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The association among herbivory tolerance, ploidy level, and herbivory pressure in Cardamine pratensis
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Environmental science. Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences, Biology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0260-3978
2010 (English)In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 24, no 5, 1101-1113 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We tested whether differences in ploidy level and previous exposure to herbivory can affect plant tolerance to herbivory. We conducted a common garden experiment with 12 populations of two ploidy levels of the perennial herb Cardamine pratensis (five populations of tetraploid ssp. pratensis and seven populations of octoploid ssp. paludosa). Earlier studies have shown that attack rates by the main herbivore, the orange tip butterfly Anthocharis cardamines, are lower in populations of octoploids than in populations of tetraploids, and vary among populations. In the common garden experiment, a combination of natural and artificial damage significantly reduced seed and flower production. We measured tolerance based on four plant-performance metrics: survival, growth, seed production and clonal reproduction. For three of these measurements, tolerance of damage did not differ between ploidy levels. For clonal reproduction, the octoploids had a higher tolerance than the tetraploids, although they experience lower herbivore attack rates in natural populations. Populations from sites with high levels of herbivory had higher tolerance, measured by seed production, than populations with low levels of herbivory. We did not detect any significant costs of tolerance. We conclude that high intensity of herbivory has selected for high tolerance measured by seed production in C. pratensis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2010. Vol. 24, no 5, 1101-1113 p.
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6057DOI: 10.1007/s10682-010-9364-7ISI: 000281072300011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-77955770267OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-6057DiVA: diva2:395514
Note

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2011-02-07 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ecology and evolution of tolerance in two cruciferous species
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecology and evolution of tolerance in two cruciferous species
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tolerance to herbivory is the ability of plants to maintain fitness in spite of damage. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the genetic variation and expression of tolerance within species, determine whether and in what conditions tolerance has negative side-effects, and how tolerance is affected by different ecological factors. Tolerance is investigated with special focus on the effects of different damage types, competitive regimes, history of herbivory, and polyploidization in plants. Studies are conducted as a literature review and three experiments on two cruciferous species Raphanus raphanistrum and Cardamine pratensis.

In the tolerance experiments, plants are subjected to artificial damage solely, or in a combination with natural damage. A literature review was conducted in order to investigate the effects of damage method. We found that traits related to tolerance, such as growth and fitness were not as sensitive in regard to damage method as measures of induced chemical traits, or measures of secondary herbivory.

Genetic variation of tolerance was demonstrated within populations of R. raphanistrum and between subspecies of C. pratensis. In R. raphanistrum, traits involved in floral display and male fitness were positively associated with plant tolerance to herbivore damage. A potential cost of tolerance was demonstrated as a negative correlation between levels of tolerance in high and low competitive regimes. I found no evidence of other proposed costs of tolerance in terms of highly tolerant plants suffering of reduced fitness in the absence of herbivores or trade-offs in terms of a negative association between tolerance to apical and leaf damage, or between tolerance and competitive ability. In C. pratensis, higher ploidy level in plants involved higher levels of tolerance measured as clonal reproduction. Furthermore, populations exposed to higher levels of herbivory had better tolerance than populations exposed to lower levels of herbivory. In this thesis, I demonstrate evidence of different components for the evolution of tolerance in plants: genotypic variation, selective factors in terms of costs and ploidization, and selective agents in terms of changing environment or herbivore pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Botaniska institutionen, 2008. 34 p.
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 29
Keyword
herbivory, tolerance, methodology, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cardamine pratensis, folivory, apex removal, plant competition, ploidy levels, herbivore pressure
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-16090 (URN)978-91-7155-717-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-09-26, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-04-20 Created: 2012-04-20 Last updated: 2012-04-20Bibliographically approved

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