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Title [sv]
PRIVATLIVET - DEN UNDANSKYMDA ASPEKTEN I SVENSK DEMOKRATI: En juridisk och historisk undersökning om avvägningen mellan öppenhet och privatliv i Sverige
Title [en]
PRIVACY - THE HIDDEN ASPECT OF SWEDISH DEMOCRACY: A legal and historical investigation about balancing openness and privacy in Sweden
Abstract [sv]
Aktuella företeelser såsom den uppmärksammade tjänsten Lexbase har visat hur privatlivet kan ge vika för en generös offentlighetsprincip och en tillämpning av rättsregler ämnade att skydda tryck- och yttrandefriheten. Att offentlighetsprincipen samt tryck-och yttrandefriheten (i projektet benämnt öppenhet) utgör förutsättningar för att medborgare ska kunna bilda sig en egen uppfattning och därmed kunna delta i ett demokratiskt samhälle är okontroversiellt. Under senare tid har emellertid politiker och forskare framhållit att demokratiskt deltagande även är beroende av skyddet av privatlivet. Vår utgångspunkt är dock att det i Sverige länge funnits en förståelse också för privatlivets betydelse för demokratin, även om perspektivet är mindre framträdande i den svenska debatten. Vi utgår vidare från att en demokrati behöver garantera både öppenhet och skyddet för privatlivet, två aspekter som är i grunden oförenliga. Projektets syfte är att undersöka vilka avvägningar mellan öppenhet och privatliv som har präglat den svenska demokratin under åren 1900-2014 genom att studera samma juridiska källmaterial med två metoder, från det juridiska respektive det historiska fältet. Med juridisk metod fokuserar vi på lagstiftarens intentioner, medan fokus förflyttas till kontexten i det omgivande samhället i den historiska delundersökningen. Genom angreppssättet som förenar två ämnen får vi en djup analys som kan som bidra till en bättre förståelse av dagens situation.
Abstract [en]
The administration's use of the new possibilities offered by information and communication technologies of may be problematic from a privacy point of view. As an example, a citizen may experiment as an infringement of his/her privacy the fact that a public authority collects personal information on the Internet and social media in order to investigate an administrative case. In the same vein, the disclosure of the names of public servants in the decisions of the Parliamentary Ombudsman published on this authority's website may also raise privacy issues. These two questions and their legal implications are examples of the issues tackled by Patricia Jonason in the research project “Privacy, the hidden aspect of Swedish democracy. A legal and historical investigation about balancing openness and privacy in Sweden” financed by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet). The interdisciplinary research project has its point of departure in the prominent role the principle of publicity - and especially the right of access to information component - is assigned in Sweden as a condition for democracy in that it ensures free debates and the possibility to monitor power. On the contrary, is it not as well established in the public discourse that the right to privacy also is a condition for a democratic society. In the meantime independently of the definition of the concept of democracy, ie more with a political approach, as a deliberative form of governance, or with a legal approach, as a regime which guarantees human rights, the protection for privacy is of crucial importance in order to fulfill the democratic goals. Anna Rosengren is in charge of the historical part of the project. In this part, the stipulations of the Freedom of the Press Act concerning official documents is in focus. In particular, Rosengren focuses on the way official documents are created, as well as on awareness among individuals about how their personal data in official documents are handled. Concerning how official documents are created, research is limited which makes the topic an interesting one. A document which is official may be requested by everyone, and will be released in the absence of secrecy regulation. The fact that many official documents with personal data may be released may lead to possibly detrimental effects on personal integrity. This is another reason why the topic merits investigation, especially in the light of the new General Data Protection Regulation which will enter into force next year. In addition, it is of great importance from the perspective of rule of law that individuals may know about the content in laws, such as the stipulations of the Freedom of the Press Act regarding official documents. As Rosengren shows (Rosengren 2017, “The Swedish Black Box”), not only the rules of the Freedom of the Press Act affects the creation of official documents; other factors may also cause the creation of new official documents. This makes it hard for individuals to be aware of how their personal data may be handled in official documents. The method used is “linguistic-historical analysis” in order to identify important changes of meaning in central concepts, among others, by studying the language of the source material. One such example is the Swedish term “offentlighetsprincipen” (often translated into “the principle of access to official documents” which may be assigned different meaning (Rosengren 2017, “Offentlighetsprincipen i teori och praktik”). This important term therefore needs to be analysed with an open mind, rather than with the assumption that its meaning is established and not subject to change.
Publications (6 of 6) Show all publications
Rosengren, A. (2019). Power to the people – or privacy in peril?: A linguistic-historical analysis of the meaning and boundaries of the Swedish principle of public access to official documents. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power to the people – or privacy in peril?: A linguistic-historical analysis of the meaning and boundaries of the Swedish principle of public access to official documents
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Recently, we have seen a very disconcerting development in the world regarding how information of different kinds is valued and used. As “truth” is being increasingly questioned, one possible remedy is the right of access to official documents. This is the subject studied in this article. Such access constitutes an important element in our democratic society by providing citizens and the media the means to control their government. In Sweden, this right of access might also bring about detrimental effects for privacy, or personal integrity, however, due to the stipulations of the constitutional law, the Freedom of the Press Act.

