling as explanations to the growing number of cases of multidrug resistant bacteria. Further, two major factors emerged as important for an efficient antibiotic resistance management; Education/knowledge and Discussion. The results indicate a need for further research on rational usage of antibiotics and the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in hospital care, rather than the reduction through prescriptions. The results indicate that rational usage has a bigger impact than reduction. Using a multidisciplinary approach gave a broader perspective on the issue and future studies should see the possibilities of mixing quantitative and qualitative studies.

  • 22. Bergström, R.
    et al.
    Sparén, Pär
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 4, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition). Karolinska Institute.
    Adami, H. -O
    Trends in cancer of the cervix uteri in Sweden following cytological screening1999In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trends in cervical cancer incidence following the introduction of screening have mostly been studied using cross-sectional data and not analysed separately for squamous cell cancer and adenocarcinomas. Using Swedish nationwide data on incidence and mortality, we analysed trends during more than 3 decades and fitted Poisson-based age-period-cohort models, and also investigated whether screening has reduced the incidence of adenocarcinomas of the cervix. The incidence of reported cancer in situ increased rapidly during 1958-1967. Incidence rates of squamous cell cancer, fairly stable before 1968, decreased thereafter by 4-6% yearly in women aged 40-64, with a much smaller magnitude in younger and older women. An age-cohort model indicated a stable 70-75% reduction in incidence for women born 1940 and later compared with those born around 1923. The incidence of adenocarcinomas doubled during the 35-year study period. The mortality rate increased by 3.6% before 1968 and decreased by 4.0% yearly thereafter. Although a combination of organized and opportunistic screening can reduce the incidence of squamous cell cancer substantially, the incidence of adenocarcinomas appears uninfluenced by screening.

  • 23.
    Björk, Ragnar
    Södertörn University College, School of Gender, Culture and History, History.
    Nobelsystemet: Karolinska institutet och Nobelpriset i medicin till Hugo Theorell 19552007In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648, p. 43-62Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Björkehag, Jonathan
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Seglare, Kristin
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Innovationssystem för medicinsk teknik i Stockholm: En undersökning av centrala omständigheter för organisatorisk samverkan2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction In order to foster innovation of medical devices within the healthcare sector, a collaboration project, PUSH, has been initiated including the hospitals managed by the Stockholm County Council. The collaboration aims to capture ideas from employees and turn them into so called “high-practice” products as well as facilitate the possibilities for medical device companies to try out their products in the settings of healthcare. Collaborations for innovation, comparable to the PUSH project, can be found in both Swedish and foreign regions, but some of them fail to survive due to obstacles affecting the progress of each collaboration. Avoiding the same destiny will be a challenge to the PUSH project.

    Purpose The purpose is to search for factors affecting organizational collaboration concerning innovation systems for medical device development. The study is focusing on ”high-practice” products within the PUSH project.

    Theoretical approach In order to emphasize factors affecting innovation, theories regarding innovation systems, clusters and networks has been studied hence they  all concern organizational collaboration.

    Method The study’s qualitative approach is based on a semi deductive method. The analysis derives from a deductive outlook consistent with chosen theories, whereas collected data is used inductively to stress and enlarge part of the theoretical framework. Semi structured interviews, earlier research and evaluations constitutes most of the collected data.

    Results and analysis Experience from collaborations for innovation shows that some affecting factors can’t be influenced by collaborators, as political decisions and medical device directives. Collaborators can however affect circumstances such as connections and networking, which is significant to manage the innovation process; from idea to commercialization. An explicit focus on commercialization is important to the collaboration project’s surviving opportunities. A central cause why innovation projects don’t last is lack of funding, both for commercializing certain products as well as for retaining and developing existing innovation structures.

    Conclusion Collaborating projects should utilize existing structures and complement their networks to involve extensive competency. Decision makers need to decide whether innovation ventures shall be part of the County Council’s assignment. To fulfil the visions of the collaboration project, a policy common to all participants in the forthcoming innovation project needs to be stated, regarding ownership relations, risk sharing, funding and sharing of profits.

