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  • 1.
    Boss, John
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. Karolinska Institute.
    Liedvogel, Miriam
    Lund University / Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, Plön, Germany.
    Lundberg, Max
    Lund University.
    Olsson, Peter
    Lund University.
    Reischke, Nils
    Lund University.
    Naurin, Sara
    Lund University.
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Lund University.
    Hasselquist, Dennis
    Lund University.
    Wright, Anthony
    Karolinska Institute.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund University.
    Gene expression in the brain of a migratory songbird during breeding and migration2016In: Movement Ecology, E-ISSN 2051-3933, Vol. 4, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We still have limited knowledge about the underlying genetic mechanisms that enable migrating species of birds to navigate the globe. Here we make an attempt to get insight into the genetic architecture controlling this complex innate behaviour. We contrast the gene expression profiles of two closely related songbird subspecies with divergent migratory phenotypes. In addition to comparing differences in migratory strategy we include a temporal component and contrast patterns between breeding adults and autumn migrating juvenile birds of both subspecies. The two willow warbler subspecies, Phylloscopus trochilus trochilus and P. t. acredula, are remarkably similar both in phenotype and genotype and have a narrow contact zone in central Scandinavia. Here we used a microarray gene chip representing 23,136 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata to identify mRNA level differences in willow warbler brain tissue in relation to subspecies and season.

    RESULTS: Out of the 22,109 EST probe sets that remained after filtering poorly binding probes, we found 11,898 (51.8 %) probe sets that could be reliably and uniquely matched to a total of 6,758 orthologous zebra finch genes. The two subspecies showed very similar levels of gene expression with less than 0.1 % of the probe sets being significantly differentially expressed. In contrast, 3,045 (13.8 %) probe sets were found to be differently regulated between samples collected from breeding adults and autumn migrating juvenile birds. The genes found to be differentially expressed between seasons appeared to be enriched for functional roles in neuronal firing and neuronal synapse formation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that only few genes are differentially expressed between the subspecies. This suggests that the different migration strategies of the subspecies might be governed by few genes, or that the expression patterns of those genes are time-structured or tissue-specific in ways, which our approach fails to uncover. Our findings will be useful in the planning of new experiments designed to unravel the genes involved in the migratory program of birds.

  • 2.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Stockholm university.
    Male sterility, Protogyny and Pollen-Pistil interference in Plantago maritima (Plantaginaceae) a wind-pollinated, self-incompatible perennial1997In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, Vol. 84, no 11, p. 1588-1594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolution and maintenance of male sterility in seed plants can be explained by the maternal inheritance of mitochondria, which encode the trait, and by adaptive functions that enhance female fecundity in male-sterile compared to hermaphrodite individuals. Protogyny and male sterility can independently decrease the negative effect of pollen–pistil interference in selfincompatible species. In Plantago maritima, which possesses both traits, protogyny increases seed set in hermaphrodite individuals. This is shown both by a significantly positive association between seed set and retarded dehiscence of the anthers and by a more than 50% reduction in seed set following self-pollination. Male sterility does not seem to increase seed set further, as female and hermaphrodite plants do not differ significantly in mean seed set per capsule. Bagging experiments demonstrate strong self-incompatibility in the study populations. Hence, in P. maritima male sterility seems neither to prevent selfing nor to reduce the effect of pollen–pistil interference. Females had significantly larger stigmas than hermaphrodites, but seed set varied negatively with stigma length among females, indicating that the evolution of unisexuality in P. maritima is not due to prefertilization sex allocation. I therefore conclude that the genetical system of nucleocytoplasmic determination of gender is the main cause for maintenance of male sterility in P. maritima.

  • 3.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Jerling, Lenn
    Stockholm university.
    Gynodioecy in Plantago maritima L.; no compensation for loss of male function1997In: Acta Botanica Neerlandica, ISSN 0044-5983, E-ISSN 1365-2001, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 193-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Size, allocation of biomass, seed production of hermaphrodites and male steriles as well as germination, growth rate and survival among their progeny were compared between male fertile and male sterile cytoplasmic genotypes of Plantago maritima. The cytoplasmic genomes in angiosperms are predominantly maternally inherited. Thus we used the progeny originating from the male fertile and male sterile mothers in order to examine the relative success of the mothers. The progeny was grown together at three different densities in a greenhouse competition experiment. The results were analysed in a hierarchical model with siblings as replicates of mothers and mothers as replicates of sex-morphs. Differences between sex morphs were very small, but they were consistent in that the progeny from male steriles always performed less well than did the progeny from hermaphrodites. Male sterile progeny matched the hermaphrodite progeny best at the lowest density, where there was no effect of sex type on the level of individual performance. One explanation why hermaphrodites perform relatively better at higher densities could be that they are more plastic in their response to competition induced stress. This was indicated by density dependent allocation pattern of biomass to different parts of the plants, where the progeny of hermaphrodites appeared to be more plastic. The results from this experiment, and other studies, supports the idea that male sterility, if nucleo-cytoplasmically determined, can persist in a population even without any fitness advantages for females.