As will be outlined in this study, the meanings attributed to various expressions related to the right of access are unclear, so too are the boundaries that regulate the creation of official documents that may be requested as per the Freedom of the Press Act. This uncertainty could carry implications for personal integrity. The meanings and creation of official documents are thus at the heart of this investigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019. p. 35
Series
Working Paper, ISSN 1404-1480 ; 2019:2
National Category
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37926 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-1057
Available from: 2019-04-01 Created: 2019-04-01 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Rosengren, A. (2019). Swedish Analytica: Individuals’ awareness of information about them held by Swedish public authorities, 1987–2017. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Swedish Analytica: Individuals’ awareness of information about them held by Swedish public authorities, 1987–2017
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of the study is to enhance our knowledge of enablers of, and obstacles to, individuals’ awareness of how information about them in Swedish public authorities was handled and might be accessed by others. The concept self-information awareness developed for the study was therefore at the core of the linguistic–historical analysis that was carried out on twelve Swedish Government Official Reports on large public registers and personal integrity published 1987–2017.

The main conclusion from the investigation is that the possibility of individuals being aware of how information about them was handled by the Swedish authorities and might be accessed by others seemed very limited. The linguistic analysis carried out in the study therefore needs to be supplemented by research into the material legal possibilities for individuals to gain such awareness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2019. p. 85
Series
Working Paper, ISSN 1404-1480 ; 2019:4
Keywords
Linguistic-historical analysis, conceptual history, legal language, self-information awareness, self-information determination, rule of law, formal legality, principle of public access to official documents, principle of publicity, privacy, personal integrity, public sector
National Category
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38496 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-1057
Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2020-01-07Bibliographically approved
Jonason, P. (2018). The Digital Right To Be Forgotten in Sweden: The theory and practice of privacy protection mechanisms in the face of referencing by search engines. In: Olivia Tambou, Sam Bourton (Ed.), The Right to be Forgotten in Europe and Beyond/ Le droit à l’oubli en Europe et au-delà: (pp. 62-71). Luxembourg: Blog droit européen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Digital Right To Be Forgotten in Sweden: The theory and practice of privacy protection mechanisms in the face of referencing by search engines
2018 (English)In: The Right to be Forgotten in Europe and Beyond/ Le droit à l’oubli en Europe et au-delà / [ed] Olivia Tambou, Sam Bourton, Luxembourg: Blog droit européen , 2018, p. 62-71Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Google Inc has received 54,038 requests to dereference Swedish URLs since the judgement of the Court of Justice of the European Union, C-131/12 Costeja. After examining these requests, Google removed 43.7% of the search results (i.e. 23,613 URLs) but refused to dereference in 56.3% of cases (i.e. 30,425 URLs). In other words, Google refused to grant the dereferencing requests in a little over half of the cases, which corresponds to the average recorded by the American Internet search engine across all European countries.3What kind of help from public authorities may individuals to whom a request for delisting has been denied by the operator of a search engine have at their disposal? In other words, how do the Swedish authorities apply the Google ruling? These are the questions tackled in this paper, first focusing on the manner the Data Protection Authority, the Datainspektion (DI), deals with the issue, then looking at how the courts handle complaints against a search engine operator’s decision not to delist an incriminated URL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg: Blog droit européen, 2018
Series
Series Open Access Book
Keywords
Right to be forgotten, Right to be de-indexed, Google Spain, Costeja Ruling, Datainspektion, Swedish courts, rätten att bli bortglömd, Google Spain, Datainspektion, domstolar
National Category
Law
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35616 (URN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Local ID)978-99959-0-401-2 (ISBN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Archive number)558/3.1.1/2015 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-01057
Available from: 2018-06-14 Created: 2018-06-14 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
Jonason, P. (2018). The Swedish measures accompaying the GDPR. In: Mc Cullagh K., Tambou O., Bourton S. (Ed.), National Adaptations of the GDPR: . Paper presented at E-conference on National Adaptations of the GDPR, June, 2018. (pp. 42-51). Paper presented at E-conference on National Adaptations of the GDPR, June, 2018.. Luxembourg: Blog Droit Européen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish measures accompaying the GDPR
2018 (English)In: National Adaptations of the GDPR / [ed] Mc Cullagh K., Tambou O., Bourton S., Luxembourg: Blog Droit Européen , 2018, p. 42-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luxembourg: Blog Droit Européen, 2018
Series
Collection Open Access Book
Keywords
GDPR, data protection, Sweden, Dataskyddsförordningen, dataskyddslagen, dataskydd, Sverige, GDPR
National Category
Law
Research subject
Other research area; Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35617 (URN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Local ID)978-2-9199563-0-2 (ISBN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Archive number)558/3.1.1/2015 (OAI)
Conference
E-conference on National Adaptations of the GDPR, June, 2018.
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-01057
Note

