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  • 1.
    Gallardo Fernández, Gloria L.
    Uppsala universitet.
    From Seascapes of Extinction to Seascapes of Confidence: Territorial Use Rights in Fisheries in Chile: El Quisco and Puerto Oscuro2008Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In Chile, the indiscriminate harvest for export of the edible shellfish, Concholepas concholepas or false abalone, propelled by a neo-liberal market economy during the 1970s, almost led to the extinction of the species, thereby threatening the dependant small-scale artisan fishers’ survival as well as the ecosystem. To reverse this, fishers’ organizations in Chile have adopted the state created regulatory measure, Management and Exploitation Areas for Benthic Resources (MEABR; locally known as Management Areas -- MAs). Replacing the former unsuccessful fishing regulatory measurements, the MEABR regime empowers the fishers with exclusive territorial use rights (TURF) to manage the species, often under commons institutions, thus creating new seascapes of confidence. However, as is often the case with new solutions, emergent problems are posed that threaten to undermine the reform. With the new regulated extraction measure and geographical expansion of this novel labour and production alternative, fishers experience a transition from ‘nomadic’ to sedentary fishing leading to a transformation of their lifestyle and skills. If MAs become permanent, fishing in rural areas may lead to tensions as the fishers settle on coastal lands without entitlement, or are hindered from developing their own fisheries infrastructure. The legal system does not seem to fully foresee the consequences of the reform, and prevailing power relations and private property rights work to disadvantage the fishers. Using a participatory approach for the first research location of El Quisco (Valparaíso Region), and interviews with key informants for the second research location of Puerto Oscuro (Coquimbo Region), fishers’ views of the Chilean TURF were evaluated. How fishers perceive this experience should be central for the success or failure of the MAs as a viable alternative to the earlier conditions of open access. While the assessment of El Quisco deals more with the performance of the MA, Puerto Oscuro is used to portray the seascapes of conflict that have emerged as ownership of the coastal land is contested. The study shows that while the reform has brought better incomes from the benthic resources, the overall economic importance of the MAs for the fishers is reduced relative to the incomes coming from fishing activities realized outside the MAs. Experiences in both cases have been otherwise positive in terms of the recuperation of the species, ecological concerns and strengthening fishers’ so-called soft assets. Nevertheless, many problems remain, among them the problem of access to the sea border and those related to ambiguous land rights to support coastal settlement and fishing infrastructure development.

  • 2. Gorokhova, Elena
    et al.
    Edlund, Anna
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Hajdu, Susanna
    Zhivotova, Elena N.
    Nucleic acid levels in copepods: dynamic response to phytoplankton blooms in the northern Baltic proper2007Inngår i: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 349, s. 213-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined changes in nucleic acids and concomitant population development of the copepods Acartia bifilosa and Eurytemora affinis in relation to the progress of the phytoplankton spring bloom in the northern Baltic proper. Individual RNA and DNA concentrations and their ratios in female copepods as well as copepod abundance and population structure were analyzed in 2 coastal areas that differed in the degree of eutrophication and phytoplankton development. During the study period (February to June 2002), bloom conditions were evident, with chlorophyll (chl) a values being 42% higher in the eutrophic area than in the reference area. In both areas, diatoms dominated; in the reference area, they were replaced by dinoflagellates toward the end of the bloom. Copepod RNA-DNA concentrations increased rapidly at the onset of the bloom and gradually decreased thereafter. Moreover, in the eutrophic area, both copepods had higher RNA content and RNA:DNA ratios throughout the study period, suggesting higher productivity in this area. In both species, we found positive correlations between RNA-based indices and chl a. Thus, as suggested by RNA dynamics, growth rates of A. bifilosa and E. affinis appear to respond rapidly to both temporal variation in spring phytoplankton stock and spatial variation due to the magnitude of the bloom. In addition, we found that species-specific RNA dynamics and RNA-chl a relationships differed between species, indicating possible differences in feeding preferences and growth potential.

  • 3.
    Hasler, B.
    et al.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Smart, J. C. R.
    Aarhus University, Denmark / Griffith University, Australia.
    Fonnesbech-Wulff, A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Andersen, H. E.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Thodsen, H.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Blicher Mathiesen, G.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Smedberg, E.
    Stockholm University.
    Göke, C.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Czajkowski, M.
    University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Was, A.
    Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.
    Elofsson, Katarina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Humborg, C.
    Stockholm University.
    Wolfsberg, A.
    Aarhus University, Denmark.
    Wulff, F.
    Stockholm University.
    Hydro-economic modelling of cost-effective transboundary water quality management in the Baltic Sea2014Inngår i: Water Resources and Economics, ISSN 2212-4284, Vol. 5, s. 1-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Helcom's recently revised Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) aims to reduce eutrophication in the, Baltic Sea by reducing nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins. The BALTCOST costminimisation, model, featuring abatement cost and effect functions which utilise spatial data down to, 10×10km2 grid cell resolution, is used to identify a cost-effective distribution of nutrient abatement, measures between drainage basins whilst attempting to achieve specified nutrient load reductions for, separate Baltic Sea regions. Results indicate that the 2013 BSAP load reduction targets for nitrogen and phosphorus can be achieved in most Baltic Sea regions, except for phosphorus into the Baltic Proper, and the Gulf of Finland. The estimated minimum total cost of delivering these reductions is 4.17 billion, Euros annually, with substantial differences in the cost burden between countries and measures.Results are strongly influenced by differences in nutrient retention between drainage basins. Detailed, retention modelling and high spatial resolution source data are major novel features of this research. 

