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Social Referencing in 10-month-old infants
Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för psykologi.
2013 (English)In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 10, no 5, 533-545 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In Experiment 1, forty 10-month-old infants participated together with an experimenter and their parent in a social referencing encounter. The experimenter or the parent presented an ambiguous toy. Neither of the adults provided information about the toy in order to examine infant spontaneous looking behaviour. The infants looked more at the experimenter than at the parent. In Experiment 2 it was examined whether 10-month-old infants (44 infants) would use positive information provided by the experimenter to a higher degree than positive information provided by the parent. The infants regulated their behaviour toward the toy in accordance with the information. They played more with the toy when the experimenter provided information than when the parent did. The results are discussed in terms of seeking information from knowledgeable others in ambiguous situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 10, no 5, 533-545 p.
Keyword [en]
social referencing, infants, spontaneous looking behavior, information seeking
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-22343DOI: 10.1080/17405629.2013.763473ISI: 000322696200001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-84882256682OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-22343DiVA: diva2:697871
Available from: 2012-02-09 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2014-02-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The Social World Through Infants’ Eyes: How Infants Look at Different Social Figures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Social World Through Infants’ Eyes: How Infants Look at Different Social Figures
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to study how infants actively look at different social figures: parents and strangers. To study infants’ looking behavior in “live” situations, new methods to record looking behavior were tested.

Study 1 developed a method to record looking behavior in “live” situations: a head-mounted camera. This method was calibrated for a number of angles and then used to measure how infants look at faces and objects in two “live” situations, a conversation and a joint action. High reliability was found for the head-mounted camera in horizontal positions and the possibility of using it in a number of “live” situations with infants from 6 to 14 months of age.

In Study 2, the head-mounted camera and a static camera and were used in a “live” ambiguous situation to study infants’ preferences to refer to and to use the information from parents and strangers. The results from Experiment 1 of Study 2 showed that if no information is provided in ambiguous situations in the lab, infants at 10 months of age look more at the experimenter than at the parent. Further, Experiment 2 of Study 2 showed that the infants also used more of the emotional information provided by the experimenter than by the parent to regulate their behavior.

 In Study 3, looking behavior was analyzed in detail when infants looked at pictures of their parents’ and strangers’ emotional facial expressions. Corneal eye tracking was used to record looking. In this study, the influence of identity, gender, emotional expressions and parental leave on looking behavior was analyzed. The results indicated that identity and experience of looking at others influences how infants discriminate emotions in pictures of facial expressions. Fourteen-month-old infants who had been with both parents in parental leave discriminated more emotional expressions in strangers than infants who only had one parent on leave. Further, they reacted with larger pupil dilation toward the parent who was actually in parental leave than to the parent not on leave. Finally, fearful emotional expressions were more broadly scanned than neutral or happy facial expressions.

The results of these studies indicate that infants discriminate between mothers’, fathers’ and strangers’ emotional facial expressions and use the other people’s expressions to regulate their behavior. In addition, a new method, a head-mounted camera was shown to capture infants’ looking behavior in “live” situations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2012. 66 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 75
Keyword
infant social looking, emotional facial expressions, experience, identity, behavior regulation, head-mounted cameras, eye-tracking
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-22341 (URN)978-91-554-8269-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-03-29, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-02-19 Created: 2014-02-19 Last updated: 2015-01-02Bibliographically approved

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