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Title [sv]
Ships at War - An Archaeological and Historical Study of Early Modern Maritime Battlefields in the Baltic
Title [en]
Ships at War - An Archaeological and Historical Study of Early Modern Maritime Battlefields in the Baltic
Abstract [en]
The project is a cooperation between the disciplines of archaeology and history and a part of the aim to formulate joint project within “Historical Studies” at Södertörn University. The professors Kekke Stadin (history) and Johan Rönnby (maritime archaeology) will share the responsibility for leading the project. The project also involves two planned postdoktors, Ingvar Sjöblom, Försvarshögkolan (history) and Niklas Eriksson, Södertörn University (archaeology)and a new PhD student (history) at Historical studies. The investigation of the wrecks mention below is an archaeological work involving several different institutions and companies with MARIS at Södertörn as coordinator of the research. The following project is meant as the academic platform for this. The fieldwork, exhibition and planned international tv-production which also is planned in coonection to this are financed from other sources. Research perspective In the summer of 2011 two new spectacular finds of shipwrecks was found in the central Baltic Sea. After years of searching the well-preserved remains of both Mars (1564) and Svärdet (1676) was found. Both were large royal naval ships which after tough and lengthy battles went down. The new findings, together with previously known wrecks in the Baltic Sea, such as Kraveln (1525), Vasa (1628) and Kronan (1676) gives an opportunity for new insight into the formative period of Sweden's history as a strong state and a Baltic Empire. The struggle for military and economic control of the Baltic and areas and towns around the inland sea was an important part of this. The shipwrecks also sheds further light on the way this process played out and in doing so, reveal not only the ship as a principal tool of European state building and, but more generally as both manifestation and agent of social change. The ongoing documentation of the two newly found wrecks also emphasizes the violent course and the chaotic environment on board during the battles. The sites with all their guns and the ships themselves are well preserved maritime battlefield. This opens up potential issues related to practical solutions in naval battles, but also symbolic, mental and psychological aspects associated with warfare in general and human behavior in such situations and environments. In the end we also wants to dress general questions about the war and its sociology and psychology.
Publications (10 of 28) Show all publications
Holmlund, J., Nilsson, B. & Rönnby, J. (2017). Joint Exploration of the Sunken Past: Examples of Maritime Archaeoogical Collaboration Between Industry and Academica in the Baltic. In: Bailey,G., Harff,J., Sakellariou. (Ed.), Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes of the Continental Shelf (pp. 53-63). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Joint Exploration of the Sunken Past: Examples of Maritime Archaeoogical Collaboration Between Industry and Academica in the Baltic
2017 (English)In: Under the Sea: Archaeology and Palaeolandscapes of the Continental Shelf / [ed] Bailey,G., Harff,J., Sakellariou., Cham: Springer, 2017, p. 53-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter examines the benefits and constraints of collaboration between an archaeological research unit and a commercial company, using as examples joint research conducted by MARIS (Maritime Archaeological Research Institute at Södertörn University) and the Swedish commercial marine survey company MMT. The examples presented here included the detailed reconstruction by remote sensing of deeply submerged shipwrecks and the mapping and discovery of submerged archaeological landscapes and associated artefacts such as fish traps, which can then be examined more closely by archaeological divers. The benefits to archaeologists of collaborating with well-equipped commercial companies are obvious, but the benefits are mutual. The demands of archaeological research can generate new technological solutions that have commercial application, as well as producing results with wider educational and social benefits. Provided that archaeological investigations are embedded in the normal commercial operations of the company, such collaboration can be cost-effective for both parties, and is further enhanced by collaboration with film companies, which generates wider public interest and publicity for all concerned.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2017
Series
Costal Research Library, ISSN 2211-0577 ; 20
Keywords
Shipwrecks, Submerged landscapes, Fish traps, ROV, Multibeam, Haväng, Mesolithic, Parametric sub bottom sonar
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33727 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-53160-1_4 (DOI)720/42/2012 (Local ID)978-3-319-53158-8 (ISBN)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 720/42/2012
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. & Rönnby, J. (2017). Mars (1564): the initial archaeological investigations of a great 16th-century Swedish warship. International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, 46(1), 92-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mars (1564): the initial archaeological investigations of a great 16th-century Swedish warship
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, ISSN 1057-2414, E-ISSN 1095-9270, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 92-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Before the Swedish warship Mars exploded and sank in action against a combined Danish and Lübeckian fleet in 1564, it was one of the largest ships in the world. In 2011 the wreck was relocated off the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. Thanks to the favourable conditions in the brackish water, about two thirds of the hull is preserved on the sea bottom, including the stern with the large sterncastle. The aim of this article is to present initial archaeological observations and results of work since 2011. We briefly describe the historical context and research perspectives regarding this wreck.