  • 4.
    Hellström, Benjamin
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Utveckling och internationellt samarbete.
    Sultan, Leila
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Utveckling och internationellt samarbete.
    Hybrid patches of commoning - Unpacking influences of the hydrosocial cycle on commoning in a downstream desert reclamation area: case study in Youssef El Seddik, Egypt2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Water stress is increasing globally, especially affecting arid regions of the world such as Egypt. Due to challenges related to intensifying effects of climate change and a rapidly growing population, the levels of and access to water is a continuous area of concern for the country – making it important to analyze how these water issues are managed. This study connects the hydrosocial cycle and commoning frameworks in analyzing how water is managed in a downstream, desert reclamation area in Fayoum, Egypt – and how this management, or lack thereof, affects the livelihoods of the people living there. In doing so, we examine how possible commoning practices are influenced by factors related to the hydrosocial cycle. Fieldwork has been conducted for this case study by holding participatory workshops, semi-structured interviews, and observations. Our findings imply that the hydrosocial cycle has shaped the management of water in our studied site, which has in turn affected the commoning practices that take place there. The low water levels and the saline quality of the water is what has created the prevalent forms of commoning that can be seen in the community.  The presence of a local agricultural association has also influenced the commoning practices. The quality and levels of water in the area are in part managed by neighbors borrowing irrigation minutes from each other, and by collective olive harvest. To a lesser extent there are also instances of neighbors helping each other with agricultural work throughout the year, and sharing reservoirs. There are indications that these commoning practices play a part in sustaining livelihoods in the community. The commoning practices found in the studied site have emerged in a relatively new social context and can be characterized as context specific patches of commoning, occurring on the peripheries of hybrid institutions – that have largely been shaped by hydrosocial forces. As the hydrosocial cycle is ever-changing, these commoning practices will likely also come to change.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Hellström B. & Sultan L. (2020) Hybrid patches of commoning
  • 5.
    Morf, Andrea
    et al.
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandström, Annica
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Söderström, Sara
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. The Fisheries Secretariate (FishSec), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring enablers and obstacles to policy-oriented learning in Swedish marine national park planning2023Inngår i: Environmental Policy and Governance, ISSN 1756-932X, E-ISSN 1756-9338, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 17-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deepens our understanding of the preconditions for policy-oriented learning in conflictive marine conservation, provides an analytical framework for further studies and formulates recommendations for practitioners on what to consider when establishing protected areas. Our seas are under increasing pressure but lag behind in protection. Climate change, intensifying use and biodiversity loss challenge current practises and imply trade-offs between conservation and use. While nature conservation ranks high internationally, national protection attempts often result in controversies, with actors aligning in opposing advocacy coalitions-for and against the proposals. Policy-oriented learning is one way to overcome controversies. It involves processes whereby actors gain new knowledge and experiences, leading to changed beliefs about the problems and possible solutions. We aimed to explore and explain policy-oriented learning through a comparative longitudinal case study of two Swedish national park planning processes with different outcomes: Koster Sea national park, established 2009, and Sankt Anna archipelago remaining without park. Which characteristics related to context, actors and processes influence policy-oriented learning in conflictive marine conservation processes? The results suggest that a set of complementary factors explain the different outcomes. First, learning is facilitated by contexts where actors from both coalitions depend on the resource and its protection and have experience of collaboration, and where conservation planning is well integrated with other governance processes. Second, engaged key actors with moderate views facilitating interactions and able to identify common interests and deescalate conflicts are important - supported, third, by various forums allowing exchange of knowledge and learning across coalitions.

