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Baltic Sea Coastal Eutrophication in a Thousand Year Perspective
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science. Södertörn University, Centre for Baltic and East European Studies (CBEES), Baltic & East European Graduate School (BEEGS).
Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Environmental Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5615-6088
Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany.
University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sediment cores from three sites along the east-coast of Sweden, north-western Baltic Proper, have been studied with respect to lithologies, geochemistry and diatom assemblages to trace and date early human impact with emphasis on nutrient discharge. The three sites Bråviken, Himmerfjärden and Ådfjärden, have been impacted to various degree during the last millennia by multiple stressors like excessive nutrient discharge and hazardous substances, leading to coastal hypoxia, eutrophication and pollution. These stressors are mainly caused by drivers in the drainage area as increased human population, changed land use and point sources as industries and a sewage treatment plant. Even though their detailed history differs, the results show similar general patterns for all three sites. We find no evidence in our data from the coastal zone supporting the hypothesis that the extensive areal distribution of hypoxia in the open Baltic Sea during the Medieval Climate Anomaly was caused by human impact. Timing of the onset of man-made eutrophication, as identified from d15N and changes in diatom composition, differs between the three sites, reflecting the site specific geography and local environmental histories of these areas. The onset of eutrophication dates to 1800 CE in Bråviken and Himmerfjärden areas, and to 1900 CE in the less urban area of Ådfjärden. We conclude that the recorded environmental changes during the last centuries are unique in a thousand year perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019. Vol. 7, article id 88
Keywords [en]
diatom stratigraphy, stable nitrogen isotopes, hypoxia, Medieval Climate Anomaly, NW Baltic proper, nutrient discharge
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38479DOI: 10.3389/fenvs.2019.00088Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85068480167Local ID: 1562/3.1.1/2013OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-38479DiVA, id: diva2:1329961
Part of project
UPPBASER - Understanding Past and Present Baltic Sea Ecosystem Response - background for a sustainable future, The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1562/3.1.1/2013Stockholm County CouncilAvailable from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved

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Norbäck Ivarsson, LenaAndrén, ThomasLönn, MikaelAndrén, Elinor

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