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The Politics of People - Not Just Mangroves and Monkeys: A study of the theory and practice of community-based management of natural resources in Zanzibar
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Geography. (COMREC)
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Community-based management of natural resource (CBNRM) projects have commonly failed to deliver conservation and development benefits. This thesis examined how the theoretical assumptions of common pool resource (CPR) theory have contributed to the indifferent performance of CBNRM projects. Evidence was gathered from two CBNRM case studies in Zanzibar to show that CPR institutional design does not sufficiently acknowledge the politics or social relations of project sites. Moreover, these limitations reduce CPR theory's explanatory power and the functionality of CBNRM projects. This is because CPR theory's influence on CBNRM projects is to frame people with fixed identities and related interests as 'rational resource users', rather than people enrolled in multiple network relations with differentiated means of influence, interests and responsibilities. Actor-oriented theory is used to show that CBNRM would benefit from a shift in the correlation with institutional design factors to understanding the operation of power and conflict at project sites. These findings suggest that currently CBNRM projects are too mired in concern about regulating the 'direct' relationship between resource users and conservation objectives, with problematic implications. It is shown that actor-oriented theory is more sensitive to the different capacities, interests and strategies of actors in CBNRM institutional transformation processes. While actor-oriented theory does not offer a parsimonious or predictive theory to reform CPR theory or CBNRM policy, it can provide insights into pre-project conditions and emergent practice useful for explaining project interventions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2011. , 74 p.
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 58
Keyword [en]
Actor-oriented theory, CBNRM, Community conservation, Conservation conflict, CPR theory, Environmental science, ICDP, Institutional theory, Mangroves, Participatory governance, Power, Zanzibar
National Category
Environmental Sciences Human Geography
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-11566ISBN: 978-91-86069-31-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-11566DiVA: diva2:442656
Public defence
2011-11-04, MA636, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2011-10-14 Created: 2011-09-22 Last updated: 2014-10-15
List of papers
1. An examination of governance arrangements at Kisakasaka mangrove reserve in Zanzibar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An examination of governance arrangements at Kisakasaka mangrove reserve in Zanzibar
2008 (English)In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 41, no 5, 663-675 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study employs insights largely derived from critical reflections on the common pool resources (CPR) theory to examine the current governance arrangements in place to manage the mangrove forest at Kisakasaka, in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Kisakasaka was used as a site for a community-based management pilot project of forest resources in Zanzibar. After some initial success in setting up a local management structure and regulating access to the mangrove for mainly charcoal production, there are now clear indications that forest conditions have deteriorated dramatically with concomitant ongoing resource use problems for local villagers who have relied heavily on forest resources as a source of cash income. Extra-local factors, such as urban population increases and associated market pressures for charcoal, are also conjectured to overlay and interact with the institutional problems at Kisakasaka. As a result, over concern about the deterioration in the condition of the mangrove forest, the responsible government authority decided not to renew the community-based governance arrangements after an initial five-year pilot period. While revealing the inadequacies of existing governance arrangements and of its relationship to deteriorating forest conditions at Kisakasaka, this study concludes by suggesting an approach to more fully understand forces driving local resource management and use. 

Keyword
community-based natural resource management, CBNRM, mangroves, common pool, forests, resources, Zanzibar
National Category
Natural Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6182 (URN)10.1007/s00267-007-9050-x (DOI)000255113200004 ()2-s2.0-42449159799 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-02-11 Created: 2011-02-11 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved
2. The changing social relations of a community-based mangrove forest project in Zanzibar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The changing social relations of a community-based mangrove forest project in Zanzibar
Show others...
2010 (English)In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, Vol. 53, no 4, 150-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coastal areas in East Africa are experiencing rapid economic, resource management, demographic and technological shifts. In response diverse Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) applications have been embraced to provide mutual conservation and use benefits. These initiatives have met with mixed success in practice. Reflecting on the limitations of past research using common pool resources theory theory to study CBNRM we use insights from actor oriented theory combined with satellite image analysis to describe and discuss the forces dynamically influencing institutional and mangrove forest cover change at Kisakasaka, Zanzibar focussing on the formal CBNRM project period between 1996 and 2001, but also considering the period before and after this. We examine the shifting social relations that affected the performance and viability of the formal CBNRM arrangements. An integrated approach was taken to the presentation and discussion of results where it was possible to enrich and expand explanations of socio-environmental change, which was driven by a lack of government support, the undermining effects of party political divisions, and the lack of institutional adaptive capacity. We conclude that this was a useful approach to explain CBNRM intervention events at Kisakasaka.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: Pergamon, 2010
Keyword
NATURAL-RESOURCE MANAGEMENT; BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION; GOVERNANCE; INSTITUTIONS; MOZAMBIQUE; PROPERTY; RESERVE; STATE
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6178 (URN)10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2010.01.006 (DOI)000278578900002 ()2-s2.0-77952105267 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-02-11 Created: 2011-02-11 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved
3. It's Like Herding Monkeys into a Conservation Enclosure: The Formation and Establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It's Like Herding Monkeys into a Conservation Enclosure: The Formation and Establishment of the Jozani-Chwaka Bay National Park, Zanzibar
2011 (English)In: Conservation and Society, ISSN 0972-4923, E-ISSN 0975-3133, Vol. 9, no 4, 261-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-11563 (URN)10.4103/0972-4923.92138 (DOI)000208917800001 ()2-s2.0-84856595798 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2011-09-22 Created: 2011-09-22 Last updated: 2014-06-16Bibliographically approved
4. The Robustness of CBNRM projects in view of the shortcomings of CPR theory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Robustness of CBNRM projects in view of the shortcomings of CPR theory
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-11564 (URN)
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2011-09-22 Created: 2011-09-22 Last updated: 2017-07-11Bibliographically approved

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