  • 4.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    et al.
    Stockholm university.
    Jerling, Lenn
    Stockholm university.
    Spatial distribution of male sterility in Plantago maritima1998In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 81, p. 255-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual polymorphism in angiosperms can be explained both by the functional responses of male and female function to autogamy and geitonogamy, and by the conflict between the nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes. In predominantly hermaphrodite species, cytoplasmically determined male sterility may persist in a population because of maternal inheritance, i.e, the loss of male function does not change the fitness of the cytoplasmic genome. However, in populations with cytoplasmic male sterility, male fertility is often restored by nuclear genes. Therefore, in populations with genetical substructure, the frequencies of the different sex-morphs will fluctuate depending on the presence of both the male sterile cytoplasms, and of their specific nuclear restorer genes. In Plantagomaritima, we showed that the frequencies of male sterility were highest in regions with the highest population turnover rates and that male sterile individuals were more frequently found in the lower, less dense parts of the meadows. This indicates that male sterile cytoplasms have their highest probabilities to escape their nuclear restorer genes during recolonisation in disturbed regions within populations. We also found that male sterile individuals dispersed their seeds a little bit further than did the hermaphrodites. This can be interpreted as an adaptive response to the local occurrence of nuclear restorer genes.

  • 5.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Gren, I. -M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Regulating invasive species with different life history2015In: Journal of Bioeconomics, ISSN 1387-6996, E-ISSN 1573-6989, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 113-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive species often cause economic damage due to their impact on economically valuable resident species. We study optimal regulation in terms of simultaneous control and adaptation when the purpose is to manage an invasive species which competes for scarce resources with a resident species. The optimal policy includes both subsidies for control of an invasive species with zero commercial value, and harvesting taxes on the resident species which are adjusted in the presence of an invasion. A numerical age-structured optimization model is used to analyze the role of species’ life history, i.e. the degree of evolutionary specialization in survival or reproduction, for the choice of strategy and the associated economic instruments. Results show that, irrespective of life history, both policies are implemented in efficient solutions, but subsidies for controlling the invader are used to a larger extent when it is possible to target specific age classes of the invader. If a resident species is harvested non-selectively, the optimal subsidy for control of the invader is lower, and if the invader is specialized in survival the control subsidy mirrors the resident species harvest cycle. © 2014, The Author(s).

  • 6. Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Edlund, Anna
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Zhivotova, Elena N.
    Nucleic acid levels in copepods: dynamic response to phytoplankton blooms in the northern Baltic proper2007In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 349, p. 213-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined changes in nucleic acids and concomitant population development of the copepods Acartia bifilosa and Eurytemora affinis in relation to the progress of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the northern Baltic proper. Individual RNA and DNA concentrations and their ratios in female copepods as well as copepod abundance and population structure were analyzed in 2 coastal areas that differed in the degree of eutrophication and phytoplankton development. During the study period (February to June 2002), bloom conditions were evident, with chlorophyll (chl) a values being 42% higher in the eutrophic area than in the reference area. In both areas, diatoms dominated; in the reference area, they were replaced by dinoflagellates toward the end of the bloom. Copepod RNA-DNA concentrations increased rapidly at the onset of the bloom and gradually decreased thereafter. Moreover, in the eutrophic area, both copepods had higher RNA content and RNA:DNA ratios throughout the study period, suggesting higher productivity in this area. In both species, we found positive correlations between RNA-based indices and chl a. Thus, as suggested by RNA dynamics, growth rates of A. bifilosa and E. affinis appear to respond rapidly to both temporal variation in spring phytoplankton stock and spatial variation due to the magnitude of the bloom. In addition, we found that species-specific RNA dynamics and RNA-chl a relationships differed between species, indicating possible differences in feeding preferences and growth potential.

  • 7.
    Hedlund, Johanna S. U.
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Living with males: benefits and costs to females of resident males in Colobus vellerosus2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Only in primates is permanent male-female association the most widespread social structure of all. The continuous presence of resident males in the social group can have significant impacts on female fitness, both in forms of costs and benefits. In this study I investigate particular short-term benefits and costs of resident males to females in a population of ursine colobus (Colobus vellerosus). I hypothesise that for females permanent association with males result in certain benefits and certain costs, exceeding those provided or imposed by other females. The results indicate that female derive greater benefits from males than from females during intergroup encounters and in the form of vigilance since males were the main participants in intergroup encounter and were more vigilant than females. I could not confirm any type of behaviour employed by resident males that is costly to females. However, the rarity and subtleness of some costly male behaviours imply that more data is needed before making a conclusion on their absence or occurrence in this population and I purpose that herding behaviour could occur at my study site. Moreover, multi-male groups (MM-groups) showed higher rates of vigilance than single-male groups (SM-groups) and had a tendency to experiencing fewer intergroup encounters than SM-groups. I interpret the former as a result of the demanding social conditions in the MM-groups. The latter indicate that females may benefit from MM-group living through a decrease in intergroup encounters.

