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Cross-scale perspectives on heterogeneity in Swedish boreal forests
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för naturgeografi och kvartärgeologi (INK).
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Text
Abstract [en]

Maintaining species diversity, ecosystem functioning, and socioeconomic values requires continued ecosystem heterogeneity across scales. This thesis aims to bridge gaps between ecological theory, environmental goals, and practical application of sustainable forest management needed to maintain such heterogeneity. Included case studies of boreal Sweden concern three challenges in the cross-scale understanding of heterogeneity: matrix qualities and composition; acquiring and incorporating historical information; and interactions between forest composition and management. Paper I cover three large-scale forest companies in four boreal counties today, outlining available information on matrix qualities and composition from the companies. Papers II-III cover the village scale from 1720s–1850s–present in Dalarna County and papers IV-V the parish scale from 1860s–present in the same county. Geographic Information Systems were used to integrate historical maps with present data, perform spatiotemporal analyses, and extract data for statistical testing in primarily generalized linear models. For the practical realization of sustainable forest management, the results indicate a need for further monitoring across scales to understand matrix composition, especially in relation to small voluntary reservations in a larger spatiotemporal perspective. Historical material can provide information on temporal connectivity and spatial separation between the past and present forest composition from analysis of change trajectories respectively interacting variables. This thesis suggests that models of forest dynamics are more relevant for local implementation of sustainable forest management efforts if including interactions between forest dynamics and ownership as an approximate driver of local change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm University , 2011. , 37 p.
Series
Dissertations from the Department of Physical Geography, ISSN 1653-7211 ; 25
Keyword [en]
sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation, landscape analysis, historical maps, ownership
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29734ISBN: 978-91-7447-206-6OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-29734DiVA: diva2:911745
Public defence
2011-02-11, Nordenskiöldsalen, Geovetenskapens hus, Svante Arrhenius väg 12, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following papers were unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript. Paper 5: Manuscript.

Available from: 2016-03-14 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2016-03-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The challenge of combining timber production and biodiversity conservation for long-term ecosystem functioning: A case study of Swedish boreal forestry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The challenge of combining timber production and biodiversity conservation for long-term ecosystem functioning: A case study of Swedish boreal forestry
2006 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, Vol. 237, no 1-3, 208-217 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this case study of Swedish boreal forestry, we analyze the implementation in practical management of a sustainable forest management that includes the continued capacity of ecosystems to also provide non-timber services. In the Swedish national forest policy, the equal goals of timber production and biodiversity conservation have increased the responsibility of landowners and managers to modify practical management. We compiled written information from three larger FSC-certified forestry companies combined with semi-structured interviews with forest management personnel at regional offices to map what data and information the companies collect and use. We examined to what extent obtainable information from the forest companies captures composition, structure, and function of boreal ecosystems at patch, stand and landscape scale. This was done using 47 indicators compiled from literature and grouped into five categories based on nationally identified deficiencies in the managed boreal forest compared to unmanaged forest. We found that the recording of data describing different aspects of the forest ecosystem were separated in two largely uncoordinated systems, Ecological Landscape Plans and stand registers. While there is a need for conservation-oriented data across scales, collected statistics was largely production-oriented and related to the stand scale. We also identified information gaps regarding different ecosystem structures and their spatial distribution such as dead wood and habitat networks. The knowledge base available to future management decisions also seems to lack information on connectivity in the landscape, habitat at smaller spatial scales and the effectiveness of reserved areas. To reach the ecological goals of sustainable forest management, there is a need to further coordinate existing data and information but also to fill gaps in particular regarding cross-scale information.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6111 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2006.09.046 (DOI)000243230900022 ()2-s2.0-37149053766 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2011-02-09 Created: 2011-02-09 Last updated: 2016-03-14Bibliographically approved
2. Current distribution of older and deciduous forests as legacies from historical use patterns in a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–2007)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Current distribution of older and deciduous forests as legacies from historical use patterns in a Swedish boreal landscape (1725–2007)
2010 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 260, no 7, 1095-1103 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We combine historical maps and satellite derived data to reconstruct the development of a Swedish boreal landscape over the past 300 years. The aim is to understand legacies from past use patterns in present-day forest composition and consequences for conservation objectives from a landscape perspective. We analyze landscape development in cross-tabulation matrixes, building change trajectories. These trajectories are tested in linear models to explain the distribution of present-day landscape composition of coniferous, mixed, and deciduous forests >110 years. Of 49 tested change trajectories, 11 showed a significant association. Associations for mixed and coniferous forests were similar and linked to characteristics such as forest continuity, which characterized the studied landscape. Deciduous older forests did not show any association to forest continuity but were more likely to occur on areas that specifically shifted from forests with grazing in the 1720s to open impediment (likely indicating low tree coverage) in the 1850s. There were large shifts and spatial redistribution in ownerships over time. Use patterns and legacies varied between small- and large-scale ownership categories as well as within small-scale categories. The legacies found in the study indicate a complex origin of heterogeneous landscape elements such as older deciduous forests. Additionally, the origin of the legacies indicates a potential need to diversify conservation management based on the influence of past use patterns. Despite large inconsistencies in historical and contemporary data we argue that this type of analysis could be used to further understand the distribution of landscape elements important for conservation objectives.