  • 25.
    Björkehag, Jonathan
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Seglare, Kristin
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Karolinska Testbädd för Telemedicin och eHälsa: En analys av medicintekniska företags behov och krav på en samverkansmiljö för produktutveckling på Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to study the demand for a testbed for telemedicine and to analyze the medical device-developing companies’ requirements on the testbed’s facilities when collaborating with the healthcare sector in their product development. The study’s aim is to result in a commercialization plan for Karolinska Testbed for telemedicine and eHealth, at the department of Biomedical Engineering at Karolinska University Hospital. During the study, 19 interviews and 6 telephone-interviews has been held with people from the medical device industry, hospitals, potential funders and collaboration structures which foster medical device development. A web-survey has been sent to 279 companies within the fields of medical technologies, IT and telecom, to quantify the results from the interviews.

    The study describes how the clinical research on medical technologies has changed over the last decades and what the situation is like today. Present and forthcoming challenges to the Swedish health care system is presented, like demographic changes, increasing healthcare-costs, expensive treatments and the scarcity of medical device innovations being commercialized. Obstacles affecting the medical device development are studied, including the regulatory differences between IT and medical devices. An analysis of the research on product and service development is also looked at from the perspectives on how the medical device companies develop their products, which is derived from both interviews and the web-survey.

    The result shows that medical device companies rely upon the ability to collaborate with the hospitals in different phases of their product development process and that there is an extensive need for a testbed structure amongst companies. The companies that collaborate with hospitals do it primarily because it makes their products more adaptive to functioning in the settings of healthcare, time to market and development costs can be decreased and it facilitates the process when validating the functionality of their products. Several companies have their ways of collaborating with hospital wards whilst others explicitly lack indispensable collaboration structures. The study has identified some companies which have shown interest in collaborating with Testbed Karolinska for telemedicine and eHealth and other ones whom wish to receive more information on what the testbed can offer them. In the commercialization plan it is suggested that Karolinska Testbed for telemedicine and eHealth shall focus on their niche and elaborate the competency which the companies doesn’t have. It is also suggested that the Testbed continues the work with developing the internal organization within Karolinska to enable efficient, flexible and qualitative collaboration between companies and the clinics at Karolinska University Hospital.

  • 26.
    Bonds, Olivia
    Södertörn University College, School of Discourse Studies.
    Mobbning: ur flera perspektiv2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns elever som trycker ner andra i sin omgivning. När det är dags för rast finns det de som säger ”vad äcklig du är” och skrattar åt sin jämnåriga skolkamrat. Samtidigt sprider sig nya tekniker som gör skolan ännu mer försvarslös mot mobbning än tidigare. Inte ens i det egna hemmet kan ett barn vara garanterad att få slippa sin plågoande. Vad är egentligen mobbning? Hur tänker en mobbare? Och hur ser en vanlig skolmiljö ut år 2007?

  • 27. Brooks, Andrew J
    et al.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University College, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Criswell, Erin
    Jans, David A
    Vasudevan, Subhash G
    The Interdomain Region of Dengue NS5 ProteinInteracts with NS3 and Host Proteins2002In: Dengue Bulletin, ISSN 1020-895X, Vol. 26, p. 155-161Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although dengue virus genome replication occurs in the cytoplasm of infected cells, it has been shown that the NS5 protein (RNA-dependent RNA polymerase) is hyperphosphorylated at a late stage in infection and localized to the cell nucleus. A 37 amino acid sequence of NS5 (residues 369-405) was shown to contain a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) that interacted with the cellular nuclear transport factor, importin α/β heterodimer. Further studies using the yeast two-hybrid system revealed that the NS5 region (residues 320-368) immediately adjacent to the NLS contained an importin β-binding site that abuts or overlaps the binding site for the NS3 protein (protease/helicase). The importin β-binding site has also been shown to be a functional NLS (bNLS). Intriguingly, when both bNLS and NLS (residues 320-405) were present, the fused β -galactosidase protein did not accumulate in the nucleus. Here we provide a review of our studies on the NS5 interdomain region and compare it to other members of the Flavivirus genus in order to highlight the importance of this region as a possible target for developing broad-acting antiviral agent against dengue and other mechanistically-related viruses.

