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Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6763-1697
University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic forcing has led to an increased extent of hypoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea during recent decades. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is naturally prone to the development of hypoxic conditions due to its geographical, hydrographical, geological, and climate features. Besides the current spreading of hypoxia, the Baltic Sea has experienced two extensive periods of hypoxic conditions during the Holocene, caused by changing climate conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4.8 cal ka BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1–0.7 cal ka BP). We studied the variations in surface and bottom water salinity and primary productivity and their relative importance for the development and termination of hypoxia by using microfossil and geochemical data from a sediment core retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Our findings demonstrate that increased salinity was of major importance for the development of hypoxic conditions during the HTM. In contrast, we could not clearly relate the termination of this hypoxic period to salinity changes. The reconstructed high primary productivity associated with the hypoxic period during the MCA is not accompanied by considerable increases in salinity. Our proxies for salinity show a decreasing trend before, during and after the MCA. Therefore, we suggest that this period of hypoxia is primarily driven by increasing temperatures due to the warmer climate. These results highlight the importance of natural climate driven changes in salinity and primary productivity for the development of hypoxia during a warming climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019. Vol. 6, article id 51
Keywords [en]
paleoceanography, hypoxia, geochemistry, diatoms, foraminifera, palynomorphs, IODP Expedition 347
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Environmental Studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37781DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00051Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85061721558Local ID: 1562/3.1.1/2013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-37781DiVA, id: diva2:1292846
Part of project
UPPBASER - Understanding Past and Present Baltic Sea Ecosystem Response - background for a sustainable future, The Foundation for Baltic and East European StudiesLate Pleistocene and Holocene climate forcing on the Baltic Sea, The Foundation for Baltic and East European StudiesIODP Expedition 347 Baltic Sea Paleoenvironment, Swedish Research Council
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1562/3.1.1/2013The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 2207/3.1.1/2014Swedish Research Council, 826- 2012-5114
Note

This research was supported by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies (Grants 1562/3.1.1/2013 and 2207/3.1.1/2014), the Swedish Research Council (Grant 826- 2012-5114), the Carlsberg Foundation (IVAR-347 project) and Geocenter Denmark (DAN-IODP-SEIS project), the Independent Research Fund Denmark (Grant 7014-00113B, G-Ice), and the German Research Foundation (DFG, projects Ko3944/6-1 and Ko3944/8–1).

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved

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Andrén, ElinorAndrén, Thomas

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