Keywords
naval architecture; carvel construction; 16th century; Baltic Sea; battlefield archaeology; Sweden
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31925 (URN)10.1111/1095-9270.12210 (DOI)000396762000007 ()2-s2.0-85011588694 (Scopus ID)720/42/2012 (Local ID)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 720/42/2012
Available from: 2017-02-01 Created: 2017-02-01 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. (2017). Riksäpplet: Arkeologiska perspektiv på ett bortglömt regalskepp (1ed.). Lund: Nordic Academic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Riksäpplet: Arkeologiska perspektiv på ett bortglömt regalskepp
2017 (Swedish)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Riksäpplet deals with a shipwreck that has a neglected position in the grand narrative of the history of the Swedish navy. The story of its destiny and the missing accounts in scholarly and popular works in history says something about heritage processes within Swedish maritime archaeology.

On 5 June 1676 Riksäpplet came loose and adrift from its moorings outside Dalarö Sea fortress. The hull struck a rock and sank. The loss was considered both ignominious and embarrassing and the ship’s fate has been overlooked in all major history books. The rock onto which Riksäpplet sank was named ‘Äpplet’ after the incident, and the wreck itself has become an integrated component of the underwater seascape. As a consequence the wreckage has never enjoyed a proper ‘discovery’ or undergone documentation under the sensational forms that many other famous shipwrecks have, even though they have sunk in more inconvenient places.

In Eriksson’s study the official handling of Riksäpplet’s wrecked body is compared to the more wellknown ships Kronan and Svärdet, which both sank during battle only days before. Eriksson draws on different motifs and driving forces behind the study of naval wrecks from the period from his comparison, and the differences are discussed. Riksäpplet has never achieved a prominent position with the romanticising works of history that honour the national heroes and their deeds which are associated with this era of the Swedish Empire. The first half of the book thus sets out to unpack the ideas that have led to the relative disinterest in Riksäpplet in comparison to other shipwrecks.

The second half of the book sets out to analyse Riksäpplet from a specific archaeological perspective, with focus on the ship as material culture. Eriksson’s departure is to explore the relatively low budget fieldwork that has been done at the wreck site. He the combines those facts with a survey of the artefacts recovered from the wreck, of which all are kept in museum archives and private collections. This, in addition to his studies of preserved written correspondence concerning the construction of the ship, has brought new insights into seventeenth-century shipbuilding and how the balance between the global political superpowers affected this trade. In this context Riksäpplet has great potential to show how military alliances are materialized through ships’ architecture.

Abstract [sv]

Riksäpplet: Arkeologiska perspektiv på ett bortglömt regalskepp handlar om kulturarvsprocesser inom svensk marinarkeologi. Men boken handlar också om ett skeppsvrak som hamnat en hårsmån utanför den stora vedertagna sjökrigshistoriska berättelsen: regalskeppet Riksäpplet.

Den 5 juni 1676 slet sig Riksäpplet från förtöjningarna vid Dalarö skans. Skrovet högg i en klippa och sjönk. Förlisningen kom att betraktas som både snöplig och pinsam och har i efterhand kommit att förtigas i historieböckerna. Klippan bär idag namnet Äpplet och vraket har kommit att bli en integrerad och självklar del av landskapet. Som en konsekvens av detta har vraket inte kunnat påträffas och dokumenteras under de sensationella former som gällt för andra välkända skeppsvrak trots att de förlist på mer otillgängliga platser.

I boken jämförs hanteringen av Riksäpplets vrak med de mer välkända regalskeppen Kronan och Svärdet, vilka gick under i strid fem dagar före Riksäpplets förlisning. Utifrån jämförelsen diskuterar Eriksson motiv och drivkrafter som legat till grund för studiet av vrak efter svenska örlogsfartyg från stormaktstiden. Riksäpplet har inte kunnat erövra någon framträdande roll i den romantiserande historieskrivning som lyfter fram nationens hjältar och deras stordåd. Boken första hälft syftar till att synliggöra de mekanismer och drivkrafter som ligger bakom att Riksäpplet prioriterats bort till förmån för undersökningar av andra vrak.

