Exploring the financing gap between native born women- and immigrant women-owned firms at the start-up stage: Empirical evidence from Swedish data
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1756-6266, Vol. 5, no 2, 157-173 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence which identifies the impact of ethnicity and other relevant variables on external capital acquisition among Swedish women-owned businesses at start-up. Design/methodology/approach: Several methods have been employed to analyze the sample including a binary logistic regression model. The sample consists of 836 women-owned businesses in southeast Sweden; 97 immigrant-owned, 739 native born-owned. Findings: The results indicate that there are partly significant differences between native women-owned firms and immigrant woman-owned businesses at start-up. Unlike the native-owned firms, the immigrant woman-owned businesses rely more on loans from family members and less on bank loans. Practical implications: The results reveal that age has a positive impact on loans from family members, while the additional job outside one's own business, the amount of the owner's personal start-up capital and firm size positively influenced access to capital from banks. The owners' level of education, previous business experience, the legal form taken by the firm and the industry affiliation conversely played no significant role in explaining the women owners' attitudes toward loans from either friends or the bank. Originality/value: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first empirical investigation addressing this issue in the Swedish context.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UK: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2013. Vol. 5, no 2, 157-173 p.
Corporate ownership, Ethnicity, Gender, Small business, Small enterprises, Startup Capital, Sweden, Women
Business Administration Human Geography
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28298DOI: 10.1108/17566261311328837ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84879149388OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-28298DiVA: diva2:855386