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The “Dark Side” of Marine Spatial Planning: A study of domination, empowerment and freedom through theories of discourse and power
Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik, Miljövetenskap. (Environmental Studies)ORCID-id: 0000-0003-2264-6892
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis aims to contribute to the marine spatial planning (MSP) literature by elaborating a robust theoretical account of power for a more rigorous and balanced critical analysis of MSP. Conceived as a problem-solving regime, MSP has emerged as a radical approach to govern the use and protection of marine resources. However, critics are questioning the radicalness of MSP, particularly its ability to address issues around knowledge, stakeholder and land-sea integration, as well as power asymmetry, distributive justice and equity. Nonetheless, critics largely conceive power in MSP as restricting agency. Even so, insidious mechanisms of power remain under-examined, as are the productive power and potential of planning. This thesis brings concepts from discourse and power theories together (drawing on Foucault, Laclau and Mouffe, and Haugaard) to conceptualize various mechanisms of power in MSP. The framework is then brought into dialogue with planning issues in Estonia and Poland. Empirical data are drawn from semi-structured interviews, legal judgments, planning and policy documents, as well as position papers and media statements, which are produced by planners, officials, developers, fishers and coastal residents. The following findings and conclusions are reached. First, MSP’ing (verb form) restricts agency because (a) in planning encounters, powerful actors misuse opportunities for concerted action to reach sectoral rather than collective goals; (b) in setting the agenda, various biases are mobilized in favor of vested interests; and (c) the fantasmatic power of planning conjoin with the planner’s cognitive limitation to naturalize and sustain subjugation. Second, MSP is a laudable system. It provides stakeholders with the dispositional power to get things done in concert, which entails a normatively felicitous move from the risks of open commons-type conflicts and chaos to structuring and predictability. Third, when planning is rigidly done within the confines of legality and programmatic norms, “free” subjects of planning may be transformed into immovable subjects of resistance, who may develop contestatory strategies that have transformatory potentials. Fourth, to both facilitate equitable planning processes and outcomes, and ensure efficiency and stability, not only must the planner be reflective of the norms and ideologies that shape her actions and/or inactions, but the state as the ultimate governing authority in MSP must also take measures to minimize asymmetries in the distribution of social resources. The thesis makes a call for scholars to contribute towards planning praxis through analyzing who the weakest actors are in each MSP setting, what their context-specific needs are, and what empowerment may entail for them.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019. , s. 180
Serie
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 164
Nyckelord [en]
marine spatial planning; discourse; power; domination; empowerment; freedom; conflict; resistance; small-scale fisheries; offshore wind energy
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskapliga studier; Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38051Lokalt ID: 2186/3.1.1/2014ISBN: 978-91-88663-67-2 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-88663-68-9 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:sh-38051DiVA, id: diva2:1306941
Disputation
2019-05-29, MA624, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Huddinge, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Projekt
BaltSpaceTillgänglig från: 2019-05-08 Skapad: 2019-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-09Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Taking power to sea: Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planning
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Taking power to sea: Towards a post-structuralist discourse theoretical critique of marine spatial planning
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space, ISSN 2399-6544, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 58-273Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Responding to calls for a more theoretically driven, post-positivist and radical marine spatial planning research that approaches the policy as a political project, this paper develops a poststructuralist discourse theory approach to critical marine spatial planning. Elaborating radical contingency as an ontological condition of social life, which points to the ineradicability of power and conflict in marine spatial planning social relations, the paper problematizes marine spatial planning as constituting politics, or key practices that attempt to organize human coexistence and thus, conceal this radical contingency. These practices (e.g. ecosystem-based management, participation, planning regulation and the organization of socio-natural spaces), whose outcomes are far from adaptive, consensual or neutral are discussed as sites of ‘politics’ that effectively marginalize particular groups of people and ‘herd’ their participation and ways of knowing toward achieving limited policy outcomes. Drawing on the EU Marine Spatial Planning Directive, the paper further teases out how specific narratives and rhetorical signifiers around ‘integrating’ and ‘balancing’ potentially irreconcilable sustainable development objectives may interpellate particular stakeholders in ways that render them ideologically complicitous in sustaining, rather than challenging, neoliberal logics of managerialism and economic maximization of marine resources. But in tune with the ontological condition of the social as radically contingent, the paper discusses how and why participatory spaces may constitute a potential space of contestation for marginalized voices and thus, reveal the political moment of marine spatial planning. Calls are made for future empirically grounded research that explores how these marine spatial planning practices are lived in both planning and extra-planning settings, and with what implications for marine protection and extant social relations of power in different marine spatial planning contexts.