Bokens andra hälft ägnas åt att fokusera på ett nytt, mer renodlat arkeologiskt perspektiv på skeppet som materiell kultur. Erikssons utgångspunkt är ett till resurserna tämligen begränsat arkeologiskt fältarbete på vrakplatsen som ändå har genererat stora resultat. Han kombinerar detta med en genomgång av de föremål som genom åren har bärgats från vraket och som finns arkiverade i olika museimagasin och hos privata samlare. Tillsammans med bevarad skriftlig korrespondens kring skeppets byggande väcks nya insikter om 1600-talets skeppsbyggeri och hur detta kunde påverkas av den globala politiska maktbalansen över världshaven. Satt i en sådan kontext har Riksäpplet stor potential att visa hur stormaktens militärallianser materialiserades genom skeppens arkitektur.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2017. p. 224 Edition: 1
Series
Södertörn Academic Studies, ISSN 1650-433X ; 70Kriterium, E-ISSN 2002-2131 ; 8
Keywords
Maritime Archaeology, Historical Archaeology, Baroque, The Swedish Empire, Early modern Period, Shipbuilding, Shipwreck, Sculptures, Baltic Sea, Marinarkeologi, historisk arkeologi, barock, svensk stormaktstid, tidigmodern tid, skeppsbyggeri, skeppsvrak, skulptur, Östersjön
National Category
Archaeology History
Research subject
Historical Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33525 (URN)10.21525/kriterium.8 (DOI)720/42/2012 (Local ID)978-91-88168-79-5 (ISBN)978-91-88661-20-3 (ISBN)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A048-2012
Available from: 2017-10-02 Created: 2017-10-02 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Rönnby, J. & Eriksson, N. (2017). Smoking Guns: New Research on Two Early-Modern battlefields in the Baltic Sea: Mars (1564) and Svärdet (1676). In: Gawronski,J.,van Holk, A., Schokkenbroek, J. (Ed.), Jerzy Gawronski, André van Holk & Joost Schokkenbroek (Ed.), Ships and Maritime Landscapes: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Amsterdam 2012. Paper presented at 13th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology (ISBSA 13), Amsterdam, October 7-12, 2012 (pp. 151-155). Eelde: Barkhuis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smoking Guns: New Research on Two Early-Modern battlefields in the Baltic Sea: Mars (1564) and Svärdet (1676)
2017 (English)In: Ships and Maritime Landscapes: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Amsterdam 2012 / [ed] Jerzy Gawronski, André van Holk & Joost Schokkenbroek, Eelde: Barkhuis, 2017, p. 151-155Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eelde: Barkhuis, 2017
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33728 (URN)720/42/2012 (Local ID)9789492444141 (ISBN)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Conference
13th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology (ISBSA 13), Amsterdam, October 7-12, 2012
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 720/42/2012
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. (2017). Svärdet (1663-1676): Ett regalskepp byggt på holländskt manér. META Historiskarkeologisk tidskrift, 7-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Svärdet (1663-1676): Ett regalskepp byggt på holländskt manér
2017 (Swedish)In: META Historiskarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 2002-0406, p. 7-26Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

Svärdet (1663-1676) - a ship built in the Dutch manner. During the first half of the  Seventeenth century the Swedish navy relied on Dutch master shipwrights who built ships in what was dubbed as ‘the Dutch manner’ Det holländska manéret. By the midcentury, the relations between the countries deteriorated to war. In this situation the Swedish Admirality sought for shipbuilding competence in England, which resulted in the introduction of the English manner – Det engelska manéret. In 2011 the remains of the ship Svärdet was discovered outside Öland. The ship was built 1660 to 1663 and sank during a battle in 1676. This paper presents the results from the initial survey of the wreck. Together with written sources and some preserved images of the ship it has been possible to get an impression of what the ship looked like. Focus of the paper is to present Svärdet as an example of one of the last ships built by the Dutch master shipwrights.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: , 2017
Keywords
Shipbuilding, The Swedish Empire, Baroque, Sculpture, The Baltic Sea, Maritime Archaeology, Historical Archaeology, Skeppsbyggeri, stormaktstiden, barock, skulptur, Östersjön. Marinarkeologi, Historisk arkeologi
National Category
Archaeology History
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33526 (URN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A048-2012
Available from: 2017-10-02 Created: 2017-10-02 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. & Rönnby, J. (2017). 'The Ghost Ship' (Gotska Sandön Island, Sweden): Deepwater Archaeology in the Baltic Sea. In: Gawronski, J.,van Holk, A., Schokkenbroek, J. (Ed.), Jerzy Gawronski, André van Holk & Joost Schokkenbroek (Ed.), Ships and Maritime Landscapes: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Amsterdam 2012. Paper presented at 13th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology (ISBSA 13), Amsterdam, October 7-12, 2012 (pp. 439-444). Eelde: Barkhuis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>'The Ghost Ship' (Gotska Sandön Island, Sweden): Deepwater Archaeology in the Baltic Sea
2017 (English)In: Ships and Maritime Landscapes: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Amsterdam 2012 / [ed] Jerzy Gawronski, André van Holk & Joost Schokkenbroek, Eelde: Barkhuis, 2017, p. 439-444Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eelde: Barkhuis, 2017
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33729 (URN)720/42/2012 (Local ID)9789492444141 (ISBN)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Conference
13th International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology (ISBSA 13), Amsterdam, October 7-12, 2012
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 720/42/2012
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. (2017). The ship Riksäpplet and the introduction of English naval architecture in Sweden in the 17th century. Post-Medieval Archaeology, 51(2), 309-331
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ship Riksäpplet and the introduction of English naval architecture in Sweden in the 17th century
2017 (English)In: Post-Medieval Archaeology, ISSN 0079-4236, E-ISSN 1745-8137, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 309-331Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SUMMARY: The 84-gun ship Riksäpplet was one of the first ships in Sweden built under supervision of the newly recruited English master. In 1676, the ship came adrift, struck a rock and sank. In 2015 a minor field survey of the wreck was undertaken. An inventory of finds recovered from the wreck in various museum collections and in private hands has been compiled and the preserved correspondence from the construction of the ship has been re-examined. This material has provided new insights regarding the peculiarities and special architecture of Riksäpplet.