  • 28. Brooks, Andrew J
    et al.
    Johansson, Magnus
    James Cook University.
    John, Anna V
    Xu, Yibin
    Jans, David A
    Vasudevan, Subhash G
    The interdomain region of dengue NS5 protein that binds to the viral helicase NS3 contains independently functional importin beta 1 and importin alpha/beta-recognized nuclear localization signals.2002In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 277, no 39, p. 36399-36407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dengue virus NS5 protein is a multifunctional RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that is essential for virus replication. We have shown previously that the 37- amino acid interdomain spacer sequence (residues (369)X(2)KKX(14)KKKX(11)RKX(3)405) of Dengue2 NS5 contains a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS). In this study, beta-galactosidase fusion proteins carrying point mutations of the positively charged residues or truncations of the interdomain linker region (residues 369-389 or residues 386-405) were analyzed for nuclear import and importin binding activities to show that the N-terminal part of the linker region (residues 369-389, a/bNLS) is critical for nuclear localization and is recognized with high affinity by the conventional NLS-binding importin alpha/beta heterodimeric nuclear import receptor. We also show that the importin beta-binding site (residues 320-368, bNLS) adjacent to the a/bNLS, previously identified by yeast two-hybrid analysis, is functional as an NLS, recognized with high affinity by importin beta, and able to target beta-galactosidase to the nucleus. Intriguingly, the bNLS is highly conserved among Dengue and related flaviviruses, implying a general role for the region and importin beta in the infectious cycle.

  • 29.
    Bräutigam, Lars
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hillmer, Janine M.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Söll, Iris
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Hauptmann, Giselbert
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Localized Expression of Urocortin Genes in the Developing Zebrafish rain2010In: Journal of Comparative Neurology, ISSN 0021-9967, E-ISSN 1096-9861, Vol. 518, no 15, p. 2978-2995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) family consists of four aralogous genes, CRH and urocortins (UCNs) 1, 2, and 3. In a previous tudy, we analyzed CRH in the teleost model organism zebrafish and its ranscript distribution in the embryonic brain. Here, we describe ull-length cDNAs encoding urotensin 1 (UTS1), the teleost UCN1 rtholog, and UCN3 of zebrafish. Major expression sites of uts1 in adult ebrafish are the caudal neurosecretory system and brain. By using T-PCR analysis, we show that uts1 mRNA is also present in ovary, aternally contributed to the embryo, and expressed throughout embryonic evelopment. Expression of ucn3 mRNA was detected in a range of adult issues and during developmental stages from 24 hours post fertilization nward. Analysis of spatial transcript distributions by whole-mount in itu hybridization revealed limited forebrain expression of uts1 and cn3 during early development. Small numbers of uts1-synthesizing eurons were found in subpallium, hypothalamus, and posterior iencephalon, whereas ucn3-positive cells were restricted to elencephalon and retina. The brainstem was the main site of uts1 and cn3 synthesis in the embryonic brain. uts1 Expression was confined to he midbrain tegmentum; distinct hindbrain cell groups, including locus oeruleus and Mauthner neurons; and the spinal cord. ucn3 Expression was ocalized to the optic tectum, serotonergic raphe, and distinct hombomeric cell clusters. The prominent expression of uts1 and ucn3 in rainstem is consistent with proposed roles of CRH-related peptides in tress-induced modulation of locomotor activity through monoaminergic rainstem neuromodulatory systems. J. Comp. Neurol. 518:2978-2995, 2010.

  • 30. Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Avdelning 1, Centre for Studies in Practical Knowledge.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Smedman, Lars
    Barnadödlighet, fattigdom och sanitära reformer: Stockholm 1878-19252003In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 209-215Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Macassa, Gloria
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Institutionen för medier, konst och filosofi.
    Bernhardt, Eva
    Smedman, Lars
    Equitable child health interventions: the impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925.2005In: American Journal of Public Health, ISSN 0090-0036, E-ISSN 1541-0048, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many of the 10 million childhood deaths each year are caused by diseases of poverty--diarrhea and pneumonia, for example, which were previously major causes of childhood death in many European countries. Specific analyses of the historical decline of child mortality may shed light on the potential equity impact of interventions to reduce child mortality. In our study of the impact of improved water and sanitation in Stockholm from 1878 to 1925, we examined the decline in overall and diarrhea mortality among children, both in general and by socioeconomic group. We report a decline in overall mortality and of diarrhea mortality and a leveling out of socioeconomic differences in child mortality due to diarrheal diseases, but not of overall mortality. The contribution of general and targeted policies is discussed.

  • 32. Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication.
    The dialectics of childhood diarrhea mortality2006In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 481-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in European countries a century ago, diarrhea is a major cause of child mortality in poor countries today. In Stockholm at the turn of the 19th century, political commitment, infrastructural investments in water and sanitation, and enforcement of sanitary improvements by a strong implementing organization helped eliminate diarrhea as a principal cause of death among children. These interventions also had an equitable impact on social class differences in diarrhea mortality, but not on overall mortality; overall mortality declined, but class differences remained. General infrastructural improvement and health education coupled with targeted interventions to vulnerable children may be successful in improving child health and reducing social differentials in mortality. Specific health care interventions may need to be complemented by infrastructural investments to improve water and sanitation if diarrhea mortality is to be further reduced in poor countries today.

