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Title [en]
European Values under Attack? Democracy, Disaffection and Minority Rights in the Baltic states
Abstract [en]
This project addresses the backlash against European values in a post-communist setting, i.e. the manifold instances of populist attacks on or challenges to tolerance, liberal democracy, European integration, respect for human rights and the protection of minority rights. The three Baltic states are singled out as perfect cases for testing the magnitude and potential risk of a such a backlash; each country being in itself divided into two major groups of people: a Baltic nationality and an ethnic minority (in Estonia and Latvia, Russian; and in Lithuania, both a sizeable Polish and Russian minority). In short, if we are interested in tolerance, societal integration and minority rights, the Baltic states stand out as a something of a natural laboratory for the social sciences. Here, the process of European integration is intertwined with the ongoing nation- and state-building projects. In order to analyse popular attitudes towards national and European integration, the proposed project seeks support from the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies for a research project on public opinion in the Baltic states. More specifically, the idea is to follow up on a series of opinion surveys conducted in the three countries throughout the 1990s and in 2001 and 2004: the New Baltic Barometer (NBB) and the New Europe Barometer (NEB), administered by Richard Rose and associates at the Centre for the Study of Public Policy, University of Strathclyde. The proposed project will replicate and expand the NBB/NEB study in the three Baltic states in 2013–2014, i.e. a decade after the previous study, looking specifically at issues relating to tolerance, respect for minority rights and European integration.
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Ekman, J., Duvold, K. & Berglund, S. (2023). Baltic Barometer 2014: (Public opinion data: representative samples of the adult population in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, including the Russian-speaking and Polish minorities). SND
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baltic Barometer 2014: (Public opinion data: representative samples of the adult population in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, including the Russian-speaking and Polish minorities)
2023 (English)Data set, Primary data
Abstract [en]

Baltic Barometer 2014. Public opinion data: representative samples of the adult population in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, including the Russian-speaking and Polish minorities.

The dataset provides important information about the mood in the three Baltic countries almost 25 years after the restoration of their independence and 10 years after their accession as full members of the European Union. It covers attitudes towards the past, current events and to some extent hopes for the future.

Abstract [sv]

Baltic Barometer 2014. Opinionsdata: Representativa urval av den vuxna befolkningen i Estland, Lettland och Litauen (inklusive de rysktalande och de polska minoritetsgrupperna i dessa länder).

Datasetet ger viktig information om stämningen i de tre baltiska staterna nästan 25 år sedan de åter blivit självständiga och tio år efter att de blivit fullvärdiga medlemmar i EU. Det innehåller attityder till det förflutna, aktuella händelser, och i viss mån förhoppningar om framtiden.

Place, publisher, year
SND, 2023
Keywords
public opinion, allmän opinion
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52705 (URN)10.5878/vam5-jw90 (DOI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A024-2012
Available from: 2023-11-17 Created: 2023-11-17 Last updated: 2024-03-26Bibliographically approved
Ekman, J., Duvold, K. & Berglund, S. (2023). Post-Crimea Barometer: (Public opinion data: representative samples of the adult population in Hungary, Bulgaria and Latvia, including the Russian-speaking minority). SND
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Post-Crimea Barometer: (Public opinion data: representative samples of the adult population in Hungary, Bulgaria and Latvia, including the Russian-speaking minority)
2023 (English)Data set, Primary data
Abstract [en]

Opinion data from Hungary, Bulgaria and Latvia (including the Russian-speaking minority).

This survey focuses on relations with and attitudes towards Russia in three East European countries with a record of close ties with Russia – Latvia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. The survey was carried out against the backdrop of Russia´s annexation of Crimea and Eastern Ukraine. It may be the very first survey to tap East European reactions to Russia’s drastic attempt to redraw the map of post-war Eastern Europe. The 2015 Post-Crimea Survey asks many of the key questions in the Baltic Barometer questions about identity, democracy, and the European Union (Baltic Barometer 2014).

