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Title [sv]
Sociala medier, kommersiell övervakning och erfarenheter av auktoritära samhällsförhållanden
Title [en]
Social Media Surveillance and Experiences of Authoritarianism
Abstract [sv]
I de sociala mediernas och övervakningskapitalismens tidsålder har praxis och tekniker för statlig och kommersiell övervakning konvergerat och den typ av övervakning som huvudsakligen förknippas med totalitära eller auktoritära stater blivit vanligt även i kommersiella miljöer. Tidigare forskning pekar på att medborgarnas attityder gentemot övervakning i sociala medier är blandade, där medieanvändare å den ena sidan är skeptiska, men samtidigt gör mycket lite för att skydda sig genom t.ex. sekretessinställningar. Den fråga som uppstår är om, och i så fall hur, erfarenheter av statlig övervakning inverkar på attityder till övervakning på sociala medier. Projektet syfte är att analysera attityder till övervakning i sociala medier i tre olika länder med olika erfarenhet av totalitärt/auktoritärt styre: det post-sovjetiska Estland, det postauktoritära Portugal, och Sverige som jämförelsepunkt. Projektet genomför en kvantitativ nationell undersökning i alla tre länder, för att kartlägga attityder till övervakning i sociala medier i två olika generationskohorter där en äldre grupp med erfarenheter av totalitär/auktoritär övervakning jämförs med en yngre grupp utan sådana erfarenheter. Denna kartläggning följs upp i fokusgruppintervjuer med syfte att nå en djupare förståelse av hur olika grupper av medieanvändare relaterar till övervakning på internet. Genom detta avser projektet bidra till kunskaper om digital medieanvändning i det digitaliserade samhället.
Abstract [en]
In the age of social media and surveillance capitalism, technologies of state and corporate surveillance have converged, and practices of surveillance mainly associated with totalitarian/authoritarian states have become commonplace also in commercial settings. Recent research suggests that the attitudes of citizens towards surveillance from social media are mixed, where media users, on the one hand, are sceptical, yet do very little in terms of protecting themselves through e.g. privacy settings. What role has the historical legacy of authoritarian experiences for the attitudes to corporate surveillance? This project aims to analyse attitudes and concerns about corporate surveillance among citizens in three different cultural settings related to totalitarianism, authoritarianism and liberal democracy. Taking the example of post-Soviet Estonia, post-dictatorship Portugal, and long-term democracy Sweden, the project will, first, conduct a quantitative national survey in all three countries, establishing the attitudes towards corporate surveillance among generations brought up under authoritarian conditions, and younger generations without such experiences. Second, it will follow up the themes of the survey in focus group interviews in order to gain a deeper understanding of the ways in which the same groups of media users relate to corporate surveillance. The project thus contributes to our understanding of media user behaviour in surveillance capitalism.
Publications (3 of 3) Show all publications
Figueiras, R., Bolin, G. & Kalmus, V. (2024). Toward a Datafied Mindset: Conceptualizing Digital Dynamics and Analogue Resilience. Social Media + Society, 10(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward a Datafied Mindset: Conceptualizing Digital Dynamics and Analogue Resilience
2024 (English)In: Social Media + Society, E-ISSN 2056-3051, Vol. 10, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the ways in which what we call the analogue and the datafied mindsets perceive the functioning of the datafied world. Based on a qualitative interview study of two generations of media users in Estonia, Portugal, and Sweden, we present and analyze underlying patterns in participants’ media attitudes and related practices. We show that belonging to a media generation does not always produce a homogeneous mindset or a uniform attitude toward media technologies. These mindsets, being ideal-typical constructs, are not bound to individuals: the same person can display features of the analogue and the datafied mindset in relation to different parts of the datafied world. One mindset does not replace the other but rather adds another layer to the social action of the individuals. The mindsets are multi-dimensional and molded by contrasting understandings, indicating that the tenacious structures of the analogue world linger on in the datafied social space. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2024
Keywords
data privacy, datafication, digital media, media generations, mindset, social media
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-54118 (URN)10.1177/20563051241254369 (DOI)2-s2.0-85193820393 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-0822:1
Available from: 2024-06-05 Created: 2024-06-05 Last updated: 2024-06-05Bibliographically approved
Bolin, G., Kalmus, V., Figueiras, R. & Björklund, E. (2023). Social Media Surveillance and Authoritarianism: Final Report. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Media Surveillance and Authoritarianism: Final Report
2023 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

What are the attitudes of online media users to the vast collection of personal data held by commercial platform companies? Do previous experiences of state surveillance have an impact on these attitudes? Do they differ for those brought up in the surveillance regime of Estonia during the Soviet Union era, or who experienced the surveillance apparatus in Portugal under authoritarian dictatorship? Do Swedish media users without authoritarian surveillance experiences differ in their attitudes to commercial surveillance? 

These questions are discussed in this final report from the project Social Media Surveillance and Authoritarianism (Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, 2020–2023), a three-country comparative study (Estonia, Portugal, Sweden). The project aimed to analyse the role of past experiences of state surveillance on attitudes to dataveillance, that is, the commercial surveillance stemming from online media that is at the heart of data capitalism. 

The report accounts for the aims, objectives, theoretical and methodological points of departure and and presents empirical examples of the results. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2023. p. 85
Series
Mediestudier vid Södertörns högskola, ISSN 1650-6162 ; 2023:2
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-51533 (URN)978-91-89504-42-4 (ISBN)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-0822:1
Available from: 2023-05-26 Created: 2023-05-26 Last updated: 2023-06-21Bibliographically approved
Kalmus, V., Bolin, G. & Figueiras, R. (2022). Who is afraid of dataveillance?: Attitudes toward online surveillance in a cross-cultural and generational perspective. New Media and Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Who is afraid of dataveillance?: Attitudes toward online surveillance in a cross-cultural and generational perspective
2022 (English)In: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This article compares surveillance-related experiences and attitudes of two generations of media users in countries with different historical surveillance regimes (Estonia, Portugal, and Sweden) and analyzes the predictors of the attitudes toward contemporary surveillance. A large-scale online survey (N = 3221) reveals that attitudes toward online state and corporate surveillance are interrelated; the two attitudinal components are, however, generation-specific, having different predictors. Tolerance toward state surveillance is more characteristic of the older group, being predicted by trustful and obedient attitudes toward state authorities and institutions. Tolerance toward corporate dataveillance is more characteristic of the younger group, being predicted by active and self-confident media use. While the socio-historical context molds the intergenerational gaps in surveillance-related experiences and attitudes, individual-level experiences of state surveillance do not predict tolerance toward either type of contemporary surveillance, suggesting that global techno-cultural developments are probably more powerful factors than past experiences in forming generation-specific attitudes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2022
Keywords
Authoritarianism, cross-cultural analysis, datafication, dataveillance, generations, surveillance, trust
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-50310 (URN)10.1177/14614448221134493 (DOI)000885670800001 ()2-s2.0-85142275752 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P19-0822:1
Available from: 2022-12-01 Created: 2022-12-01 Last updated: 2023-01-04Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorBolin, Göran
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2020-01-01 - 2022-12-31
National Category
Media StudiesCommunication Studies
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:2068Project, id: P19-0822:1_RJ

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