Evolution of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Structures of CGM9, CGM11 and pregnancy-specific glycoprotein promoters
2000 (English)In: Tumor Biology, ISSN 1010-4283, E-ISSN 1423-0380, Vol. 21, no 2, 63-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Earlier studies have demonstrated that the genes of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family can be divided into three subgroups, the CEA subgroup (n = 12), the pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) subgroup (n = 11), and a third subgroup (n = 6). To further characterize the CEA gene family, we have determined the genomic structures of CGM9 and CGM11, analyzed the promoter regions of all eleven PSGs, studied the CGM15-PSG13 intergenic region and the evolutionary relationships between the CEA family genes. CGM9, a typical CEA subgroup member, was a pseudogene with the exon structure [5'UTR-L-L/N-TM-Cyt-3'UTR]. CGM11 contained a mixture of exons derived from CEA and PSG subgroup genes. The formula of the CGM11 pseudogene was [5'UTRL- L/N-C-3'UTR]. Thus both genes lacked the IgC2-like domains typically found in CEA subfamily members. The upstream promoter regions of all eleven PSGs were characterized. All PSG promoters lacked the classical TATA and CCAAT elements, but had putative PEA3 box(es), CACCC box(es), a RARE box, and poly (dG-dT) repeats of different lengths. Five PSGs also had an SP1 site. The complete 10-kb intergenic region between CGM15 and PSG13 was sequenced. Clusters of different types of repetitive sequences were seen. The time of divergence of the CEA and PSG subfamilies was estimated to be 107.7 ± 17.1 million years, or at about the time of human-rodent divergence. Models for the evolution of CEA and PSG and the third family subgroup genes are proposed.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2000. Vol. 21, no 2, 63-81 p.
CEA subfamily, CGM 15, Divergence, PSG subfamily, PSG13, carcinoembryonic antigen, pregnancy associated protein, 5' untranslated region, article, gene duplication, gene structure, human, molecular model, multigene family, oncogene, priority journal, promoter region, protein family, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Base Sequence, Consensus Sequence, Evolution, Molecular, Fetus, Genomic Library, Glycoproteins, Humans, Liver, Mice, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Pregnancy Proteins, Promoter Regions (Genetics), Pseudogenes, Rats, Sequence Alignment, Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
Cancer and Oncology
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-22920ISI: 000085575700001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-0342948835OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-22920DiVA: diva2:713557