  • 33. Burström, Bo
    et al.
    Öberg, Lisa
    Södertörn University, Lärarutbildningen.
    Smedman, Lars
    Policy measures and the survival of foster infants in Stockholm 1878-19252012In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 56-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: At the end of the 19th century, infant mortality was high in urban and rural areas in Sweden. In Stockholm, the mortality rate was particularly high among foster children. This study addresses the importance for health of targeted public policies and their local implementation in the reduction of excess mortality among foster children in Stockholm at the turn of the 19th century. In response to public concern, a law was passed in 1902 on inspections of foster homes. Stockholm city employed a handful of inspectors who visited foster homes and advised parents on child care and feeding. METHODS: Analysis of historical records from the City of Stockholm was combined with epidemiological analysis of mortality rates and hazard ratios on individual-level data for 112 746 children aged <1 year residing in one part of Stockholm between 1878 and 1925. Hazard ratios of mortality were calculated using Cox' regression analysis. RESULTS: Mortality rates of foster infants exceeded 300/1000 before 1903. Ten years later the mortality rates among foster children had declined and were similar to other children born in and out of wedlock. Historical accounts and epidemiological analysis of individual-level data over a longer time period showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted policy measures to foster children may have potentiated the positive health effects of other universal policies, such as improved living conditions, clean water and sanitation for the whole population in the city, contributing to an equalization of mortality rates between different groups.

  • 34.
    Carlson, Per
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Relatively poor, absolutely ill?: A study of regional income inequality in Russia and its possible health consequences2005In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study objective: To investigate whether the income distribution in a Russian region has a "contextual" effect on individuals' self rated health, and whether the regional income distributions are related to regional health differences. Methods: The Russia longitudinal monitoring survey (RLMS) is a survey (n = 7696) that is representative of the Russian population. With multilevel regressions both individual as well as contextual effects on self rated health were estimated. Main results: The effect of income inequality is not negative on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. When inequality levels are high, however, there is a tendency for men's health to be negatively affected. Regional health differences among men are in part explained by regional income differences. On the other hand, women do not seem to be affected in the same way, and individual characteristics like age and educational level seem to be more important. Conclusions: It seems that a rise in income inequality has no negative effect on men's self rated health as long as the level of inequality is not very great. On the other hand, when inequality levels are higher a rise tends to affect men's health negatively. A curvilinear relation between self rated health and income distribution is an interesting hypothesis. It could help to explain the confusing results that arise when you look at countries with a high degree of income inequality (USA) and those with lower income inequality (for example, Japan and New Zealand).

  • 35.
    Carlson, Per
    Stockholms universitet.
    Self-rated health in East and West Europe: Another European health divide?2000In: Self-rated health in a European perspective / [ed] Nilsson P, Orth-Gomér K, Stockholm: Forskningsrådsnämnden , 2000, p. 77-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Carlson, Per
    Statens Folkhälsoinstitut.
    Socialt kapital och psykisk hälsa2007Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Corbishley, Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Education.
    Livlina: Att hålla balansen mellan erfarenheten, livet och döden i omvårdnadsarbetet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna vetenskapliga essä ämnar jag utforska mina erfarenheter som sjuksköterska och relationen till uppkomsten av praktisk kunskap utifrån en hermeneutiskt –fenomenologiskt perspektiv. Genom gestaltning av patientmöten där jag känt osäkerhet i mitt handlande vill belysa hur konfrontation med svår sjukdom och död utmanat och utvecklat min praktiska kunskap från nyexaminerad till mer erfaren sjuksköterska i onkologisk och palliativ vård. Jag återkopplarmin egen process mot omvårdnadsteoretikern Patricia Benners vetenskapligt beprövade inlärningsmodell ” Från novis till expert” samt filosofen John Deweys text ” Att göra en erfarenhet”. Genom reflektionen utforskar jag betydelsen av livserfarenhet för min yrkesutövning. Min slutsats är att erfarenhet och praktisk kunskap inom omvårdnad är alltför komplexa begrepp för att rymmas inom en linjär inlärningsmodell.

