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Tolerance to apical and foliar damage: costs and mechanisms in Raphanus raphanistrum
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.
Södertörn University, School of Life Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0260-3978
2007 (English)In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 116, no 12, 2071-2081 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To study mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to herbivore damage, we used apical and foliar damage as experimental treatments to study whether there are similar tolerance mechanisms to different types of damage. We also studied whether tolerance to different types of damage are associated, and whether there is a cost involved in plant tolerance to different types of herbivore damage. Our greenhouse experiment involved 480 plants from 30 full-sib families of an annual weed Raphanus raphanistrum, wild radish, which were subjected to control and two different simulated herbivore damage treatments, apex removal and foliar damage of 30% of leaf area. Apical damage significantly decreased seed production, whereas foliar damage had no effect. There was a significant genetic variation for tolerance to foliar, but not apical damage. No costs were observed in terms of negative correlation between tolerance to either damage type and fitness of undamaged plants. Tolerances to apical and foliar damage were not significantly correlated with each other. We observed a larger number of significant associations between tolerance and reproductive traits than between tolerance and vegetative traits. Plant height and leaf size of damaged plants interacted in their association to tolerance to foliar damage. Inflorescence number and pollen quantity per flower of damaged plants were positively associated with tolerance to apical damage. In late-flowering genotypes, petal size of undamaged plants and pollen quantity of damaged plants were positively associated with tolerance to foliar damage. In summary, traits involved in floral display and male fitness were associated with plant tolerance to herbivore damage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2007. Vol. 116, no 12, 2071-2081 p.
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-6040DOI: 10.1111/j.2007.0030-1299.16056.xISI: 000251205500015ScopusID: 2-s2.0-36549018693OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-6040DiVA: diva2:395497
Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2011-02-07 Last updated: 2016-09-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Ecology and evolution of tolerance in two cruciferous species
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ecology and evolution of tolerance in two cruciferous species
2008 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Tolerance to herbivory is the ability of plants to maintain fitness in spite of damage. The goal of this thesis is to investigate the genetic variation and expression of tolerance within species, determine whether and in what conditions tolerance has negative side-effects, and how tolerance is affected by different ecological factors. Tolerance is investigated with special focus on the effects of different damage types, competitive regimes, history of herbivory, and polyploidization in plants. Studies are conducted as a literature review and three experiments on two cruciferous species Raphanus raphanistrum and Cardamine pratensis.

In the tolerance experiments, plants are subjected to artificial damage solely, or in a combination with natural damage. A literature review was conducted in order to investigate the effects of damage method. We found that traits related to tolerance, such as growth and fitness were not as sensitive in regard to damage method as measures of induced chemical traits, or measures of secondary herbivory.

Genetic variation of tolerance was demonstrated within populations of R. raphanistrum and between subspecies of C. pratensis. In R. raphanistrum, traits involved in floral display and male fitness were positively associated with plant tolerance to herbivore damage. A potential cost of tolerance was demonstrated as a negative correlation between levels of tolerance in high and low competitive regimes. I found no evidence of other proposed costs of tolerance in terms of highly tolerant plants suffering of reduced fitness in the absence of herbivores or trade-offs in terms of a negative association between tolerance to apical and leaf damage, or between tolerance and competitive ability. In C. pratensis, higher ploidy level in plants involved higher levels of tolerance measured as clonal reproduction. Furthermore, populations exposed to higher levels of herbivory had better tolerance than populations exposed to lower levels of herbivory. In this thesis, I demonstrate evidence of different components for the evolution of tolerance in plants: genotypic variation, selective factors in terms of costs and ploidization, and selective agents in terms of changing environment or herbivore pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Botaniska institutionen, 2008. 34 p.
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 29
Keyword
herbivory, tolerance, methodology, Raphanus raphanistrum, Cardamine pratensis, folivory, apex removal, plant competition, ploidy levels, herbivore pressure
National Category
Other Biological Topics
Research subject
Plant Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-16090 (URN)978-91-7155-717-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2008-09-26, föreläsningssalen, Botanicum, Lilla Frescativägen 5, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-04-20 Created: 2012-04-20 Last updated: 2012-04-20Bibliographically approved

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