Abstract [sv]

Opinionsdata från Ungern, Bulgarien och Lettland (inklusive den rysktalande minoriteten).

Denna undersökning fokuserar på relationen med och attityder till Ryssland i tre östeuropeiska länder som historiskt haft nära band till Ryssland, nämligen Lettland, Ungern och Bulgarien. Undersökningen gjordes mot bakgrund av Rysslands annektering av Krim och östra Ukraina. Det kan vara den första undersökningen som tar del av östeuropeiska reaktioner på Rysslands drastiska försök att rita om kartan för efterkrigstidens Östeuropa. 2015 års undersökningen Post-Crimea, tar upp många av nyckelfrågorna i Baltic Barometer, så som identitet, demokrati och Europeiska unionen (Baltic Barometer 2014).

Place, publisher, year
SND, 2023
Keywords
public opinion, allmän opinion
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52710 (URN)10.5878/x25t-5c46 (DOI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A024-2012
Available from: 2023-11-17 Created: 2023-11-17 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Duvold, K., Berglund, S. & Ekman, J. (2019). Political culture in the Baltic states: between national and european integration. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Political culture in the Baltic states: between national and european integration
2019 (English)Book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The book is the first systematic and comparative effort to capture political culture in the Baltic countries, including political orientation and support for democracy. Revolving around public opinion data from the 1990s and onwards, including two recent surveys commissioned by the authors, the book takes stock of the political climate prevailing in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania a quarter of a century after reclaiming independence and fifteen years after becoming members of NATO and the EU. These three countries share the same geopolitical fate and many contemporary challenges, and yet each has been marked by their own transitions and struggles between nation building and European integration, Western and post-Soviet orientations, and past experience and future aspirations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019. p. 220
Keywords
Baltic studies, Comparative European politics, Eastern Europe, Europe-Russia relations, Nationality, Political culture, Post-Soviet politics, Russian minority
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39585 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-21844-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85085809888 (Scopus ID)9783030218430 (ISBN)9783030218447 (ISBN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A024-2012The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 22/2015
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2023-02-23Bibliographically approved
Duvold, K. (2015). Beyond borders: the return of kin-state politics in Europe. Baltic Worlds, VIII(1-2), 19-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond borders: the return of kin-state politics in Europe
2015 (English)In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. VIII, no 1-2, p. 19-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Two distinct cases of kin-state relations are examined: that of Russians living in states neighboring Russia and that of Magyars living in states around Hungary. The role of kin-state relations in Europe is studied from a historical perspective and, with reference to Rogers Brubaker's concept of a triadic nexus between nationalizing states, a national minority, and an external homeland. It is argued that the fall of communism – and the fall of several multi-ethnic federations, in particular – revived old territorial conflicts and hostility among national groups both within and between states. The question of kin-state relations is put at the forefront of European minority issues.

