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Title [sv]
Evolutionära anpassningar till miljöstörningar i marina ekosystem: genetisk ekotoxologi i Östersjön
Title [en]
Evolutionary adaptation to environmental disturbance in marine ecosystems: genetic ecotoxicology in the Baltic Sea
Abstract [en]
The project will address the question of if and how biodiversity at the genetic level influence the ability of species and ecosystems to respond to environmental disturbance (pollutants) in the Baltic Sea. Due to its large, heavily populated, industrialized and farmed drainage area, and its long water residence time, a complex mix of contaminants concentrate in the system. Anthropogenic contamination is strongly associated with reductions in the species richness and evenness of marine habitats and the Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the most polluted seas in the world. The Baltic Sea is also a marginal ecosystem with many unique evolutionary lineages, distinct from related North Sea populations, and constitutes important genetic resources that are vulnerable to environmental change. Therefore, the ecology of the Baltic Sea may be unusually sensitive to environmental perturbations. This project will use a combination of experiments, field investigations of genetic variation, and controlled laboratory studies of two common Baltic Sea organisms, a fish the three-spined stickleback and a mollusc the Blue mussel. The group behind this application has extensive experience from the fields of molecular population genetics and aquatic ecotoxicology. A graduate student will be recruited to the project interested in exploring the boundary between molecular biology and environmental science. The knowledge obtained from this project will be important for increasing the scope of ecological risk assessment (ERA) to also include effects of evolutionary responses. The Comparative studies proposed here will therefore highlight the differences in response found in individuals, populations and communities in questions. Additionally to it we proposed to characterize the genetic basis for this variation in responses. We hence provide knowledge about the impact of genetic biodiversity and local adaptation on ERA with special emphasis on the Baltic Sea.
Publications (4 of 4) Show all publications
Larsson, J. (2017). Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea. (Doctoral dissertation). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genetic Aspects of Environmental Disturbances in Marine Ecosystems: Studies of the Blue Mussel in the Baltic Sea
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic environmental changes can serve as drivers for evolutionary responses in wild populations. To predict the long-term impact of anthropogenic changes on populations, it is crucial to understand the genetic effects caused by these disturbances. The Baltic Sea is considered to be one of the world’s most contaminated seas, and the increase of anthropogenic chemical pollution is a major threat to its ecosystems. This thesis assesses the impact of harbors and sewage treatment plants on physiological traits and genetic structure of resident populations of blue mussels at replicated sites in the Baltic Sea. The initial evaluation of the overall genetic pattern in blue mussel populations in the Swedish West Coast, the Baltic Proper and the Bothnian Sea found genetic differentiation between the three water basins and a low genetic differentiation within each basin, especially within the Baltic Proper. Despite the low genetic differentiation among blue mussels within the Baltic Proper, a parallel genetic differentiation associated with sewage treatment plant effluents was found in this basin. This included genomic regions with a high degree of differentiation between reference sites and sites affected by sewage plants effluent. This genetic differentiation is suggested to be due to post-dispersal selection acting in each generation. In contrast, no parallel genetic differentiation was associated with harbors. We identified five genomic regions in blue mussels, showing strong signs of selection, shared among three out of four replicated reference sites and sites affected by sewage effluents in the Baltic Proper i.e. Askö, Tvärminne and Karlskrona. An initial characterization of these genomic regions revealed functions related to immune and endocrine responses, oxidative stress and shell formation. Our results indicate that selection caused by sewage effluents involves multiple loci. The same genomic regions are found across different locations in the Baltic Proper but there are also unique genomic regions at each location. No genotoxic or histopathological effects were found among blue mussels from sewage effluent-affected areas but a higher frequency of histological abnormalities in the digestive gland were observed in mussels from harbors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017. p. 71
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 148
Keywords
Blue mussel, Baltic Sea, anthropogenic disturbance, pollution, sewage effluents, harbors, genetics, genomics
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33697 (URN)1328/42/2010 (Local ID)978-91-88663-23-8 (ISBN)978-91-88663-24-5 (ISBN)1328/42/2010 (Archive number)1328/42/2010 (OAI)
Public defence
2017-12-15, MA636, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Huddinge, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-2010
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-14 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Larsson, J., Lind, E. E., Corell, H., Grahn, M., Smolarz, K. & Lönn, M. (2017). Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 98-109
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea area
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2017 (English)In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Connectivity plays an important role in shaping the genetic structure and in evolution of local adaptation. In the marine environment barriers to gene flow are in most cases caused by gradients in environmental factors, ocean circulation and/or larval behavior. Despite the long pelagic larval stages, with high potential for dispersal many marine organisms have been shown to have a fine scale genetic structuring. In this study, by using a combination of high-resolution genetic markers, species hybridization data and biophysical modeling we can present a comprehensive picture of the evolutionary landscape for a keystone species in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussel. We identified distinct genetic differentiation between the West Coast, Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea regions, with lower gene diversity in the Bothnian Sea. Oceanographic connectivity together with salinity and to some extent species identity provides explanations for the genetic differentiation between the West Coast and the Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea). The genetic differentiation between the Baltic Proper and Bothnian Sea cannot be directly explained by oceanographic connectivity, species identity or salinity, while the lower connectivity to the Bothnian Sea may explain the lower gene diversity. © 2016.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2017
