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Title [sv]
Community-baserad etnisk ekoturism och socioekologisk rättvisa i globala syd: underifrånperspektiv från Brasilien, Ecuador och Mozambique
Title [en]
Indigenous Community-based eco-tourism and socio-environmental justice in the Global South: comparing “from below” experiences in Brazil, Ecuador and Mozambique
Abstract [sv]
Lokalsamhällsbaserad ekoturism (CBET) är ett slags turism som sedan 1990-talet uppmärksammats som ett lämpligt alternativ för att åstadkomma socialt och miljömässigt bättre levnadsförhållanden för marginaliserade rurala grupper i låginkomstländer. Trots det ökade intresset för CBET är kunskapen om faktorer som krävs för att skapa CBET-projekt som kan betraktas som lyckade på den lokala nivån fortfarande begränsad. Det finns få jämförande studier, och utfall bedöms vanligen i strikt ekonomiska termer, vilka ofta inte motsvarar lokalsamhällets syn på och värdering av sociala och miljörelaterade vinningar. Utifrån synen av CBET som en försörjnings- och turismmodell med syftet att främja sociala och miljörelaterade förändringar som är värdefulla på lokal nivå studerar detta projekt om, hur och varför CBET genererar utfall som berörd lokalbefolkning värderar som socialt och miljömässigt rättvisa. Från ett kritiskt underifrånperspektiv analyseras variationer och utmaningar i CBET i etniskt definierade lokalsamhällen i Brasilien, Ecuador och Mozambique, där CBET vuxit i betydelse som ett möjligt alternativ i landsbygdsutveckling. Att öka vår förståelse av de underliggande villkor och faktorer som länkar CBET till sociala och miljömässiga förändringar som uppfattas som inkluderande och rättvisa kommer vår forskning använda en teoretisk ram kring socio-ekologisk rättvisa och kvalitativ fallstudiemetodologi inklusive etnografiska deltagande metoder och kritisk diskursanalys.
Abstract [en]
Community-Based Ecotourism/CBET is a type of sustainable tourism that has gained traction since the 1990s as an important option to achieve more socially and environmentally just life conditions of marginalized people in low-income countries. Despite growing interest in CBET, knowledge about what is needed to achieve successful outcomes, from local perspectives, is still scarce. There are few comparative case studies, and success is usually measured through economic analysis whose results do not necessarily mirror communities’ subjective valuations of socio-environmental gains. Based on the understanding of CBET as a livelihood model and a form of tourism aimed at promoting changes that are valuable to involved communities, this project examines whether, how and why CBET experiences yield outcomes that are locally perceived as socially and environmentally just. From a bottom-up perspectives, we will critically analyze variations and challenges in CBET in indigenous communities in Brazil, Ecuador and Mozambique – countries where CBET (at times referred to as Indigenous Ecotourism) is an emerging rural development alternative. In order to unveil underlying conditions and factors that link CBET to social and environmental changes locally deemed as inclusive and equitable, our study uses a theoretical framework of socio-environmental justice, and employ a qualitative comparative case study methodology comprising ethnographic participatory methods and critical discourse analysis.
Publications (4 of 4) Show all publications
Porsani, J., Lalander, R., Lehtilä, K., Lima Costa, S. & da Conceição Carvalho, J. (2024). Expressing and enacting decoloniality through indigenous tourism: Experiences from the Pataxó Jaqueira Reserve in Brazil. Social Sciences and Humanities Open, 9, Article ID 100859.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expressing and enacting decoloniality through indigenous tourism: Experiences from the Pataxó Jaqueira Reserve in Brazil
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2024 (English)In: Social Sciences and Humanities Open, ISSN 2590-2911, Vol. 9, article id 100859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the narratives expressed by the Pataxó indigenous people of Brazil within their indigenous tourism project, the “Jaqueira Reserve”. Our findings show that the indigenous people's role as protagonists in this setting foregrounds their voices, allowing them to retell and reposition themselves in history and to re-envision the future by presenting different ways of thinking and being. We contend that this Pataxó experience illustrates how decolonial endeavours are being crafted on an everyday basis in ways that strengthen indigenous cultural and environmental rights. Accordingly, we conclude that indigenous tourism has a transformational potential in the sense that it can counter the colonialization of mind and ideas and coloniality's violent oppression/exploitation of culture and nature. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Decolonial and colonial, Everyday resistance, Indigenous culture, Narrative analysis
National Category
Social Anthropology
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-53669 (URN)10.1016/j.ssaho.2024.100859 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186316220 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01232
Available from: 2024-03-15 Created: 2024-03-15 Last updated: 2024-03-15Bibliographically approved
Porsani, J., Lalander, R., Lehtilä, K., Da Conceição-Carvalho, J. & Braz-Bomfim, J. (2023). Indigenously controlled tourism as struggle for autonomy: the Pataxó Jaqueira Reserve in Brazil. Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indigenously controlled tourism as struggle for autonomy: the Pataxó Jaqueira Reserve in Brazil
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2023 (English)In: Revista iberoamericana de estudios de desarrollo / Iberoamerican Journal of Development Studies, E-ISSN 2254-2035Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

