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Sequencing of a Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Ixodes ricinus Reveals a Thermosensitive RNA Switch Significant for Virus Propagation in Ectothermic Arthropods.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Chemistry. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Molecular biology.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5013-6462
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2011 (English)In: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, ISSN 1530-3667, E-ISSN 1557-7759, Vol. 11, no 6, 649-658 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus with major impact on global health. The geographical TBEV distribution is expanding, thus making it pivotal to further characterize the natural virus populations. In this study, we completed the earlier partial sequencing of a TBEV pulled out of a pool of RNA extracted from 115 ticks collected on Torö in the Stockholm archipelago. The total RNA was sufficient for all sequencing of a TBEV genome (Torö-2003), without conventional enrichment procedures such as cell culturing or suckling mice amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the genome of TBEV has been sequenced directly from an arthropod reservoir. The Torö-2003 sequence has been characterized and compared with other TBE viruses. In silico analyses of secondary RNA structures formed by the two untranslated regions revealed a temperature-sensitive structural shift between a closed replicative form and an open AUG accessible form, analogous to a recently described bacterial thermoswitch. Additionally, novel phylogenetic conserved structures were identified in the variable part of the 3'-untranslated region, and their sequence and structure similarity when compared with earlier identified structures suggests an enhancing function on virus replication and translation. We propose that the thermo-switch mechanism may explain the low TBEV prevalence often observed in environmentally sampled ticks. Finally, we were able to detect variations that help in the understanding of virus adaptations to varied environmental temperatures and mammalian hosts through a comparative approach that compares RNA folding dynamics between strains with different mammalian cell passage histories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2011. Vol. 11, no 6, 649-658 p.
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6139DOI: 10.1089/vbz.2010.0105ISI: 000291717500010PubMedID: 21254926Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-79959411565OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-6139DiVA: diva2:396440
Available from: 2011-02-10 Created: 2011-02-10 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Molecular characterization of the Tick-borne encephalitis virus: Environments and replication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular characterization of the Tick-borne encephalitis virus: Environments and replication
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The flavivirus genus is of major concern for world morbidity and mortality and includes viruses causing both encephalitic as well as hemorrhagic diseases. The incidence of Tick-borne encephalitis is increasing in many European countries and several reports have emphasized the expansion of the main vector, Ixodes ricinus. The pattern of vector distribution is also changing in Sweden, which makes it important to set up solid and successful strategies for detection and genetic characterization of novel Swedish TBEV strains.

In this study we have generated strategies for detection of broad types of tick-borne flaviviruses in pools of I. ricinus sampled in Sweden.

The positive collection on the island of Torö was used to generate a sequence of a complete TBEV genome straight from the arthropod reservoir. This cloned virus was used to construct a self-replicating DNA based sub-genomic TBEV replicon capable of expressing reporter genes. The replicon was used to study the effect of TBEV on neurite outgrowth, which revealed that the MTase domain of NS5 block the formation of the Scribble/Rac1/βPIX protein complex, impairing neurite outgrowth in neuronal growth factor induced PC12 cells.

We also demonstrate that TBEV replication is affected by two PDZ binding motifs within NS5 and reveal putative PDZ binding proteins. These interactions might affect cellular pathways and might have a role in flavivirus replication.

We also characterize the variable 3´ non-coding region (V3’-NCR) by in silico studies on TBEV. Analysis brings new evidence that V3’-NCR region carries an enhancer element important for different replication/translation dynamics during the viral lifecycle in mammalian and tick cells. We also propose a temperature-sensitive trans-acting riboswitch mechanism; altering the secondary RNA structures of a closed form at lower temperatures and a form open for translation at higher temperatures. This mechanism may explain the low TBEV level observed in sampled ticks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, 2012. 71 p.
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 63
Keyword
Tick-borne encephalitis virus
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Research subject
Molecular Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-14829 (URN)978-91-7447-409-1 (ISBN)978-91-86069-42-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-01-27, Magnélisalen, Kemiska övningslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16 B, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

At the time of the doctoral defense, the following paper was unpublished and had a status as follows: Paper 4: Manuscript.

Available from: 2012-01-19 Created: 2012-01-19 Last updated: 2012-10-30Bibliographically approved

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