  • 38.
    Cortobius Fredriksson, Moa
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    ProBenefit: Implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity in the Ecuadorian Amazon2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Legislation on benefit sharing dates back to 1992 and the commandment of the UNConvention on Biological Diversity, hence implementation still has few cases to fall back on(CBD, 1992). The case study of the project ProBenefit presented by the thesis highlights howlack of deliberation can undermine a democratic process. The objective of the thesis is thatProBenefit’s attempt to implement the standards of the CBD on access and benefit sharingwill highlight not only problems met by this specific project, but difficulties that generallymeet democratic processes in contexts of high inequality. To define if the project ProBenefitsucceeded in carrying out a deliberative process the project will be analyzed by the criteria:access to information, representation, legitimacy and involvement.The population in the project area of ProBenefit had a long history of social marginalization,which made it hard for foreign projects to gain legitimacy. The lack of independentorganizations and the late establishment of the project, which resulted in time shortage, madeit impossible to prevent the distrust of the local population. The failure of the projectcoordinators to ensure active participation of all stakeholders resulted in a late and lowinvolvement of the local participants. The absence of independent organization also madedemocratic legitimacy of the process questionable. Even if ProBenefit had a vision ofdemocratic deliberation the project was unable to break down the prevailing unequal powerdistribution which resulted in an unsustainable process and failure. The conclusion of thethesis is that the attainment of deliberation foremost depends on how a project deals with theexisting distribution of power and how it succeeds in involving all stakeholders.

  • 39.
    Cuypers, Koenraad Frans
    et al.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway.
    Skjei Knudtsen, Margunn
    Nord-Trøndelag County Council, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Sandgren, Maria
    Södertörn University, School of Culture and Communication, Psychology.
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Levanger, Norway.
    Wikström, Britt Maj
    Akerhus University, Lilleström, Norway.
    Theorell, Töres
    Stockholm University.
    Cultural activities and public health: research in Norway and Sweden. An overview2011In: Arts and Health, ISSN 1753-3015, E-ISSN 1753-3023, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 6-26Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Demir, Daniel
    et al.
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    John, Joshua
    Södertörn University College, School of Business Studies.
    Lojalitet på en biografmarknad2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Biografmarknaden är i dagsläget i en situation där marknadsledaren har en monopolliknande ställning. Detta påverkar i hög grad de mindre biografernas existens då man inte kan konkurrera på samma villkor. Detta i sin tur leder till att biografbesökarna försvinner till de större biograferna med större produktutbud. Mindre biografer måste hitta nya lösningar för att kunna behålla sina kunder på en konkurrensutsatt marknad. Denna uppsats tar därför upp vilka faktorer som är viktiga för att kunna skapa lojala och återkommande kunder. 

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att göra en fallstudie för att analysera och utvärdera två stora och en liten biograf. Detta sker genom enkätundersökningar av biografbesökarna på de tre olika biograferna som är Heron City, Kistabiografen och Roxybiografen.

    Denna uppsats är skriven utifrån den mindre biografen Roxybiografens perspektiv för att se vilka faktorer som skapar lojala biografbesökare. Uppsatsen använder sig av en fallstudie för att skapa en stor förståelse och inblick för objektets situation.

    Det som framkommit av studien är att en mindre biograf måste differentiera sig genom att erbjuda något annat än vad konkurrenterna gör vilket är grundläggande för att en liten biograf ska överleva.

    Som underlag till denna undersökning ligger teorin involvement theory och marknadsföringsstrategier som kostnadsöverlägsenhet, differentiering och fokusering.

  • 41.
    Dravins, Christina
    et al.
    The National Agency for Special Needs Education and Schools.
    Besouw, Rachel van
    ISVR, University of Southampton.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Kuške, Sandra
    Latvian Children's Hearing Centre.
    Exploring and enjoying non-speech sounds through a cochlear implant: The therapy of music2010In: 11th International Conference on Cochlear Implants and other Implantable Technologies: Stockholm Sweden, June 30-July 3, 2010, Stockholm: Karolinska University Hospital , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cochlear implant technology was initially designed to promote reception of speech sounds; however, music enjoyment remains a challenge. Music is an influential ingredient in our well-being, playing an important role in our cognitive, physical and social development. For many cochlear implant recipients it is not feasible to communicate how sounds are perceived, and consequently the benefits of music listening may be reduced. Non-speech sounds may also be important to persons with multiple functional deficits that relay on information additional to verbatim for participating in communication. Deaf-born children with multiple functional deficits constitute a special vulnerable group as lack of reaction to sound often is discouraging to caregivers. Individually adapted tools and methods for sound awareness may promote exploration and appreciation of the information mediated by the implant. Two current works involving habilitation through sound production and music will be discussed. First, the results from a pilot study aiming at finding musical toys that can be adapted to help children explore their hearing with engaging sounds and expressive interfaces will be presented. The findings indicate that children with multiple functional deficits can be more inclined to use the auditory channel for communication and play than the caregivers would anticipate. Second, the results of a recent questionnaire study, which compared the music exposure and appreciation of preschool cochlear implant recipients with their normally hearing peers will be presented. The data from this study indicate that preschool children with cochlear implants spend roughly the same amount of time interacting with musical instruments at home and watching television programmes and DVDs which include music. However, the data indicate that these children receive less exposure to recorded music without visual stimuli and show less sophisticated responses to music. The provision and supported use of habilitation materials which encourage interaction with music might therefore be beneficial.