This study analyses the emblematic experience of an indigenous group in Brazil, the Pataxó, who was able to set up and exercise strong control over an indigenous tourism project: the Jaqueira Reserve. Based on document analysis, interviews, and observations, we show how the Jaqueira Reserve was consolidated not only as a strongly autonomous initiative but also as constituent of a greater quest for autonomy (to craft aspired livelihoods conducive to cultural revitalization and environmental protection). The Pataxó experience shows that indigenous tourism can be an instrument in greater indigenous struggles, and as such can develop not only despite marginalization but also against it.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Universidad de Zaragoza, 2023
Keywords
territorial control, cultural strengthening, environmental protection, indigenous peoples, Bahia, Development studies
National Category
Human Geography
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52287 (URN)10.26754/ojs_ried/ijds.820 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01232
Available from: 2023-09-05 Created: 2023-09-05 Last updated: 2024-02-02Bibliographically approved
Lalander, R., Lembke, M. & Porsani, J. (2023). Livelihood Alterations and Indigenous Innovators in the Ecuadorian Amazon. Alternautas, 10(1), 95-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Livelihood Alterations and Indigenous Innovators in the Ecuadorian Amazon
2023 (English)In: Alternautas, E-ISSN 2057-4924, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 95-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article approaches livelihood alterations in Indigenous communities of the Ecuadorian Amazon as means of adaptation and resistance to socio-environmental impacts brought along by the expansion of global capitalism. The cases comprise collective Indigenous endeavors in typically capitalist sectors -tourism and mining -illustrated by the experiences of Kichwa community tourism in Shiripuno in the central Amazon, and sustainable mining in the southern Amazonian Shuar community of Congüime (Kenkuim). Theaim is to unravel these emerging livelihood strategies in relation to Indigenous ethno-cultural identity. Methodologically, we rely on comparative and ethnographic work in the field with Indigenous actors, and on a theoretical framework anchored in the concepts of innovators, cultural boundary changes (Fredrik Barth), social fields of force (William Roseberry), and intercultural regimes (Fernando Galindo and Xavier Albó). In both empirical cases -Indigenous-controlled tourism and mining -communities are framing their ethnic identity to engage with, and positively reposition themselves in relation to the wider society. We hold that these endeavors must be comprehended as highly innovative, and that indigeneity and cultural boundaries can be strengthened bysocio-cultural changes toward livelihoods previously considered as “unauthentic” or “non-Indigenous”. We also argue that these new livelihood orientations have (purposely) altered gender relations within the communities in benefit of women. Additionally, our cases suggest that cultural strengthening and gender empowerment, among other positive outcomes, requires a nuanced apprehension of indigeneity as a partly floating concept and instrument gaining ground amid the increasing interconnectedness of ancienttraditions and capitalist modernity.

Abstract [es]

Este artículo aborda alteraciones de los modos de subsistencia en comunidades indígenas de la Amazonía ecuatoriana como medios de adaptación y resistencia a los impactos socioambientales provocados por la expansión del capitalismo global. Los casos comprenden esfuerzos indígenas colectivos en sectores típicamente capitalistas -turismo y minería -ilustrados por las experiencias del turismo comunitario Kichwa en Shiripuno en la Amazonía central, y la minería sostenible en la comunidad Shuar de Congüime (Kenkuim) en el sur amazónico. El objetivo esdesentrañar estas estrategias emergentes de subsistencia en relación con la identidad étnico-cultural. Metodológicamente, nos basamos en el trabajo comparativo y etnográfico en el campo con actores indígenas, y en un marco teórico anclado en los conceptosde innovadores, cambios de límites culturales (Fredrik Barth), campos sociales de fuerza (William Roseberry), y regímenes interculturales (Fernando Galindo y Xavier Albó). En ambos casos empíricos -el turismo y la minería controlados por los indígenas -las comunidades están enmarcando su identidad étnica para comprometerse y reposicionarse positivamente en relación con la sociedad más amplia. Sostenemos que estos esfuerzos deben ser comprendidos como altamente innovadores, y que la indigeneidad y las fronteras culturales pueden fortalecerse mediante cambios socioculturales hacia modos de subsistencia previamente considerados como "no auténticos" o "no indígenas". Asimismo, argumentamos que estas nuevas orientaciones de subsistencia han alterado (deliberadamente) las relaciones de género dentro de las comunidades en beneficio de las mujeres. Además, nuestros casos sugieren que el fortalecimiento cultural y el empoderamiento de género, entre otros resultados positivos, requieren una aprehensión matizada de la indigeneidad como un concepto e instrumento parcialmente flotante que gana terreno en medio de la creciente interconexión de las tradiciones ancestrales y la modernidad capitalista.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warwick: University of Warwick Press, 2023
Keywords
Commoditization of culture; Indigeneity; Community tourism; Sustainable mining; Kichwa Community of Shiripuno; Shuar Community of Kenkuim., Comoditización de la cultura; indigeneidad; turismo comunitario; Minería sostenible; Comunidad Kichwa de Shiripuno; Comunidad Shuar de Kenkuim.
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Other research area; Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52052 (URN)10.31273/an.v10i1.1319 (DOI)
Projects
Realities of gold: Socio-environmental (in)justice, Indigenous resistance and rights-based alternatives in the Ecuadorian Amazon
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018-01232The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), IB2018-7612
Available from: 2023-08-11 Created: 2023-08-11 Last updated: 2023-09-12Bibliographically approved
Lalander, R. (2023). Un enfoque político-ecológico decolonial sobre casos emblemáticos de ecoturismo comunitario desde abajo: Experiencias Kichwa, Shuar y Tsáchila. Revista Dialógica Intercultural, 1(2), 1-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Un enfoque político-ecológico decolonial sobre casos emblemáticos de ecoturismo comunitario desde abajo: Experiencias Kichwa, Shuar y Tsáchila
2023 (Spanish)In: Revista Dialógica Intercultural, ISSN 2960-0847, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 1-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [es]

