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Title [en]
UPPBASER - Understanding Past and Present Baltic Sea Ecosystem Response - background for a sustainable future
Abstract [en]
The Baltic Sea is today one of earth's most endangered semi enclosed seas as a result of increased anthropogenic pressure manifested in e.g. eutrophication, overfishing, biodiversity loss, toxic pollutants and alien species. Eutrophication causes hypoxia (oxygen concentration less than 2 mg L-1) in bottom waters, killing benthic organisms and altering biogeochemical cycles. It is considered one of the most severe threats to marine ecosystems. The role of humans and climate in driving the eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea needs to be understood, especially at present when global warming in the basin is projected to be around 3-5°C during the course of the 21st century (HELCOM 2007). The Baltic Sea coastal zone contains at present >20% of all identified hypoxic sites worldwide and shows an increasing trend since 1950, but data on long-term trends of hypoxia are lacking. Knowledge of pristine nutrient conditions in the Baltic coastal zone is essential to set appropriate targets within the EU Water Framework Directive and limitations on nutrient emissions for countries bordering the Baltic Sea within the Baltic Sea Action Plan.This proposed project will disentangle the role of human- and climate-driven processes that result in events of eutrophication and hypoxia in the Baltic Sea during the last 2000 years. Research emphasis is on the coastal zone, where responses to human activities on land can be expected to be first recorded, and its coupling with the open Baltic Sea, and will be accomplished by focusing on four over-arching objectives:• The long-term trends in coastal hypoxia in time and space • The driving forces for hypoxia in the coastal zone through time • Influence of changes in land-use on coastal waters and interactions between the coast and open Baltic Sea • Background nutrient conditions in the coastal zone as a target for sustainable Baltic Sea management There is a strong need for interdisciplinary work to solve the environmental problems of the Baltic Sea and our results will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working with sustainability within the Baltic Sea drainage area as well as management authorities.
Publications (8 of 8) Show all publications
Andrén, E., van Wirdum, F., Norbäck Ivarsson, L., Lönn, M., Moros, M. & Andrén, T. (2020). Medieval versus recent environmental conditions in the Baltic Proper, what was different a thousand years ago?. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 555, Article ID 109878.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medieval versus recent environmental conditions in the Baltic Proper, what was different a thousand years ago?
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2020 (English)In: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, ISSN 0031-0182, E-ISSN 1872-616X, Vol. 555, article id 109878Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A sediment record from the western Gotland Basin, northwestern Baltic Proper, covering the last 1200 years, was investigated for past changes in climate and the environment using diatoms as a proxy. The aim is to compare the environmental conditions reconstructed during Medieval times with settings occurring the last century under influence of environmental stressors like eutrophication and climate change. The study core records more marine conditions in the western Gotland Basin surface waters during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 950–1250C.E.), with a salinity of at least 8 psu compared to the present 6.5 psu. The higher salinity together with a strong summer-autumn stratification caused by warmer climate resulted in extensive long-lasting diatom blooms of Pseudosolenia calcar-avis, effectively enhancing the vertical export of organic carbon to the sediment and contributing to benthic hypoxia. Accordingly, our data support that a warm and dry climate induced the extensive hypoxic areas in the open Baltic Sea during the MCA. During the Little ice Age (LIA; 1400–1700C.E.), the study core records oxic bottom water conditions, decreasing salinity and less primary production. This was succeeded during the 20th century, about 1940, by environmental changes caused by human-induced eutrophication. Impact of climate change is visible in the diatom composition data starting about 1975C.E. and becoming more pronounced 2000C.E., visible as an increase of taxa that thrived in stratified waters during autumn blooms typically due to climate warming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Baltic Sea, Diatoms, Phytoplankton seasonality, Medieval Climate Anomaly, Hypoxia
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-41235 (URN)10.1016/j.palaeo.2020.109878 (DOI)000552137900020 ()2-s2.0-85086659693 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 34/2013The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 75/2014
Available from: 2020-06-24 Created: 2020-06-24 Last updated: 2020-08-13Bibliographically approved
Norbäck Ivarsson, L. (2020). Tracing environmental change and human impact as recorded in sediments from coastal areas of the northwestern Baltic Proper. (Doctoral dissertation). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracing environmental change and human impact as recorded in sediments from coastal areas of the northwestern Baltic Proper
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The eutrophication of the Baltic Sea due to increased anthropogenic nutrient loads during the 20th century is well documented and studied. However, in the Baltic Sea drainage area, humans have affected the environment longer than the environmental monitoring can provide data for. Sediment records from lakes and seas can provide fundamental data on the environmental conditions before ecosystems were impacted by humans and give the range of natural variation.

