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Musical expression: an observational study of instrumental teaching
2008 (English)In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 36, no 3, 309-334 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has shown that both music students and teachers think that expression is important. Yet, we know little about how expression is taught to students. Such knowledge is needed in order to enhance teaching of expression. The aim of this study was thus to explore the nature of instrumental music teaching in its natural context, with a focus on expression and emotion. Lessons featuring five music teachers and 12 students were videofilmed, transcribed, content analyzed, and coded into categories of feedback and language use. Results suggested that the focus of teaching was mainly on technique and on the written score. Lessons were dominated by talk, with the teacher doing most of the talking. Issues concerning expression and emotion were mostly dealt with implicitly rather than explicitly, although some teachers used a variety of strategies to enhance expression. Though there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was the lack of clear goals, specific tasks, and systematic teaching patterns.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2008. Vol. 36, no 3, 309-334 p.
Keyword [en]
music performance, expression, teaching, feedback, observation
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13405DOI: 10.1177/0305735607086040ISI: 000258060000004OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-13405DiVA: diva2:457925
Available from: 2008-02-19 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. A Novel Approach to Teaching Emotional Expression in Music Performance
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Approach to Teaching Emotional Expression in Music Performance
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

One of the most important aspects of music performance is the expression of emotions, yet research has suggested that this skill is neglected in music education. The aim of this thesis was thus to develop and test a novel and empirically-based approach to teaching emotional expression in music performance.

Study I explored the nature of instrumental teaching in its natural context, with a focus on emotional expression. Although there were individual differences among teachers, a common feature was a lack of clear goals, specific tasks, systematic teaching patterns, and informative feedback.

Study II presented and tested a computer program that analyzes music performances and offers informative feedback, including specific suggestions on how to enhance the emotional expression. Performers were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) feedback from the computer program, (2) feedback from music teachers, and (3) repetition without feedback. The results indicated the greatest improvements in communication accuracy for the computer feedback group, but although the computer program was rated as easy to understand and use, performers did not want to use it in the future.

Study III explored whether the negative views towards the computer program were due to negative attitudes towards computers or a dislike of the characteristics of the actual feedback contents. Results from a deception experiment revealed that the mere belief that the feedback derived from a teacher yielded higher quality ratings, but so did also feedback that did indeed derive from a teacher. The latter feedback was perceived as more detailed.

The thesis shows that it is possible for performers to improve their abilities to express emotions through computer-assisted teaching, but suggests that the feedback may benefit from including human-like aspects such as encouragement, examples, and explanations in order to make it more attractive in the eyes of its potential users.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2008. 57 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 36
Keyword
Psychology, music performance, emotion, expression, feedback, computer-based teaching, music education, Psykologi
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-13403 (URN)978-91-554-7089-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-21 Last updated: 2011-11-21Bibliographically approved

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CiteExportLink to record
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Citation style
  • apa
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  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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More styles
Language
  • de-DE
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Output format
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