National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33837 (URN)10.1080/00794236.2017.1371376 (DOI)000419079900004 ()2-s2.0-85035102910 (Scopus ID)720/42/2012 (Local ID)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A048-2012
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. (2016). Gribshunden (1495): vraket efter ett medeltida kravellskepp. Marinarkeologisk tidskrift (1), 4-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gribshunden (1495): vraket efter ett medeltida kravellskepp
2016 (Swedish)In: Marinarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9632, no 1, p. 4-10Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31907 (URN)720/42/2012 (Local ID)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A048-2012
Available from: 2017-01-30 Created: 2017-01-30 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, N. (2016). The architecture of a great 16th century warship: results from the initial surveys of Mars (1564). In: Castillo, Rocio; Ramírez Pernía, Abraham; Sobrino, Luis Ángel Torres (Ed.), Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Arqueología Subacuática (IKUWA V), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Underwater Archaeology A heritage for mankind Cartagena, October 15th-18th, 2014: . Paper presented at 5th International Congress on Underwater Archaeology A heritage for mankind Cartagena, October 15th-18th, 2014 (pp. 824-836). Cartagena: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The architecture of a great 16th century warship: results from the initial surveys of Mars (1564)
2016 (English)In: Actas del V Congreso Internacional de Arqueología Subacuática (IKUWA V), Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Underwater Archaeology A heritage for mankind Cartagena, October 15th-18th, 2014, Cartagena: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte , 2016, p. 824-836Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

During the 16th century the naval ships were developed with increased size and a larger quantity of guns. When the Swedish ship Mars exploded and sank during action in 1564, she was one of the largest ships in the world. In 2011 the wreck was relocated outside the island of Öland in the Baltic Sea. Thanks to the favorable conditions about two thirds of the hull are preserved which includes the stern with the large stern castle. The site thus offers a unique opportunity to study a state of the art warship from this period. The site has been surveyed during three seasons. This paper is based on these initial surveys and aims to present the kind of insights regarding 16th century naval architecture that Mars has revealed so far.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cartagena: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, 2016
Keywords
Naval architecture, artillery, sixteenth century, war ship, Baltic Sea
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-26499 (URN)
Conference
5th International Congress on Underwater Archaeology A heritage for mankind Cartagena, October 15th-18th, 2014
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A048-2012
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2015-02-27 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
Rönnby, J. (2015). Dokumentationen av Gribshunden (1495) har påbörjats...: Unika skeppsdetaljer och sjunken monsterhund!. Marinarkeologisk tidskrift (1), 23-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dokumentationen av Gribshunden (1495) har påbörjats...: Unika skeppsdetaljer och sjunken monsterhund!
2015 (Swedish)In: Marinarkeologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1100-9632, no 1, p. 23-26Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Marinarkeologiska sällskapet, 2015
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29270 (URN)720/42/2012 (Local ID)720/42/2012 (Archive number)720/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A048-2012
Available from: 2016-01-21 Created: 2016-01-21 Last updated: 2019-03-12Bibliographically approved
Principal InvestigatorRönnby, Johan
Co-InvestigatorEriksson, Niklas
Co-InvestigatorHöglund, Patrik
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2013-01-01 - 2017-12-31
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:186Project, id: A048-2012

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