Keywords
minorities, kin-states, nationalism, Eastern Europe, border studies
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-27952 (URN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A024-2012
Available from: 2015-07-14 Created: 2015-07-14 Last updated: 2023-10-27Bibliographically approved
Ekman, J. (2015). Popular support for democracy in the Baltic states. Baltic Rim Economies (4), 16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Popular support for democracy in the Baltic states
2015 (English)In: Baltic Rim Economies, ISSN 1459-9759, no 4, p. 16-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
University of Turku, 2015
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52578 (URN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A024-2012
Available from: 2023-10-27 Created: 2023-10-27 Last updated: 2023-10-27Bibliographically approved
Ekman, J. (2015). Systemstöd och demokratiattityder i Baltikum. Nordisk Østforum (2), 143-165
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systemstöd och demokratiattityder i Baltikum
2015 (Swedish)In: Nordisk Østforum, ISSN 0801-7220, E-ISSN 1891-1773, no 2, p. 143-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing on cross-national public opinion surveys from the spring of 2014, this article analyses popular support for democracy in the three Baltic states – more specifically the attitudinal differences between the ethnic majorities and the Russian-speaking minorities in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. It assesses the democratic political culture of the three countries 25 years after the fall of communism in Europe, 10 years after EU membership, a few years after the global financial crisis, and in the midst of the recent Russian–Ukrainian crisis. The data demonstrate widespread public dissatisfaction with democracy throughout the region, especially in Latvia, the country hardest hit by the crisis in 2008–2009. As a rule, the Russian-speaking minorities in the three Baltic states tend to be more critical of democracy than ethnic Estonians, Latvians and Lithuanians.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2015
Keywords
Baltic states, support for democracy, public opinion, Russian minority, political culture, political dissatisfaction
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-25808 (URN)1857/42/2012 (Local ID)1857/42/2012 (Archive number)1857/42/2012 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A024-2012
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2020-10-26Bibliographically approved
Duvold, K. & Berglund, S. (2014). Democracy between Ethnos and Demos: Territorial Identification and Political Support in the Baltic States. East European Politics and Societies, 28(2), 341-365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Democracy between Ethnos and Demos: Territorial Identification and Political Support in the Baltic States
2014 (English)In: East European Politics and Societies, ISSN 0888-3254, E-ISSN 1533-8371, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 341-365Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much of the political science literature suggests that a cohesive political community is advantageous, if not a precondition, for a stable democracy. Forging a cohesive community is obviously a more complex matter in a multi-ethnic setting. This article will consider the prospects of building political communities in the Baltic countries – three countries that, to various extents, struggle to balance ethnic pluralism, nation-building and democracy. The article examines the relationship between political community and democracy from a theoretical perspective, followed by an outline of the nation-building strategies taken by Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania after re-establishing independence in the early 90s. Drawing on survey data, we will use territorial attachment to tap the sense of political community in the three countries. Notably, our figures disclose that most of the Russian-speaking minorities in Estonia and Latvia identify themselves as 'Russians', and not at all with the country they reside in. This suggests that the contested issue of citizenship rights in the two countries has not been particularly conducive for creating cohesive political communities. We then move to the political regime and set out to examine the character of regime support in the three countries. Can we envisage solid support for democracy and its institutions in the absence of a cohesive political community? As it appears, regime support is not contingent on territorial identity. Our data disclose that many Baltic inhabitants draw a clear distinction between their own experiences with different political systems and what they perceive as relevant regime options today.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2014
Keywords
territorial identity, political support, Baltic states, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia-speakers, minorities, citizenship, democracy
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21292 (URN)10.1177/0888325413511851 (DOI)000337604900004 ()2-s2.0-84899544321 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2023-02-23Bibliographically approved
Duvold, K. & Jurkynas, M. (2013). Lithuania (3rded.). In: Sten Berglund, Joakim Ekman, Kevin Deegan-Krause and Terje Knutsen (Ed.), The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe: (pp. 125-166). Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lithuania
2013 (English)In: The Handbook of Political Change in Eastern Europe / [ed] Sten Berglund, Joakim Ekman, Kevin Deegan-Krause and Terje Knutsen, Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013, 3rd, p. 125-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aldershot: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2013 Edition: 3rd
Keywords
Lithuania, political parties, party system, social cleavages
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21293 (URN)9780857935373 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2023-02-23Bibliographically approved
Duvold, K. & Aalia, I. (2012). Fear and Loathing in Lithuania. Baltic Worlds, V(2), 40-47
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear and Loathing in Lithuania
2012 (English)In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. V, no 2, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2012
Keywords
Lithuania, LGTB rights, values, Europeanisation, moral politics
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21294 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2023-02-23Bibliographically approved
Co-InvestigatorDanielsson, Anna
Co-InvestigatorDuvold, Kjetil
Principal InvestigatorEkman, Joakim
Co-InvestigatorBerglund, Sten
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2013-01-01 - 2015-12-31
Keywords [sv]
Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
Keywords [en]
Baltic and East European studies
National Category
Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalization Studies)
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:1769Project, id: A024-2012_OSS