This book is the result of an international cooperation launched through an e-conference organised by blogdroiteuropeen in June 2018.

Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
Jonason, P. (2018). The Use of the Internet, Social Media and Search Engines in the Context of Administrative Investigations: A need for an adequate legal framework to efficiently protect Privacy and Democratic Values. In: Peter Wahlgren (Ed.), 50 Years of Law and IT: The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute 1968-2018 (pp. 271-284). Stockholm: Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of the Internet, Social Media and Search Engines in the Context of Administrative Investigations: A need for an adequate legal framework to efficiently protect Privacy and Democratic Values
2018 (English)In: 50 Years of Law and IT: The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute 1968-2018 / [ed] Peter Wahlgren, Stockholm: Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law , 2018, p. 271-284Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm Institute for Scandinavian Law, 2018
Series
Scandinavian Studies in Law, ISSN 0085-5944, E-ISSN 2002-9179 ; 65
Keywords
Internet, social media, search engines, administrative investigations, privacy, Internet, sociala medier, sökmotorer, utredningar, integritetsskydd
National Category
Law
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36803 (URN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Local ID)9789185142798 (ISBN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Archive number)558/3.1.1/2015 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-01057
Available from: 2018-11-22 Created: 2018-11-22 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
Jonason, P. (2017). Online Proactive Disclosure of Personal Data by Public Authorities. A balance between transparency and protection of privacy. In: Patricia Jonason; Anna Rosengren (Ed.), The Right of Access to Information and the Right to Privacy: A Democratic Balancing Act (pp. 111-137). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Proactive Disclosure of Personal Data by Public Authorities. A balance between transparency and protection of privacy
2017 (English)In: The Right of Access to Information and the Right to Privacy: A Democratic Balancing Act / [ed] Patricia Jonason; Anna Rosengren, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017, , p. 27p. 111-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The paper examines the balancing between the right of access to information and the right to privacy in the context of online proactive disclosure of personal data. Proactive disclosure is understood as disclosure of information made by public authorities without a request having previously been made for such disclosure. Interestingly, the release upon request of official documents containing personal data normally does not activate data protection legis-lation in Sweden. In the case of proactive disclosure of official documents containing personal data, however, the data protection legislation must be followed. Jonason presents and analyses the legal framework, and shows how it has evolved over time. She illustrates the legal framework through the analysis of cases on proactive disclosure handled by the Swedish Data Protection Authority. In addition, guidelines concerning online proactive disclosure, drafted by the same authority for the benefit of local authorities, are taken into consideration. Jonason is especially interested in the balance-ing between the interest to protect privacy of the data subject and the interest of ensuring openness and transparency, and how this balancing is conveyed in the letter of the law, the preparatory works, as well as in the concrete implementation made by the Data Protection Authority. The conclusion reached by Jonason is that the current legal framework, constituted by different “layers”, is intricate. Changes on data processing made by public authorities should be expected, however, due to the General Regulation on Data Protection that will enter into force in 2018. This might constitute an opportunity for the legislator to rationalise the current legal framework.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2017. p. 27
Series
Working Paper, ISSN 1404-1480 ; 2017:2
Keywords
Privacy, access to information, proactive disclosure, data protection
National Category
Law
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32493 (URN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Local ID)978-91-88663-30-6 (ISBN)558/3.1.1/2015 (Archive number)558/3.1.1/2015 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1057
Available from: 2017-12-21 Created: 2017-12-21 Last updated: 2020-04-08Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorJonason, Patricia
Co-InvestigatorRosengren, Anna
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2015-01-01 - 2017-12-31
National Category
Law (excluding Law and Society)History
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:1868Project, id: 2014-01057_VR

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