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Chd1 remodelers maintain open chromatin and regulate the epigenetics of differentiation
Karolinska Institutet.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology. Karolinska Institutet.
2010 (English)In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 316, no 8, 1316-1323 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Eukaryotic DNA is packaged around octamers of histone proteins into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin. In addition to enabling meters of DNA to fit within the confines of a nucleus, the structure of chromatin has functional implications for cell identity. Covalent chemical modifications to the DNA and to histones, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, small noncoding RNAs and the level of chromatin compaction all contribute to chromosomal structure and to the activity or silencing of genes. These chromatin-level alterations are defined as epigenetic when they are heritable from mother to daughter cell. The great diversity of epigenomes that can arise from a single genome permits a single, totipotent cell to generate the hundreds of distinct cell types found in humans. Two recent studies in mouse and in fly have highlighted the importance of Chd1 chromatin remodelers for maintaining an open, active chromatin state. Based on evidence from fission yeast as a model system, we speculate that Chd1 remodelers are involved in the disassembly of nucleosomes at promoter regions, thus promoting active transcription and open chromatin. It is likely that these nucleosomes are specifically marked for disassembly by the histone variant H2A.Z.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 316, no 8, 1316-1323 p.
Keyword [en]
Chd1, Chromatin, Development, Epigenetics, adenosine triphosphate, cell protein, DNA, histone, histone H2AZ, protein Chd1, unclassified drug, untranslated RNA, CHD1 protein, human, Chd1 protein, mouse, DNA binding protein, helicase, cell differentiation, cell nucleus, cell type, chemical modification, chromosome structure, daughter cell, Drosophila melanogaster, gene silencing, genome, human, nonhuman, nucleosome, priority journal, regulatory mechanism, review, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, stem cell, animal, chromatin assembly and disassembly, genetic epigenesis, physiology, Eukaryota, Schizosaccharomycetaceae, Animals, DNA Helicases, DNA-Binding Proteins, Epigenesis, Genetic, Humans
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-20809DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.02.029ISI: 000277817800007PubMedID: 20211173ScopusID: 2-s2.0-77952570482OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-20809DiVA: diva2:680713
Available from: 2013-12-18 Created: 2013-12-18 Last updated: 2014-06-16Bibliographically approved

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