  • 42.
    Dvorák, Martin
    et al.
    Masaryk University, Brno.
    Smrzova, Jana
    www.nefrologie.eu: Building an Electronic Source of Information on the Principles of Andragogy2010In: Alternativni metody vyuky 2010, Prague, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cooperation between a patient and their physician represents a pre-requisite for successful treatment. Provided the patient is well-informed and willing to cooperate, their illness turns out to progress more slowly and, as a result, they usually live longer than the one who is not as they are more likely to take precautions against medical complications associated with it. Moreover, the quality of such a person’s life is higher and treatment less expensive.The nefrologie.eu portal aims to educate patients, their relatives and other people interested in the area of kidney diseases. Apart from the provision of information on how to prevent and alleviate kidney-related disorders, the portal conducts a perpetual needs analysis thereby ensuring it is the areas that interest patients most that are widely covered by it. In this respect, it also serves as a needs analysis tool for doctors to monitor the fields patients most frequently lack information about allowing them to pinpoint and focus on these during their sessions with their own patients.As the counseling section comprises answers to the questions (800 up to now) the visitors (more than 200 a day) have posted via the site and thus contains concrete information relevant to the individual visitors’ past, present and future lives, its educational impact is facilitated through the personalization factor. What also contributes to the efficiency of the educational process is the fact the information is presented through multiple presentation channels and thus ensures sufficient repetitions and variations on themes.The paper also discusses other principles of andragogy that appear crucial in building a publicly available electronic information source targeting medical education of adults.

  • 43.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Alvan, G
    Barkholt, L
    Vacheron, F
    Nord, C E
    Pharmacokinetics and comparative effects of telithromycin (HMR 3647) and clarithromycin on the oropharyngeal and intestinal microflora2000In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 741-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pharmacokinetics in plasma and saliva of a new ketolide, telithromycin (HMR 3647), and the effect on the normal oropharyngeal and intestinal microflora were studied in healthy volunteers and compared with those of clarithromycin. Ten subjects received 800 mg telithromycin perorally once daily and 10 other subjects received 500 mg clarithromycin bid for 10 days. Blood, saliva and faecal specimens were collected at defined intervals before, during and after administration for pharmacokinetic and microbiological analyses. In subjects receiving telithromycin, the mean C(max), AUC and C(24) (24 h) in saliva exceeded the values obtained from plasma, while saliva and serum pharmacokinetic parameters were in the same range for the clarithromycin group. The quantitative ecological disturbances in the normal microflora during administration of telithromycin were moderate and comparable to those associated with clarithromycin administration. No overgrowth of yeasts or Clostridium difficile occurred. Emergence of resistant strains was seen in both treatment groups. Administration of both telithromycin and clarithromycin was associated with significant increases in MICs for intestinal Bacteroides isolates, which persisted 2 weeks after discontinuation of treatment. In addition, a significant emergence of highly clarithromycin-resistant a-haemolytic streptococci, intestinal enterococci and Enterobacteriaceae was detected at day 10 in the clarithromycin group. In conclusion, administration of telithromycin resulted in high drug levels in saliva, which indicates a good therapeutic profile for throat infections. Telithromycin seems to have a more favourable ecological profile compared with clarithromycin in terms of resistance development in the normal microflora.