  • 8.
    Henriksson, Oskar
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Mwandya, Augustine
    Gullström, Martin
    Thorberg, Marika
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Genetic Identification and Population Structure of Juvenile Mullet (Mugilidae) Collected for Aquaculture in East Africa2012In: Western Indian Ocean journal of marine science, ISSN 0856-860X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for wild caught juvenile fish to supply the market for aquaculture. However, little is known about the genetic effects of juvenile collection from wild populations. There are a number of imminent threats to both aquaculture systems and wild fish populations. Juvenile collection from a single population can for example reduce population’s evolutionary potential as well as the disease resistance within an aquaculture pond. In this study, we investigated the local genetic structure of juvenile mullets collected from five sites around Bagamoyo (Tanzanian mainland) and Zanzibar Island, East Africa. Fish were caught in low tide using a seine net. The fish were morphologically identified, and then genetically identified using direct sequencing of the CO1 gene with cross referencing with the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD) systems.  Molecular variance analyses were used to infer genetic subdivision based on geographic sampling site as well as inferring population structure through the Bayesian assignment test implemented in STRUCTURE 2.3. Our results showed that samples morphologically identified as Mugil cephalus where in fact Valamugil buchanani and we also found evidence of an introgression genome event, where the gene flow from one species may have affected the general gene pool. The Bayesian analysis revealed a clear genetic population structure among the sampled fish; the main difference was the presence of a unique mainland cluster. Our findings may have important implications for management and conservation of mullet fishes in the region and elsewhere.

  • 9.
    Kolseth, Anna-Karin
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences. Uppsala universitet.
    Evolutionary Processes and Spatial Genetic Variation in Euphrasia stricta on the Baltic Island of Gotland2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of processes governing genetic structure at different spatial scales remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology and is of considerable applied interest in conservation biology. In Euphrasia stricta five varieties have been identified (brevipila, gotlandica, stricta, suecica and tenuis) based on differences in habitat, phenology and morphology. In this thesis, I examined genetic variation at AFLP and microsatellite marker loci in relation to variation in habitat and morphology within and among varieties of E. stricta on the island Gotland in the Baltic Sea. The results are discussed in relation to evolutionary processes acting within this species complex.

    In a study conducted at the regional scale, the two early-flowering varieties suecica and tenuis each formed a genetically distinct group, while the three late-flowering varieties brevipila, gotlandica and stricta formed a third group. The results suggest that suecica and tenuis have ancient origins since they are genetically different both from the brevipila/gotlandica/stricta group and from each other despite their similar habitat preferences. This pattern was obtained using both marker systems. Discrepancies between AFLP and microsatellites were found in patterns of isolation by distance and in estimates of expected heterozygosity, He.

    Focusing on the mixed genetic group brevipila/gotlandica/stricta and the causes behind their clustering together despite differences in morphology and habitat preferences, I performed a study at a smaller geographic scale. Studying a population of E. stricta I found that, although gene flow within the population was strong, it had not prevented the formation of genetic groups associated with micro-habitat properties.

    An important result for conservation of the rare variety suecica is its distinct genetic separation from variety tenuis. If the aim of conservation is to preserve the uniqueness of suecica, the two varieties should be treated as separated entities.

  • 10.
    Lind, Emma E
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2011In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 20, p. 503-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P < 0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F(ST) = 0.021, P < 0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs = 0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs = 0.11). Still, pairwise F(ST): s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F(ST)-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P < 0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F(ST)-outlier loci, significant at the P < 0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.

  • 11.
    Lorentsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Uppsala university.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Uppsala university.
    New reports of soredia dispersed by ants, Formica cunicularia1999In: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 31, p. 204-207Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lundberg, Max
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Boss, John
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Canbäck, Björn
    Lund University.
    Liedvogel, Miriam
    Lund University.
    Larson, Keith W
    Lund University.
    Grahn, Mats
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Åkesson, Susanne
    Lund University.
    Bensch, Staffan
    Lund University.
    Wright, Anthony Ph
    Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital.
    Characterisation of a transcriptome to find sequence differences between two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus.2013In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 14, article id 330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Animal migration requires adaptations in morphological, physiological and behavioural traits. Several of these traits have been shown to possess a strong heritable component in birds, but little is known about their genetic architecture. Here we used 454 sequencing of brain-derived transcriptomes from two differentially migrating subspecies of the willow warbler Phylloscopus trochilus to detect genes potentially underlying traits associated with migration.