Keywords
AFLP, Baltic Sea, Barrier, Gene flow, Oceanographic connectivity, Population genetics
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30647 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2016.06.016 (DOI)000408787800012 ()2-s2.0-84977120681 (Scopus ID)1328/42/2010 (Local ID)1328/42/2010 (Archive number)1328/42/2010 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-2010
Available from: 2016-07-20 Created: 2016-07-19 Last updated: 2021-12-17Bibliographically approved
Dublinowska, M., Smolarz, K., Zabrzańska, S., Larsson, J. & Czerniawska, N. (2016). Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait. American Malacological Bulletin, 34(1), 28-39
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intersexuality in the Blue Mussel Mytilus edulis Complex (Mytilidae) from the Baltic Sea and the Danish Strait
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2016 (English)In: American Malacological Bulletin, ISSN 0740-2783, E-ISSN 2162-2698, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Populations of Mytilus edulis complex were studied from 13 stations located at three areas of the Baltic Sea (the Gulf of Gdańsk, Poland; Tvärminne area, Finland; Trosa Archipelago, Sweden) and the Skagerrak sound (Kristineberg, Sweden). The main purpose of the study was to document the occurrence of intersexuality along longitudinal salinity change using squash and histology for comparative reasons. Intersex was identified in all four geographical areas at an average frequency of 1.8%. Squash technique revealed the highest intersex frequency in the Gulf of Gdańsk (up to 6.25%) whereas histology examination did so in the Kristineberg area (up to 10%). In the Tvärminne area and in the Trosa Archipelago the average frequency of intersex did not exceed 2% regardless of the technique used; this suggests a natural induction of the phenomenon. Statistically significant spatial differences in intersex frequency were confirmed for mussels inhabiting polluted hotspots in the Gulf of Gdańsk and at the west coast of Sweden (Kristineberg). Therefore, for these localities artificial induction of intersexuality as a consequence of adverse environmental threats (pollution, parasite outbreaks) is further suggested. Furthermore, squash technique - being less sensitive in identifying intersex when compared to histology - is not recommended for mussels with severe reproductive impairments making a proper analysis of gonads impossible. Intersexual individuals were also characterized by less developed gonads and lower gonado-somatic index (GSI) than males and females. Significantly lower GSI revealed less energy allocation towards reproduction in populations from the Trosa Archipelago and Tvärminne area in comparison to those from the Gulf of Gdańsk and from Kristineberg.

Keywords
gonad development, relative energy investment in reproduction, sexing
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30644 (URN)10.4003/006.034.0105 (DOI)000380170400003 ()2-s2.0-84977654653 (Scopus ID)1328/42/2010 (Local ID)1328/42/2010 (Archive number)1328/42/2010 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-2010
Available from: 2016-07-20 Created: 2016-07-19 Last updated: 2021-01-25Bibliographically approved
Lind, E. E. & Grahn, M. (2011). Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ecotoxicology, 20, 503-512
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Directional genetic selection by pulp mill effluent on multiple natural populations of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)
2011 (English)In: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 20, p. 503-512Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Contamination can cause a rapid environmental change which may require populations to respond with evolutionary changes. To evaluate the effects of pulp mill effluents on population genetics, we sampled three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) near four pulp mills and four adjacent reference sites and analyzed Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) to compare genetic variability. A fine scale genetic structure was detected and samples from polluted sites separated from reference sites in multidimensional scaling plots (P < 0.005, 1000 permutations) and locus-by-locus Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) further confirmed that habitats are significantly separated (F(ST) = 0.021, P < 0.01, 1023 permutations). The amount of genetic variation between populations did not differ between habitats, and populations from both habitats had similar levels of heterozygosity (polluted sites Nei's Hs = 0.11, reference sites Nei's Hs = 0.11). Still, pairwise F(ST): s between three, out of four, pairs of polluted-reference sites were significant. A F(ST)-outlier analysis showed that 21 (8.4%) loci were statistically different from a neutral distribution at the P < 0.05 level and therefore indicated to be under divergent selection. When removing 13 F(ST)-outlier loci, significant at the P < 0.01 level, differentiation between habitats disappeared in a multidimensional scaling plot. In conclusion, pulp mill effluence has acted as a selective agent on natural populations of G. aculeatus, causing a convergence in genotype composition change at multiple sites in an open environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2011
National Category
Ecology Genetics
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-7666 (URN)10.1007/s10646-011-0639-8 (DOI)000289848600003 ()21455608 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-79955829367 (Scopus ID)1328/42/2010 (Local ID)1328/42/2010 (Archive number)1328/42/2010 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A063-2010
Available from: 2011-05-05 Created: 2011-04-04 Last updated: 2020-10-26Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorGrahn, Mats
Co-InvestigatorSmolarz, Katarzyna
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2011-01-01 - 2013-12-31
Keywords [sv]
Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
Keywords [en]
Baltic and East European studies
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:1910Project, id: A063-2010_OSS

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