Con inspiración teórica de la ecología política, perspectivas decoloniales y la conceptualización de utopías reales, este estudio etnográfico y comparativo trata de las experiencias de proyectos de turismo comunitario indígena desde abajo - iniciados y controlados desde la comunidad - en cuatro regiones de Ecuador. Más específicamente, se presentan los casos de las mujeres Kichwa- amazónicas de Shiripuno, el proyecto Mushily de los Tsáchila de un valle tropical del noroeste ecuatoriano, el caso costeño de Tsuer Entsa de los Shuar, y el proyecto Jatarishun de los Kichwa de la Sierra Norte. Estos casos se consideran emblemáticos e ilustrativos por sus características de ser iniciados y controlados por los mismos comuneros y en beneficio de toda la unidad comunitaria. En el artículo, estos proyectos se interpretan como expresiones tanto de resistencia por derechos y reconocimiento, como de adaptación al sistema capitalista y colonial, pero más que nunca bajo términos indígenas. Se destacan las dimensiones de relaciones de poder y las condiciones para el empoderamiento socioeconómico, cultural y ambiental, así como ciertos dilemas y desafíos, incluso sobre el tema de la autenticidad indígena en cuanto al turismo comunitario como modo de subsistencia principal para la cultura e identidad indígena. La pregunta central de investigación es: ¿Cómo perciben los actores protagonistas indígenas los impactos socioculturales, económicos y ambientales de las actividades turísticas en sus localidades? El resultado de la investigación indica que el turismo comunitario indígena desde abajo puede considerarse una opción viable de modo de subsistencia para las comunidades indígenas, conllevando asimismo el empoderamiento multidimensional.

Abstract [en]

Drawing theoretical inspiration from political ecology, decolonial perspectives, and the conceptualization of real utopias, this ethnographic and comparative study deals with the experiences of bottom-up Indigenous community tourism projects – initiated and controlled from the community – in four Ecuadorian regions. More specifically, the cases of the Kichwa-Amazonian women of Shiripuno, the Mushily project of the Tsáchila in a tropical valley of northwestern Ecuador, the coastal case of Tsuer Entsa of the Shuar, and the Jatarishun project of the Kichwa of the northern highlands are presented. These are cases that are considered emblematic and illustrative because of their characteristics of being initiated and controlled by the community members themselves and for the benefit of the entire community unit. In the article, these projects are interpreted as expressions of both resistances for rights and recognition, as well as adaptation to the capitalist and colonial system, but more than ever on Indigenous terms. The dimensions of power relations and conditions for socio-economic, cultural, and environmental empowerment are highlighted, as well as certain dilemmas and challenges, including on the issue of Indigenous authenticity in terms of community-based tourism as the main livelihood source for Indigenous culture and identity. The central research question is: How do Indigenous actors perceive the socio-cultural, economic, and environmental impacts of tourism activities in their localities? The research results indicate that Indigenous community tourism from below can be a viable livelihood option for Indigenous communities, leading to multidimensional empowerment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cochabamba: Universidad Mayor de San Simón/UMSS, Bolivia, 2023
Keywords
Community-based tourism from below, Indigenous resistance, empowerments, real utopias., Turismo comunitario desde abajo, resistencia indígena, empoderamientos, utopías reales.
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-53591 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2018–01232
Available from: 2024-02-24 Created: 2024-02-24 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorLalander, Rickard
Co-InvestigatorPorsani, Juliana
Co-InvestigatorLehtilä, Kari
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2019-01-01 - 2021-12-31
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)Social Sciences InterdisciplinaryCultural Studies
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:2523Project, id: 2018-01232_Formas