    RESULTS: The transcriptome sequencing resulted in 1.8 million reads following filtering steps. Most of the reads (84%) were successfully mapped to the genome of the zebra finch Taeniopygia gutatta. The mapped reads were situated within at least 12,101 predicted zebra finch genes, with the greatest sequencing depth in exons. Reads that were mapped to intergenic regions were generally located close to predicted genes and possibly located in uncharacterized untranslated regions (UTRs). Out of 85,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minimum sequencing depth of eight reads from each of two subspecies-specific pools, only 55 showed high differentiation, confirming previous studies showing that most of the genetic variation is shared between the subspecies. Validation of a subset of the most highly differentiated SNPs using Sanger sequencing demonstrated that several of them also were differentiated between an independent set of individuals of each subspecies. These SNPs were clustered in two chromosome regions that are likely to be influenced by divergent selection between the subspecies and that could potentially be associated with adaptations to their different migratory strategies.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study represents the first large-scale sequencing analysis aiming at detecting genes underlying migratory phenotypes in birds and provides new candidates for genes potentially involved in migration.

  • 13.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Chemistry, Biology, Geography and Environmental Science, Biology.
    Milberg, Per
    IFM Biology, Conservation Ecology Group, Linköping University.
    Rapid changes in the epiphytic macrolichen flora in southern Sweden2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Hansson, Ann-Charlotte
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Lindblom, Louise
    University of Bergen, Museum of Natural History.
    Genetic diversity and substrate preferences in Hypogymnia physodes in northern Europe2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic variation in lichens has mainly been examined in rare or threatened species or species with an otherwise fragmented geographical distribution. The main objectives have often been to compare the diversity between populations in relation to nature conservation issues. In addition, most studied species are sexual reproductive and, hence, produce small spores which may disperse over long distances. More common species have usually been neglected, although they are more easily collected, both because collecting results in a comparatively small disturbance of the populations and because they occur in a larger selection of habitats. Here we present a study on the genetic variation in the lichenized ascomycete Hypogymnia physodes in Northern Europe based on nrDNA data. The species was selected as it probably is the most common lichen in the area, it is corticolous, found on almost all woody plants in most habitats, and has a predominantly asexual dispersal mode. The material was collected in Estonia, Finland, and Sweden as a part of a larger project aiming at identifying localities with high biodiversity of interest for nature conservation projects. We examined the correlations between genetic diversity and substrate ecology as well as spatial distances. An important result is the large genetic variation within a mainly asexual lichen species. The results also show genetic similarity between specimens from similar substrates.

  • 15.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Vinter, Tiina
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Macrolichen diversity in relation to diversity of woody plants2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies concerning nature conservation issues common lichen species have usually been neglected although collecting of these results gives comparatively small disturbance of the populations and is easily done. Instead rare or threatened species or species usually have been used as indicators of sites with high biodiversity. Here, the macrolichen diversity is compared with the diversity of woody plants and other characteristics of different sites in Estonia, Finland and Sweden as a part of a larger project including comparative studies on habitats with presumably high species diversity The site selection was based on the occurrence of Daphne mezereum which usually occurs in semi-open habitats in transitions zones containing species from the surrounding biotopes. One of the main objectives with the study was to develop a fairly rapid method of evaluation of biodiversity using easily identified species. As total inventories are time consuming and reflects snapshots of a certain occasion it is beneficial to use other methods which may give a little less but sufficient information for many purposes, e.g., estimations on biodiversity. The ecological and evolutionary processes that shape diversity and distributions are general and results are assumed to be translatable from the target species to other species. The combination of data from a small number of species may constitute a useful monitoring protocol for lichens and higher plants. In total about 50 lichen species and 25 substrates are included and analyzed in the study. Most of the most common lichens are sorediate or isidiate and asexually reproducing and occur on several substrates. The relation between the diversity of lichen and woody plants is presented.

  • 16.
    Menichetti, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Touzot, Laura
    Université Claude Bernard Lyon, Lyon, France .
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Department of Economics, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Hyvönen, Riitta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kätterer, Thomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Kjellander, Petter
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan.
    Interactions between a population of fallow deer (Dama dama), humans and crops in a managed composite temperate landscape in southern Sweden: Conflict or opportunity?2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0215594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Landscapes composed of agricultural land mixed with forest are desirable since they provide a wide range of diversified ecosystem services, unlike specialized agricultural landscapes, but that creates a trade-off between these land uses since wildlife usually feed on crops and reduce yields. In Nordic countries, where human population density is low and game hunting can be a viable economic alternative, mixed landscape systems are particularly interesting. To evaluate the economic sustainability of such systems we need to quantify wildlife damage to crops. One important species, being popular among Swedish hunters and therefore economically valuable, is fallow deer (Dama dama). Our objective was to evaluate the economic sustainability of mixed landscape systems including cultivated fields and commercial hunting of fallow deer. We studied the effects of excluding fallow deer by using 86 exclosures and adjacent plots in winter wheat and oat fields in south-west Sweden. We analyzed yield losses and interactions between spatial and temporal grazing patterns, anthropogenic landscape features, and topological characteristics of the landscape. We found that animals avoided exposed spots, irrespective of distance from human activity. We also found a seasonal grazing pattern related to the different growing periods of winter wheat (more grazed, emerging in autumn) and spring oat (less grazed, emerging in spring). We then compared the costs of crop damage against the commercial value of fallow deer hunting. The damage amounted to 375 ±196 € ha-1 for wheat and 152 ±138 € ha-1 for oat, corresponding to a total cost per animal of 82.7 ±81.0 €, while each animal had an estimated market value of approximately 100 €. Therefore the value of fallow deer presence compensated for the associated cost of crop damage. Profit could be further improved in this case by adopting additional management strategies. In general our study confirmed the economic feasibility of this particular mixed land management.

