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Maybe Baby?: Reproductive Behaviour, Fertility Intentions, and Family Policies in Post-communist Countries, with a Special Focus on Ukraine
Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Sociology. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS). Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre for Health and Social Change). Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis studies different aspects of reproductive behaviour on the international, national, and local levels in post-communist countries. The main focus is Ukraine, where fertility rates are very low and the population is in severe decline. The studies contribute new knowledge about the applicability of a family policy typology developed on the basis of Western countries’ experience for post-communist countries, and about the influence of family policies on fertility levels in these countries. Moreover, the studies investigate whether and how macro-level influences impact on individuals’ reproductive behaviour. Four articles are included in the thesis:

Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective analyses the institutional set-up of family policies in both countries and compares the findings to 31 other countries. The results show that Ukrainian family policies support a male-breadwinner type of family, while the benefit levels of Russian family policies are low, compelling families to rely on relatives or the childcare market.

Family policies and fertility - Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010 comparatively explores whether family policies have an effect on fertility rates across the case-countries. Pooled time-series regression analysis demonstrates that gender-egalitarian family policies are connected to higher fertility rates, but that this effect is smaller at higher rates of female labour force participation.

To have or not to have a child? Perceived constraints on childbearing in a lowest-low fertility context investigates the influence of the perception of postmodern values, childcare availability and environmental pollution on individuals’ fertility intentions in a city in Eastern Ukraine. It is shown that women who already have a child perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility intentions.

Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007 examines changes in the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods. The use of modern contraceptive methods increased during the period and the use of traditional methods decreased, while the overall prevalence did not change. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media is correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , 64 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 109
Keyword [en]
Family policies, Family planning, Environmental pollution, Fertility rates, Fertility intentions, Contraceptive methods, Ukraine
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26718ISBN: 978-91-554-9170-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-26718DiVA: diva2:796942
Public defence
2015-04-17, MB503, Södertörns högskola, Alfred Nobels Allé 7, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2017-03-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family policies in Ukraine and Russia in comparative perspective
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

This study compares the institutional setting of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with 31 countries, including post-communist countries and other EU and OECD countries. Large-scale systematic comparisons of family policies in Ukraine and Russia with longstanding welfare states and other post-communist European countries have so far been lacking. The analyses are based on a comparative institutional approach, which captures the content of legislation multidimensionally instead of focusing only on social expenditure. This enables an evaluation of the structure of Ukrainian and Russian family policies in relation to other countries in 2005. Analyses show that Ukraine and Russia differ considerably in terms of family policy, as do other post-communist countries. Ukraine more actively supports traditional family patterns, while Russia leaves greater room for market forces. The policies in Ukraine and Russia are likely to be insufficient when it comes to addressing work-family conflicts and increasing long-term fertility.

Keyword
Comparative family policy, Ukraine, Russia, Work-family reconciliation, Fertility
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26497 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2015-02-18 Created: 2015-02-27 Last updated: 2016-01-25Bibliographically approved
2. Family policies and fertility: Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family policies and fertility: Examining the link between family policy institutions and fertility rates in 33 countries 1995-2010
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

In what ways are family policies related to fertility? Previous studies of OECD countries have arrived at mixed results when analysing the effects of family policy expenditures or formal benefit rates. This study draws on new institutional family policy data from a wider set of 33 countries in a multidimensional analysis of the link between family policy institutions and fertility 1995-2010. Pooled time-series regressions show that more extensive gender-egalitarian family policies, i.e. earner-carer support, are linked to higher fertility, while policies supporting more traditional family patterns show no statistically significant effects. Analyses of the interaction between earner-carer support and female labour force participation indicate that the impact of introducing more gender-egalitarian policies is stronger in countries with lower levels of female labour force participation. Regressions with differenced data sustain ideas of earner-carer support being linked to total fertility increase.

Keyword
Fertility, Family policies, Female labour force participation, Gender-egalitarian, Gender-traditional
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26496 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2015-02-18 Created: 2015-02-27 Last updated: 2016-01-25Bibliographically approved
3. To Have or Not to Have a Child?: Perceived Constraints on Childbearing in a Lowest-Low Fertility Context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>To Have or Not to Have a Child?: Perceived Constraints on Childbearing in a Lowest-Low Fertility Context
2015 (English)In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 21, no 1, 86-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The influence of perceived macro-level constraints on childbearing on women’s fertility decision-making on the micro level was analysed in Stakhanov, a city with a shrinking population in Eastern Ukraine. The perceived macro-level constraints employed in the study were related to childcare arrangements, value changes regarding family formation, and pollution of the environment and health concerns. To study the influence of those constraints, logistic regression analyses were conducted whereby first-birth and second-birth intentions were analysed separately. None of the constraints influenced childless women’s first-birth intentions. Instead, sociodemographic factors such as age and civil status appeared as significant predictors. That none of the constraints influenced childless women’s fertility intentions is interpreted to be an indicator of the strong norm of having at least one child in Ukraine.For women with one child, the fact that pollution of the environment and health concerns connected to childbirth were perceived as a constraint on childbearing at the national level was significantly associated with lower second-birth intentions. Women in Ukraine seem to perceive environmental pollution as a constraint on their fertility, possibly influenced by public discourse related to the health consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Moreover, the inhabitants of Stakhanov itself have experienced environmental pollution at close range. Those factors together could explain why environmental pollution and poor health were seen as constraints on childbearing at the national level, and the negative influence these had on second-birth intentions.It is argued that environmental pollution should be considered a factor influencing fertility decision-making. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keyword
fertility intentions, lowest-low fertility, Eastern Ukraine, Stakhanov, environmental pollution
National Category
Sociology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-19658 (URN)10.1002/psp.1811 (DOI)000347706100006 ()2-s2.0-84920807038 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2013-09-05 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2017-03-14Bibliographically approved
4. Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence and correlates of the use of contraceptive methods by women in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007
2015 (English)In: Europe-Asia Studies, ISSN 0966-8136, E-ISSN 1465-3427, Vol. 67, no 10, 1547-1570 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This essay examines the prevalence and the correlates of the use of contraceptive methods in Ukraine in 1999 and 2007. Between those years, the overall use of contraceptive methods decreased slightly. However, the use of modern contraceptive methods, and especially the use of condoms, increased considerably, while the use of traditional contraceptive methods decreased. Higher exposure to messages about family planning in the media was correlated with the use of modern contraceptive methods. It is posited that the results suggest that state policies influence individual behaviour in contraception.

National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26495 (URN)10.1080/09668136.2015.1100372 (DOI)000367004900003 ()
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2015-02-18 Created: 2015-02-27 Last updated: 2017-03-14Bibliographically approved

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