Keyword
Ownership, Management regime, Heterogeneity, Sustainable forestry, Trajectory, Remnant habitats, Conservation
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6348 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2010.06.018 (DOI)000282040000001 ()2-s2.0-77955769490 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2011-02-23 Created: 2011-02-23 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
3. Addressing semantics and historical data heterogeneities in ross-temporal landscape analyses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing semantics and historical data heterogeneities in ross-temporal landscape analyses
2010 (English)In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 139, no 4, 516-521 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The process of recreating historical land cover dynamics, needed to nderstand trends and transient states in ecosystems, includes ifficulties such as the sensitivity of applied spatial analyses to eterogeneities in historical material. This paper compares the handling f quantitatively dominating categories in two matrix analyses of land over change within a Swedish boreal landscape (1725-1859). The focus is n how inconsistencies between historical maps can be handled without iolating the inherent semantic potential. The study shows that analyses f land cover support different indications of change depending on the reatment of dominating categories. The type of landscape and research uestions in focus should therefore be part of choosing matrix method nd classification scheme. The observed patterns need to be evaluated gainst drivers of change and semantic plasticity in classification chemes to separate ecological change from semantic confusion. This aper recommends aggregated classification schemes with maintained riginal relationships between categories in comprehensive analyses. owever, no pathway is persistent over time and categories should be llowed to disappear and new to appear. Analysis of historical dynamics ith extended transition matrixes is recommended to account for the ynamics of small categories in relation to dominating categories within landscape.

National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13701 (URN)10.1016/j.agee.2010.09.011 (DOI)000287277100009 ()2-s2.0-78650747269 (ScopusID)
Available from: 2011-12-06 Created: 2011-12-06 Last updated: 2016-03-14Bibliographically approved
4. Interactions between historical forest composition and ownership affect present composition of older forest in boreal Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between historical forest composition and ownership affect present composition of older forest in boreal Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this study we reconstruct forest composition during the 1860s for a 71000 ha area in southern boreal Sweden. The aim is to show how historical ownership and associated anthropogenic disturbances act as a source of heterogeneity in the present-day distribution and composition of coniferous and deciduous forest within the commercial production forest. We use older (>110 years) and mature (70-110 years) forest as response variables in generalized linear models with a binominal error distribution. The explanatory variables include size of zone, historical type of ownership zone (village, company, and farm), amount of forest, and forest type. We focus in particular on investigating effects from interacting explanatory variables. The significant statistical associations in the study indicate that patterns of deciduous and coniferous older patches differ, and that deciduous patches differ in relation to age interval. The oldest deciduous patches, for example, are today more likely on areas that had deciduous cover also in the past and stood on forestland managed by farmers, but less likely on the same habitat managed by companies. We show that there are strong effects on present forest composition from historical ownership and forest composition. We argue that by including local data on past ownership combined with knowledge on use patterns management could be better adapted to local landscape dynamics compared to the application of overly generalized patterns or models of boreal dynamics that excludes interactions with management.

Keyword
biodiversity conservation, heterogeneity, historical material, interacting variables, matrix, sustainable forestry
National Category
Landscape Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29733 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2011-01-07 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved
5. Historical perspepctives on landscape representation and forest composition in Woodland Key Habitats compared to formally protected forest in boreal Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical perspepctives on landscape representation and forest composition in Woodland Key Habitats compared to formally protected forest in boreal Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Habitats of Swedish conservation interests are in general small and fragmented following the extensive and intensive forest management history. This study covering 71 000 ha of boreal Sweden investigates how history influences present-day distribution and composition of forests identified as high conservation value habitats and how they are protected. We also investigated if the habitat criteria used to describe reservations differed between reservation types and if habitat criteria were associated with the size of Woodland Key Habitats. The results show strong effects from historical ownership and historical forest type on the probability of an area being set aside as formally protected or as voluntary protected Woodland Key Habitats. We also found that both formal reservations and Woodland Key Habitats primarily cover coniferous forest in the age interval 70-110 years but not the presumably most valuable oldest coniferous category >110 or deciduous forests, which are as common in reservations as in other areas. Old deciduous forests (>110 years) are significantly more rare in formal reservations compared to the forest matrix. When viewed in a context of fragmentation and edge effects the results underline the importance of evaluating reserved areas and Woodland Key Habitats in a wider temporal and larger spatial perspective to optimize conservation management efforts. Maximal representation and biodiversity can be better achieved if new reservations are chosen to represent different ownership and forest history, and if they are selected in a landscape context related to present reservations and the present surrounding production forest.

Keyword
habitat remnants, forest structure and composition, biodiversity conservation, fragmentation, edge effects, matrix, structural contrast
National Category
Landscape Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29732 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2011-01-07 Created: 2016-03-14 Last updated: 2016-09-22Bibliographically approved

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