  • 17.
    Nechiporuk, Dmitrii
    Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES).
    Пограничные земли, общие воды: история трансграничного сотрудничества России, Балтийских стран и ЕС по оздоровлению экосистемы Балтийского моря = Pograničnye zemli, obščie vody : istorija transgraničnogo sotrudničestva Rossii, Baltijskich stran i ES po ozdorovleniju ėkosistemy Baltijskogo morja2014Book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Nordström, Susanne
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Important factors for the creation of nature reserves2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Persson, Martin
    Södertörn University College, School of Life Sciences.
    Changes in condition of herring (Clupea harengus) in Swedish coastal waters2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The condition of the herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea has decreased during the past 30-40 years. This decrease could be explained by different factors; (1) change in diet due to changes in zooplankton community, (2) changes in water temperature and salinity, (3) increasing nutrient inputs and (4) competition for food with other species such as sprat (Sprattus sprattus). In this study the change in condition was analysed using the Fulton’s condition index, and by looking at age and sex of the fish as well as the season and locationthe fish was caught, the differences between these factors were presented. Data from the national Swedish contaminant monitoring programme where used from four locations in the Baltic Sea and two locations at the Swedish West coast. The data was analysed using multiple regressions in R Commander. The result show that the condition, and the temporal trends in condition value, varies at different locations, with higher condition values and increasing temporal trends at the Swedish West coast, compared to the Baltic Sea with lower condition values and where three of four locations show decreasing temporal trends. The condition varied between spring and autumn caught herring as well, while age and sex showed less significant differences.

  • 20.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University / University of Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium.
    Aavik, T.
    Tartu University, Tartu, Estonia.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Grazing networks promote plant functional connectivity among isolated grassland communities2019In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 102-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Habitat loss threatens plant diversity globally. Lack of plant functional connectivity between isolated populations is often pinpointed as one of the major underlying mechanisms driving subsequent species extinctions. Therefore, landscape-scale conservation management promoting functional connectivity needs to be implemented urgently. Supporting the movement of seed dispersal vectors such as grazing animals may help safeguard local and regional plant diversity in fragmented landscapes. However, the efficacy of such management remains to be thoroughly assessed. Location: Stockholm archipelago, Sweden. Methods: We test how grazing animals may serve as mobile corridors within rotational grazing networks promoting plant functional connectivity via directed seed dispersal. Using landscape genetics, we compare isolated populations of the grassland perennial Campanula rotundifolia located in either active or abandoned grazing networks, to test if spatial patterns in their genetic diversity, differentiation and allele frequencies relate to the presence or absence of connectivity via rotational grazing management. Results: Grazing networks imprinted strong landscape-scale spatial patterning in pairwise population genetic differentiation and within-population genetic diversity. Isolated C. rotundifolia populations functionally connected by grazing animals held higher genetic diversity compared to populations no longer connected by grazing livestock. Gene flow linked to the directed seed dispersal was higher between populations within grazing networks, confirmed by their increased allele richness. We found a predictable, nested loss of genetic diversity among C. rotundifolia populations in abandoned grazing networks. Main conclusions: Grazing animals were important seed dispersal vectors, functionally connecting isolated grassland communities, so being vital to the successful long-term persistence and conservation of not only species but also genetic diversity. Crucially, the study underlines the possibilities of using domestic livestock as mobile corridors within rotational grazing networks as an effective tool to manage, conserve and restore both genetic and species diversity among isolated plant communities in fragmented landscapes.