Nyckelord
Critical marine spatial planning, post-structuralist discourse theory, ecosystem-based management, participation, power (politics and the political)
Nationell ämneskategori
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskapliga studier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32811 (URN)10.1177/2399654417707527 (DOI)000429797300005 ()2-s2.0-85033586255 (Scopus ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Lokalt ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Arkivnummer)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projekt
BaltSpace
Forskningsfinansiär
Östersjöstiftelsen, 2186/3.1.1/2014Forskningsrådet FormasEU, FP7, Sjunde ramprogrammet
Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-14 Skapad: 2017-06-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-25Bibliografiskt granskad
2. The Politics of Estonia's Offshore Wind Energy Programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Politics of Estonia's Offshore Wind Energy Programme: Discourse, power and marine spatial planning
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Environment and Planning. C, Government and Policy, ISSN 0263-774X, E-ISSN 1472-3425, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 157-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

There is growing recognition that marine spatial planning is an inherently political process marked by a clash of discourses, power and conflicts of interest. Yet, there are very few attempts to make sense of and explain the political practices of marine spatial planning protests in different contexts, especially the way that planners and developers create the conditions for the articulation of objections, and then develop new strategies to negotiate and mediate community resistance. Using poststructuralist discourse theory, the article analyses the politics of a proposed offshore wind energy project in Estonia within the context of the country’s marine spatial planning processes. First, through the lens of politicization, it explores the strategies of political mobilization and the rival discourses of expertise and sustainability through which residents and municipal actors have contested the offshore wind energy project. Secondly, through the lens of depoliticization, it explains the discursive and legalistic strategies employed by developers, planners and an Administrative Court to displace – spatially and temporally – the core issues of contestation, thus legitimizing the offshore wind energy plan. We argue that the spaces created by the preplanning conjuncture offered the most conducive conditions for residents to voice concerns about the proposed project in a dialogical fashion, whereas the marine spatial planning and post-planning phases became mired in a therapeutic-style consultation, set alongside rigid and unreflexive interpretations and applications of legality. We conclude by setting out the limits of the Estonian marine spatial planning as a process for resolving conflicts, while offering an alternative model of handling such public controversies, which we call pragmatic adversarialism.

Nyckelord
Marine spatial planning, politicization and depoliticization, discourse theory and power, offshore wind energy conflict, discourses and resistance strategies
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34961 (URN)10.1177/2399654418778037 (DOI)000458856000008 ()2-s2.0-85047821963 (Scopus ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Lokalt ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Arkivnummer)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projekt
BaltSpace
Forskningsfinansiär
Östersjöstiftelsen, 2186/3.1.1/2014BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea regionForskningsrådet Formas
Tillgänglig från: 2018-05-15 Skapad: 2018-05-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-25Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Small-scale fishers as allies or opponents?: Unlocking looming tensions and potential exclusions in Poland’s marine spatial planning
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Small-scale fishers as allies or opponents?: Unlocking looming tensions and potential exclusions in Poland’s marine spatial planning
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning, ISSN 1523-908X, E-ISSN 1522-7200Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The success of Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) depends on the effective participation of small-scale fishers (SSFs), and the extent to which marine governance in general can address the problems they face. As Poland's MSP in areas that are key to small-scale fisheries are yet to begin, this paper explores tensions in the country's looming coastal MSP processes through clarifying both the risks faced by SSFs and their perspectives on MSP. Using semi-structured interviews with SSFs and analytical literature reviews on small-scale fisheries, it is found that Poland's MSP is cast against a contentious history of marine resource management that shapes negative perceptions of and attitudes towards both the European Union-mediated MSP and marine scientists. Notably, SSFs believe that (1) authorities often undervalue and underutilize their experiential knowledge, (2) MSP is intended primarily to facilitate the siting of offshore wind farms and, (3) scientific knowledge is either not effectively communicated or is at the service of investors. A discussion follows that proposes measures through which planners can ensure procedural fairness. The paper concludes by offering TURF-Reserves as a novel and integrated co-management system within MSP which has potentials for empowering SSFs and revitalizing Poland's small-scale fisheries, while ensuring effective marine protection.

Nyckelord
Small-scale fishers; Poland; TURF-Reserves; ocean governance and marine spatial planning; inclusion and exclusion
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Forskningsämne
Miljövetenskapliga studier; Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38060 (URN)10.1080/1523908X.2019.1661235 (DOI)2-s2.0-85071363746 (Scopus ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Lokalt ID)2186/3.1.1/2014 (Arkivnummer)2186/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Projekt
BaltSpace
Forskningsfinansiär
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region, 185Östersjöstiftelsen, 2186/3.1.1/2014
Anmärkning

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-25 Skapad: 2019-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-06Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Re-reading marine spatial planning through Foucault, Haugaard and others: An analysis of domination, empowerment and freedom
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Re-reading marine spatial planning through Foucault, Haugaard and others: An analysis of domination, empowerment and freedom
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Miljövetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38064 (URN)
Anmärkning

Som manuskript i avhandling. As manuscript in dissertation.

Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-25 Skapad: 2019-04-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-25Bibliografiskt granskad

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