  • 44.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Beyer, G.
    Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Hiemer-Bau, M.
    Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Ziege, S.
    Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Lode, H.
    Free University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Nord, C. E.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Comparative effects of moxifloxacin and clarithromycin on the normal intestinal microflora2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 81-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve healthy male subjects age range 24-40 y participated in the investigation. The trial was divided into 2 35-d periods. The 2 treatment regimens were: (i) 1 x 400 mg moxifloxacin tablet in the morning and 1 placebo tablet in the evening for 7 d; and (ii) 1 x 500 mg clarithromycin tablet in the morning and 1 x 500 mg clarithromycin tablet in the evening for 7 d. Each subject received firstly 1 treatment regimen and secondly the other treatment regimen. The wash-out period was 6 weeks between the two treatment regimens. Moxifloxacin caused significant decreases of enterococci and enterobacteria during the administration period while the numbers of staphylococci, streptococci, Bacillus and Candida were not affected. No impact on peptostreptococci, lactobacilli, Veillonella, Bacteroides or fusobacteria was observed, while bifidobacteria and clostridia decreased during moxifloxacin administration. The microflora was normalized after 35 d. Clarithromycin caused significant reduction of Escherichia coli while the numbers of enterococci, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas increased markedly. No significant changes in the numbers of staphylococci, streptococci, Bacillus and Candida were noticed. In the anaerobic microflora bifidobacteria, lactobacilli and clostridia were suppressed, while no changes in peptostreptococci, Veillonella, Bacteroides and fusobacteria were found. The microflora was normalized in all volunteers after 35 d.

  • 45.
    Ellencrona, Karin
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Syed, Asim
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry.
    Flavivirus NS5 associates with host-cell proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis-2 (RIMS2) via an internal PDZ binding mechanism2009In: Biological chemistry (Print), ISSN 1431-6730, E-ISSN 1437-4315, Vol. 390, no 4, p. 319-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dengue virus (DENV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses, which can cause lethal hemorrhagic fever and encephalitis, respectively. Here, we demonstrate that the TBEV-NS5 and DENV-NS5 proteins use an internal binding mechanism to target human PDZ proteins. TBEV-NS5 has high affinity to regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis-2 (RIMS2) and Scribble, whereas DENV-NS5 binds primarily to the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). Targeting of TBEV-NS5 to the plasma membrane is stabilised by ZO-1; however, DENV-NS5 co-localises with ZO-1 in the nucleus. These interactions have potential important roles in the ability of flaviviruses to manipulate cell proliferation, junction permeability and the interferon pathways.

  • 46. Elmroth, K.
    et al.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Mårtensson, S.
    Ismail, I. H.
    Hammarsten, O.
    Cleavage of cellular DNA by calicheamicin γ12003In: DNA Repair, ISSN 1568-7864, E-ISSN 1568-7856, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is assumed that the efficient antitumor activity of calicheamicin γ1 is mediated by its ability to introduce DNA double-strand breaks in cellular DNA. To test this assumption we have compared calicheamicin γ1-mediated cleavage of cellular DNA and purified plasmid DNA. Cleavage of purified plasmid DNA was not inhibited by excess tRNA or protein indicating that calicheamicin γ1 specifically targets DNA. Cleavage of plasmid DNA was not affected by incubation temperature. In contrast, cleavage of cellular DNA was 45-fold less efficient at 0°C as compared to 37° due to poor cell permeability at low temperatures. The ratio of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) to single-stranded breaks (SSB) in cellular DNA was 1:3, close to the 1:2 ratio observed when calicheamicin γ1 cleaved purified plasmid DNA. DNA strand breaks introduced by calicheamicin γ1 were evenly distributed in the cell population as measured by the comet assay. Calicheamicin γ1-induced DSBs were repaired slowly but completely and resulted in high levels of H2AX phosphorylation and efficient cell cycle arrest. In addition, the DSB-repair deficient cell line Mo59J was hyper sensitive to calicheamicin γ. The data indicate that DSBs is the crucial damage after calicheamicin γ1 and that calicheamicin γ1-induced DSBs are recognized normally. The high DSB:SSB ratio, specificity for DNA and the even damage distribution makes calicheamicin γ1 a superior drug for studies of the DSB-response and emphasizes its usefulness in treatment of malignant disease.