  • 21.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University / University of Bremen, Germany.
    De Frenne, P.
    Ghent University, Belgum.
    Acharya, K.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Brunet, J.
    SLU.
    Chabrerie, O.
    Jules Verne University of Picardie, Amiens Cedex, France.
    Decocq, G.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Diekmann, M.
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Graae, B. J.
    Heinken, T.
    University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.
    Hermy, M.
    University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Kolb, A.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Lemke, I.
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Liira, J.
    University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
    Naaf, T.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Verheyen, K.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Wulf, M.
    Institute of Land Use Systems, Müncheberg, Germany.
    Cousins, S. A. O.
    Stockholm University.
    Where does the community start, and where does it end?: Including the seed bank to reassess forest herb layer responses to the environment2017In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 424-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Below-ground processes are key determinants of above-ground plant population and community dynamics. Still, our understanding of how environmental drivers shape plant communities is mostly based on above-ground diversity patterns, bypassing below-ground plant diversity stored in seed banks. As seed banks may shape above-ground plant communities, we question whether concurrently analysing the above- and below-ground species assemblages may potentially enhance our understanding of community responses to environmental variation. Location: Temperate deciduous forests along a 2000 km latitudinal gradient in NW Europe. Methods: Herb layer, seed bank and local environmental data including soil pH, canopy cover, forest cover continuity and time since last canopy disturbance were collected in 129 temperate deciduous forest plots. We quantified herb layer and seed bank diversity per plot and evaluated how environmental variation structured community diversity in the herb layer, seed bank and the combined herb layer–seed bank community. Results: Seed banks consistently held more plant species than the herb layer. How local plot diversity was partitioned across the herb layer and seed bank was mediated by environmental variation in drivers serving as proxies of light availability. The herb layer and seed bank contained an ever smaller and ever larger share of local diversity, respectively, as both canopy cover and time since last canopy disturbance decreased. Species richness and β-diversity of the combined herb layer–seed bank community responded distinctly differently compared to the separate assemblages in response to environmental variation in, e.g. forest cover continuity and canopy cover. Conclusions: The seed bank is a below-ground diversity reservoir of the herbaceous forest community, which interacts with the herb layer, although constrained by environmental variation in e.g. light availability. The herb layer and seed bank co-exist as a single community by means of the so-called storage effect, resulting in distinct responses to environmental variation not necessarily recorded in the individual herb layer or seed bank assemblages. Thus, concurrently analysing above- and below-ground diversity will improve our ecological understanding of how understorey plant communities respond to environmental variation.

  • 22.
    Plue, Jan
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Kimberley, A.
    Stockholm University.
    Slotte, T.
    Stockholm University.
    Interspecific variation in ploidy as a key plant trait outlining local extinction risks and community patterns in fragmented landscapes2018In: Functional Ecology, ISSN 0269-8463, E-ISSN 1365-2435, Vol. 32, no 8, p. 2095-2106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyploidy is associated with a plethora of phenotypic and genetic changes yielding transformative effects on species' life-history and ecology. These biological attributes can contribute to the success of species on ecological timescales, as observed in the invasion success or rapid environmental and climatic adaptation of polyploids. However, to date there has been a distinct lack of empirical evidence linking species' local extinction risk, species distributions and community structure in fragmented landscapes with interspecific variation in ploidy. We aimed to investigate the relationship between levels of habitat fragmentation and patterns in both diversity and the frequency of species with different ploidy levels. We included additional persistence- and dispersal related life-history traits, to establish the relative importance of ploidy in determining species richness and frequencies following habitat fragmentation. We therefore collected plant community presence-absence data and landscape data from grassland fragments from south-central Sweden. Community-level analysis uncovered that interspecific variation in ploidy proved the strongest predictor of plant community species richness and turn-over across grassland fragments. Local extinction risk decreased as ploidy increased, with diploids most prone to local extinction. In the species-level analysis, ploidy outweighed the combined explanatory power of commonly used life-history traits such as clonality, dispersal mechanism and mating system; key predictors of plant species distributions across fragmented landscapes. Ploidy appears to capture parallel variation in a series of advantageous genetic and life-history mechanisms which operate on ecological timescales, emerging as the strongest predictor of local extinction risk even after accounting for variation in other crucial life-history traits. Our results therefore highlight the importance of genomic traits such as ploidy and total chromosome number as valuable factors explaining and predicting local extinction risk in fragmented landscapes. A plain language summary is available for this article.

  • 23.
    Ramula, Satu
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Population dynamics of a monocarpic thistle: simulated effects of reproductive timing and grazing of flowering plants2008In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 231-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In monocarpic plants, which die after flowering once, the timing of reproduction plays an important role. The optimal time for reproduction is when reproductive output and survival are maximized. This optimum may be altered by herbivores that consume reproductive plants of different sizes disproportionally. I examined plant survival, flowering probability, reproductive output and the probability of becoming grazed in relation to plant size in two populations of the short-lived monocarpic herb Cirsium palustre. Moreover, I simulated the consequences of changes in reproductive timing and grazing preference for population dynamics. Plant survival, flowering probability and reproductive output tended to increase with plant size, whereas the probability of becoming grazed was unaffected by plant size. According to the stochastic simulations, intense grazing would have been required to significantly reduce the stochastic population growth rate (log's) and therefore, the observed levels of grazing had no impact on log's in the study populations. Stochastic simulations conducted with selective grazing focusing on either early or late flowering plants and with different reproductive timings revealed that the grazing of early flowering plants had a constant effect on log lambda(s) despite the proportions of early and late flowering plants in the population, suggesting that there is no optimal time for reproduction. The grazing of late flowering plants reduced log lambda(s) with delayed reproduction, favouring reproduction early in the life cycle.

