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Not dead yet: Diatom resting spores can survive in nature for several millennia
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8592-2164
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3667-3667
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5615-6088
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2022 (English)In: American Journal of Botany, ISSN 0002-9122, E-ISSN 1537-2197, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PREMISE: Understanding the adaptive capacities of species over long timescales lies in examining the revived recent and millennia old resting spores buried in sediments. We show for the first time the revival, viability and germination rate of resting spores of the diatom Chaetoceros deposited in sub-seafloor sediments from three ages (recent: 0-80 years; ancient: ~1250 (Medieval Climate Anomaly) and ~6600 (Holocene Thermal Maximum) calendar year before present.

METHODS: Recent and ancient Chaetoceros spores were revived to examine their viability and germination rate. Light and scanning electron microscopy and Sanger sequencing was done to identify the species.

KEY RESULTS: We show that ~6600 cal. year BP old Chaetoceros resting spores are still viable and the vegetative reproduction in recent and ancient resting spores vary. The time taken to germinate is three hours to 2-3 days in both recent and ancient spores, but the germination rate of the spores decreased with increasing age. The germination rate of the recent spores was ~41% while that of the ancient spores were ~31% and ~12% for the ~1250 and ~6600 cal. year BP old resting spores. Based on the morphology of the germinated vegetative cells we identified the species as Chaetoceros muelleri var. subsalsum. Sanger sequences of nuclear and chloroplast markers identified the species as Chaetoceros muelleri.

CONCLUSIONS: We identify a unique model system, Chaetoceros muelleri var. subsalsum and show that recent and ancient resting spores of the species buried in sediments in the Baltic Sea can be revived and used for long-term evolutionary studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Botanical Society of America , 2022. p. 67-82
Keywords [en]
Baltic Sea, Chaetoceros muelleri var. subsalsum, Germination rate, Resting spore concentration, Resurrection ecology
National Category
Botany Ecology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-46593DOI: 10.1002/ajb2.1780ISI: 000739921100001PubMedID: 34648178Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85122424760OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-46593DiVA, id: diva2:1604514
Part of project
Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate forcing on the Baltic Sea, The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 75/2014Available from: 2021-10-20 Created: 2021-10-20 Last updated: 2022-03-02Bibliographically approved

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Sanyal, AnushreeLarsson, Josefinevan Wirdum, FalkjeAndrén, ThomasLönn, MikaelAndrén, Elinor

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Sanyal, AnushreeLarsson, Josefinevan Wirdum, FalkjeAndrén, ThomasLönn, MikaelAndrén, Elinor
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