  • 47. Elmroth, K.
    et al.
    Nygren, Jonas
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institute.
    Stenerlöw, B.
    Hultborn, R.
    Chromatin- and temperature-dependent modulation of radiation-induced double-strand breaks2003In: International Journal of Radiation Biology, ISSN 0955-3002, E-ISSN 1362-3095, Vol. 79, no 10, p. 809-816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of chromatin organization and scavenging capacity in relation to irradiation temperature on the induction of double-strand breaks (DSB) in structures derived from human diploid fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Agarose plugs with different chromatin structures (intact cells±wortmannin, permeabilized cells with condensed chromatin, nucleoids and DNA) were prepared and irradiated with X-rays at 2 or 37°C and lysed using two different lysis protocols (new ice-cold lysis or standard lysis at 37°C). Induction of DSB was determined by constant-field gel electrophoresis. Results: The dose-modifying factor (DMFtemp) for irradiation at 37 compared with 2°C was 0.92 in intact cells (i.e. more DSB induced at 2°C), but gradually increased to 1.5 in permeabilized cells, 2.2 in nucleoids and 2.6 in naked DNA, suggesting a role of chromatin organization for temperature modulation of DNA damage. In addition, DMFtemp was influenced by the presence of 0.1 M DMSO or 30 mM glutathione, but not by post-irradiation temperature. Conclusion: The protective effect of low temperature was correlated to the indirect effects of ionizing radiation and was not dependent on post-irradiation temperature. Reasons for a dose modifying factor &lt;1 in intact cells are discussed.

  • 48.
    Elväng, Annelie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Melik, Wessam
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Bertrand, Yann
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, International health.
    Sequencing of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Ixodes ricinus Reveals a Thermosensitive RNA Switch Significant for Virus Propagation in Ectothermic Arthropods.2011In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 649-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus with major impact on global health. The geographical TBEV distribution is expanding, thus making it pivotal to further characterize the natural virus populations. In this study, we completed the earlier partial sequencing of a TBEV pulled out of a pool of RNA extracted from 115 ticks collected on Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. The total RNA was sufficient for all sequencing of a TBEV genome (Torö-2003), without conventional enrichment procedures such as cell culturing or suckling mice amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the genome of TBEV has been sequenced directly from an arthropod reservoir. The Torö-2003 sequence has been characterized and compared with other TBE viruses. In silico analyses of secondary RNA structures formed by the two untranslated regions revealed a temperature-sensitive structural shift between a closed replicative form and an open AUG accessible form, analogous to a recently described bacterial thermoswitch. Additionally, novel phylogenetic conserved structures were identified in the variable part of the 3'-untranslated region, and their sequence and structure similarity when compared with earlier identified structures suggests an enhancing function on virus replication and translation. We propose that the thermo-switch mechanism may explain the low TBEV prevalence often observed in environmentally sampled ticks. Finally, we were able to detect variations that help in the understanding of virus adaptations to varied environmental temperatures and mammalian hosts through a comparative approach that compares RNA folding dynamics between strains with different mammalian cell passage histories.

  • 49.
    Engström, Hanna
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Molecular and morphological analysis of genetic polymorphisms causing glabrousness in wild populations of Arabidopsis lyrata.2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trichome formation in Arabidopsis lyrata is a naturally occurring trait with phenotypic polymorphisms within wild populations. In Swedish accessions of A. lyrata, three genetic polymorphisms situated in the coding region of GL1, an important transcription factor in trichome production, have been identified, and these are candidates for being the cause of a glabrous phenotype. In this study a complementation test has been performed to clarify which mutation/mutations that are detrimental for trichome formation. A set of constructs has been transformed into A. thaliana, a close relative to A. lyrata, and subsequent generations of plants were examined for phenotype, genotype and gene expression. A SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) in the R3 MYB domain of GL1, resulting in a change of an alanine to aspartic acid, was identified as the critical polymorphism. The other two mutations, two indels, were harmless to protein function. The inserted constructs were under control of the native GL1 promoter. Plants that, because of the SNP, lacked trichome production, became totally glabrous.

  • 50. Espelt, A.
    et al.
    Borrell, Carme
    Roskam, Albert-Jan
    Rodríguez-Sanz, M
    Stirbu, Irina
    Dalmau-Bueno, A
    Regidor, Enrique
    Bopp, Matthias
    Martikainen, Pekka
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Artnik, Barbara
    Rychtarikova, Jitka
    Kalediene, Ramune
    Dzurova, D
    Mackenbach, Johan P.
    Kunst, Anton E.
    Socioeconomic inequalities in diabetes mellitus across Europe at the beginning of the 21st century2008In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1971-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe, educational attainment and diabetes are inversely related, in terms of both morbidity and mortality rates. This underlines the importance of targeting interventions towards low SEP groups. Access and use of healthcare services by people with diabetes also need to be improved.

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