  • 24.
    Ramula, Satu
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
    Responses to the timing of damage in an annual herb: Fitness components versus population performance2008In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 233-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing of damage plays an important role in plant fitness but its effect on population performance has received relatively little attention. I examined the effect of the timing of damage on nine components of fitness and population performance in four populations of the annual Melampyrum pratense by clipping plants at the vegetative stage (early clipping) or at the beginning of the flowering period (late clipping). I estimated population performance using a matrix population model that predicts the long-term population growth rate, A. In early clipping, the plants were usually able to compensate for the damage during the growing season. In consequence, early clipping reduced A in only one out of four populations, whereas late clipping reduced it in three populations. The elasticity analyses revealed that the relative importance of different demographic transitions to A varied among the populations. This among-population variation in the sensitivities of to demographic transitions makes it difficult to use changes in specific fitness components as a measure of population performance for annual plants with a seed bank. The current study illustrates that although early-season damage may have a negligible impact on population dynamics in annual plants, the effect of the timing of damage often varies among populations.

  • 25.
    Rehn, Felicia
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Pollinators in Urban Landscapes: Local and landscape factors impact on pollinator species richness and abundance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing human populations results in fast-growing urbanization. Natural and semi-natural landscapes are replaced with urban landscape features like roads, sidewalks, industrial and residential buildings. The remnants of the natural landscapes are left fragmented and are often managed by frequent mowing and trimming of the vegetation. This development has had a negative impact on pollinators such as bees and wasps. Bees and wasps are pollinating insects providing an ecosystem service that sustain the global food supply. Pollinators are important also in urban landscapes where their services are needed for ecological stability and biodiversity. This study compares 23 locations in Sollentuna municipality, to investigate if species richness and abundance of bees and wasps are correlated with local factors, landscape factors or both. The available food resources are measured in buffer zones with 200m radius. Local variables are: dead wood, exposed sand, extended edge zones, flowering plant species richness and unmanaged habitat. The result showed that the landscape factor of food availability was more important for the abundance of pollinators while local variables together with the landscape factor of food availability had a positive effect on the species richness.

  • 26.
    Ssenku, Jamilu
    et al.
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Ntale, Mohammad
    Department of Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Backeus, Ingvar
    Department of Plant Ecology and Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyv. 18D, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Oryem-Origa, Hannington
    Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Dynamics of plant species during phytostabilisation of copper mine tailings and pyrite soils, Western Uganda2014In: Journal of Environmental Engineering & Ecological Science, ISSN 2050-1323, Vol. 3, article id 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Destruction of vegetation resources emanating from deposition of mine wastes is a serious environmental problem. Conventional plant species restoration methodologies are costly and feasible only on a small scale. The current study was focussed on developing phytostabilisation protocols involving the application of limestone, compost, selected tree species and assessing the re-establishment of plants in polluted soils.

    Methods: Early establishment of plant species under Eucalyptus grandis, Senna siamea and Leucaena leucocephala planted on mine tailings and pyrite soils amended with compost, limestone and limestone+compost was studied. Four plant inventories were conducted on the study plots and surrounding plant communities, involving enumeration of the plant species and estimation of their ground covers. Physico-chemical characteristics of the soils of the study plots were determined each time an inventory was conducted. Data were analysed using R statistical packages vegan and lme4.

    Results: Mine tailings and pyrite soils had extremely low pH, poor nutritional status, low organic matter content and elevated concentrations of heavy metals as compared to the unpolluted soils. Before treatment, species richness, diversity and plant cover were extremely low with most of the ground being completely bare. Treatment of the soils significantly improved the physico-chemical characteristics starting a plant succession that increased the number of species from 18 to 215 different species, belonging to 131 genera and 34 families. Plots of the leguminous tree species Senna siamea and Leucaena leucocephala had significantly more species than the non-leguminous Eucalyptus grandis. Early changes in species composition of the restoration plots were minimal. Correspondence analysis (CA) revealed significant differences in species composition between the experimental plots and the plots at the unpolluted site.

    Conclusion: Application of amendment material that significantly alters the physico-chemical characteristics of mine wastes is pre-requisite for their phytostabilisation. Leguminous tree species Senna siamea and Leucaena leucocephala have a higher potential for phytostabilisation of pyrite and copper tailings as their growth led to the establishment of understory plant communities with higher species diversity and cover.

  • 27.
    Svensson, Linda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
    Cooperation between botanical societies and academic institutions2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Thureborn, Petter
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholm University.
    Lundin, Daniel
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies. KTH & Stockholm University.
    Plathan, Josefin
    Stockholm University.
    Poole, Anthony M
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.
    Sjöberg, Britt-Marie
    Stockholm University.
    Sjöling, Sara
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    A Metagenomics Transect into the Deepest Point of the Baltic Sea Reveals Clear Stratification of Microbial Functional Capacities2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, article id e74983Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Baltic Sea is characterized by hyposaline surface waters, hypoxic and anoxic deep waters and sediments. These conditions, which in turn lead to a steep oxygen gradient, are particularly evident at Landsort Deep in the Baltic Proper. Given these substantial differences in environmental parameters at Landsort Deep, we performed a metagenomic census spanning surface to sediment to establish whether the microbial communities at this site are as stratified as the physical environment. We report strong stratification across a depth transect for both functional capacity and taxonomic affiliation, with functional capacity corresponding most closely to key environmental parameters of oxygen, salinity and temperature.