  • 6.
    Said, Samy
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för livsvetenskaper.
    Irrigation in Africa: Water conflicts between large-scale and small-scale farmers in Tanzania, Kiru Valley2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with relationship between irrigation and agriculture and conflicts within an irrigation system and as well between other stakeholders concerning the water. Irrigated lands are up to 2.5 times more productive compared to rain-fed agriculture. They are important element in the agriculture sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, and have been favoured by governments and donor agencies for their high rate of return. Without proper technical equipments or support negative impacts on the environment are linked to irrigation activities. Furthermore, a case study was made in Tanzania, Kiru Valley, regarding the tension between big scale and small-scale farmers as result from the water decline. The results demonstrate that the institutions do not have the power to solve the conflict. It is difficult to define the different stakeholders and the boundaries of the area that affect the amount of water in the valley.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Singh, D. K.
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China.
    Xu, M.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China.
    Singh, Nandita
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap.
    Lei, F.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, PR China.
    Perspectives on emerging pressures and their integrated impact on large river systems: An insight from the Yellow River basin2021Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 298, artikkel-id 113423Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Yellow River, with a developmental and historical significance to China, is now facing several emerging pressures, which are degrading the river status and creating challenges for high-quality development in the basin. Numerous studies on such emerging pressures, present scattered outcomes, and trigger uncertainties and deficient assumptions on the river's problems. This review integrated such scattered information and investigated the emerging pressures, their drivers and integrated impacts at the basin level. The study intended to prioritize those pressures needing expeditious consideration, and carried a discussion on the alternative pathways to the solution. To determine the critical emerging pressures, a literature review was conducted and experts' opinion was sought. The outcome further led to a comprehensive review, data collection, and analysis of three groups of emerging pressures. The review recognized ‘Water Stress’ in the lower reach, primarily caused by an abated flow, as the most distressing emerging pressure inflicting social, ecological, and economic consequences. Such decline in flow was mostly induced by a recent increase in ‘Anthropogenic activities’, such as intensive water withdrawal for irrigation (≥27 BCM), and construction of check dams in the Loess Plateau region (trapping~5 BCM water). The increasing ‘Pollution’ in the river, besides threatening public health and ecology, also contributed to the water stress by rendering certain stretches of the river biologically dead and unsuitable for any use. The ‘Climate Change’, with its key negative effect on precipitation in the middle sub-basin, overall contributed small (8–11 %) to the observed reduction in river flow. With increasing challenges for the adopted engineering solutions tackling the water stress, the study suggested the use of a demand management approach, employing adaptive policy measures, as an alternative or supplementary solution to the current approach. In addition, the study highlights that regular reviewing and reforming the key decisions based on evidence and updated information, and taking a participatory approach, may offer a sustainable pathway to the environment as well as socio-economic goals.

  • 8.
    Yau, Y. Y. Y.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reithmaier, G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Majtenyi-Hill, C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Serrano, O.
    Ctr Estudios Avanzados Blanes, Spain; Edith Cowan Univ, Australia.
    Pineiro-Juncal, N.
    Ctr Estudios Avanzados Blanes, Spain.
    Dahl, Martin
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. Ctr Estudios Avanzados Blanes, Spain.
    Mateo, M. A.
    Ctr Estudios Avanzados Blanes, Spain; Edith Cowan Univ, Australia; Universidade de Aveiro, Spain; Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Bonaglia, S.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Santos, I. R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Methane Emissions in Seagrass Meadows as a Small Offset to Carbon Sequestration2023Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 128, nr 6, artikkel-id e2022JG007295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seagrass meadows are effective carbon sinks due to high primary production and sequestration in sediments. However, methane (CH4) emissions can partially counteract their carbon sink capacity. Here, we measured diffusive sediment-water and sea-air CO2 and CH4 fluxes in a coastal embayment dominated by Posidonia oceanica in the Mediterranean Sea. High-resolution timeseries observations revealed large spatial and temporal variability in CH4 concentrations (2-36 nM). Lower sea-air CH4 emissions were observed in an area with dense seagrass meadows compared to patchy seagrass. A 6%-40% decrease of CH4 concentration in the surface water around noon indicates that photosynthesis likely limits CH4 fluxes. Sediments were the major CH4 source as implied from radon (a natural porewater tracer) observations and evidence for methanogenesis in deeper sediments. CH4 sediment-water fluxes (0.1 +/- 0.1-0.4 +/- 0.1 mu mol m(-2) d(-1)) were higher than average sea-air CH4 emissions (0.12 +/- 0.10 mu mol m(-2) d(-1)), suggesting that dilution and CH4 oxidation in the water column could reduce net CH4 fluxes into the atmosphere. Overall, relatively low sea-air CH4 fluxes likely represent the net emissions from subtidal seagrass habitat not influenced by allochthonous CH4 sources. The local CH4 emissions in P. oceanica can offset less than 1% of the carbon burial in sediments (142 +/- 69 g CO2eq m(-2) yr(-1)). Combining our results with earlier observations in other seagrass meadows worldwide reveals that global CH4 emissions only offset a small fraction (<2%) of carbon sequestration in sediments from seagrass meadows. Plain Language Summary Seagrass meadows are hotspots for marine carbon storage in sediments. Part of the sediment carbon can be released as carbon dioxide and methane (CH4). Methane has 45-96 times more powerful global warming effect than carbon dioxide. If seagrass meadows release CH4, the emissions counteract their climate mitigation potential. We measured greenhouse gas concentrations and fluxes in a seagrass-dominated Mediterranean embayment. Low CH4 coincided with oxygen produced from seagrass photosynthesis. Areas with dense seagrass meadows had lower CH4 emissions. Overall, seagrass-dominated coasts were a small source of CH4 that offset only <2% of carbon buried in sediments on local and global scales. Hence, seagrass meadows remain an effective carbon sink.

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