    We report similarities in functional capacity between the hypoxic community and hadal zone communities, underscoring the substantial degree of eutrophication in the Baltic Proper. Reconstruction of the nitrogen cycle at Landsort deep shows potential for syntrophy between archaeal ammonium oxidizers and bacterial denitrification at anoxic depths, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation genes are absent, despite substantial ammonium levels below the chemocline. Our census also reveals enrichment in genetic prerequisites for a copiotrophic lifestyle and resistance mechanisms reflecting adaptation to prevalent eutrophic conditions and the accumulation of environmental pollutants resulting from ongoing anthropogenic pressures in the Baltic Sea.

  • 29.
    Torell, Elin C.
    Södertörn University.
    Learning-based coastal management: Experiences from Tanzania2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two case studies provide the basis for analyses of the process of learning in coastal management. How do coastal managers acquire information, where do they get new ideas, how are their professional values formed, and how do they apply their knowledge?

    The book will be useful to academics in the field of environment and development studies as well as for decision-makers in governments and NGOs and for on-the-ground practitioners.

  • 30. Unge, A
    et al.
    Jansson, Janet
    Södertörn University, Avdelning Naturvetenskap.
    Monitoring population size, activity, and distribution of gfp-luxAB-tagged Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 during colonization of wheat2001In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 290-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, focus has been directed towards the use of microorganisms as biological control agents to combat fungal disease, as an alternative to chemical fungicides. Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 is one bacterial strain that has been demonstrated to promote plant growth by biocontrol of pathogenic fungi. To understand the mode of action of this bacterium, information regarding its localization and metabolic activity on plants is important. In this study, a gfp/luxAB-tagged derivative of P. fluorescens SBW25, expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and bacterial luciferase, was monitored during colonization of wheat starting from seed inoculation. Since bacterial luciferase is dependent on cellular energy reserves for phenotypic expression, metabolically active cells were detected using this marker. In contrast, the stable GFP fluorescence phenotype was used to detect the cells independently of their metabolic status. The combination of these two markers enabled P. fluorescens SBW25 cells to be monitored on wheat plants to determine their specific location and metabolic activity. Studies on homogenized wheat plant parts demonstrated that the seed was the preferred location of P. fluorescens SBW25 during the 65-day time period studied, but the leaves and roots were also colonized. Interestingly, the bacteria were also found to be metabolically active on all plant parts examined. In situ localization of P. fluorescens SBW25 using a combination of different microscopic techniques confirmed the preference for the cells to colonize specific regions of the seed. We speculate that the colonization pattern of P. fluorescens SBW25 can be linked to the mechanism of protection of plants from fungal infection.

  • 31.
    Vinter, Tiina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Edge effects on plant species diversity in forest landscapes2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The forest interior and the forest edge are different due to the characteristics of the adjacent land cover surrounding the edge. When large forest areas are divided into smaller fragments the interface between the forest interior and surrounding environments increases and various processes start affecting remaining forest ecosystems and forest species. Urban or rural landscapes, cultivated monocultures or grasslands can influence the edge regions differently.

    This review is focusing on edge effects in forested environments. Edge effects on plant species diversity and species composition are expected to vary according to forest patch size, patch configuration and placement in the landscape. In general, edge effects are expected to have higher impact on species diversity and composition when the remaining forest patches are small, have an irregular shape or when the surrounding land use is significantly different from the forest patch. Edge effects depend on both biotic and abiotic factors, applied management regimes and on land use history. Further studies on landscape level can shed more light on the underlying mechanisms generating the observed patterns.

  • 32.
    Vinter, Tiina
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Biology.
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    Danzer, Ulrika
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Lehtilä, Kari
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
    The relationship between landscape configuration and plant species richness in forests is dependent on habitat preferences of species2016In: European Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 1612-4669, E-ISSN 1612-4677, Vol. 135, no 6, p. 1071-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the effects of landscape configuration on local plant species richness, we tested whether local species richness of forest understory plants is affected by the total forest area and forest edge length in the adjacent landscape. We also tested whether the landscape effect on species richness is different for forest and edge species. We estimated species richness from 113 forest sites in four regions in Northern Europe. At each site, we studied two plots, one at the edge and one in the core of the forest. Total forested area and forest edge length in circles with a 1-km radius, together with plot-specific variables of environmental conditions and temporal continuity of forests, were recorded at each plot. The amount of forest and the length of the forest edge in the adjacent landscape had a significant positive effect on local species richness of all understory plant species. As expected, edge species were positively affected by increasing length of the forest edge in the landscape, but surprisingly there was no effect of forest area on species richness of forest species. Temporal forest continuity had a negative effect on species richness of edge species but no effect on species richness of forest species. Our results suggest that forest edge length had a stronger landscape effect on understory plant species richness than forest area. Implications of these findings for the management of forest landscapes depend on priorities given to different species groups in biodiversity conservation, i.e. if emphasis is in total species richness or species richness of forest or edge species.

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