This thesis presents diatom and geochemistry stratigraphies from five sediment records along the southeast coast of Sweden, northwestern Baltic Proper. These records cover time periods of 500 years to more than 2,000 years. The diatom stratigraphies and geochemical proxies allow for reconstruction of environmental histories at these sites. Overall, the results show that the environmental changes that have occurred in the coastal zone in recent centuries are unprecedented over the last two millennia. The records from the coastal zone show only minor variations in the diatom stratigraphies and nitrogen stable isotope signals through history until recent centuries. The results show no evidence of increased runoff of nutrients from land during medieval times.

Temperature anomalies since 500 CE have had little or no significant effect on the diatom assemblages from the coastal sites, while increased nutrient input from land has had a significant effect. Anthropogenic nutrient runoff has affected the diatom assemblages most markedly during the 20th century. The results show a time lag of the onset of eutrophication of approximately 100 years between the coast and open Baltic Sea, highlighting how the coastal zone acts as a buffer for the open Baltic Sea. The timing for the onset of eutrophication in these coastal areas is site-specific. For several sites, reference conditions prevailed more than 200 years ago. Water transparency at this time allowed for extensive distribution of benthic diatom habitats, such as macrophytes. The years of maximum nutrient load to the Baltic Sea during the 1970s–1980s is recorded in the diatom stratigraphies, especially with regard to the concentration of diatom valves in the sediments. There has been a recovery in diatom absolute abundance since maximum pollution years. However, there is no indication of a recovery in diatom species composition in the investigated coastal sites, and these sites are thus far from reaching a “good environmental status” according to the EU Water Framework Directive. The outcomes of this thesis highlight the importance of a longer time perspective than the environmental monitoring can provide.

Abstract [sv]

Övergödningen av Östersjön under 1900-talet är väldokumenterad och har bland annat resulterat i sämre siktdjup, att cyanobakterieblomningar har blivit mer omfattande och vanligare, utbredd syrebrist i bottenvatten, och en förändrad artsammansättning av många organismgrupper. Systematiskt provtagna mätdata från miljöövervakningen finns bara tillgänglig från 1960–70-talet och därmed vet vi väldigt lite om Östersjöns ekosystem före människans storskaliga påverkan. Sedimentkärnor från sjöar och hav fungerar som ett historiskt arkiv som under årtusenden lagrat information om dåtidens ekosystem. I denna avhandling används bevarade subfossila kiselalger och geokemi för att spåra miljöförändringar längs svenska sydostkusten de senaste tvåtusen åren. Resultat presenteras från fem sedimentkärnor från Östersjökusten, från Stockholms skärgård i norr till Gåsfjärden i söder, längs en sträcka på ca 250 km.

Alla stratigrafier tyder på stabila förhållanden i dessa kustområden under yngre järnålder (500 före vår tideräkning – 1050 efter vår tideräkning (evt)) och medeltid (1050–1500 evt), fram till 1700-talet. Varken förändringar i klimat eller markanvändning har påverkat dessa kustområden i någon större utsträckning tills för några hundra år sedan. Det finns inga tecken på effekter av mänsklig aktivitet som exempelvis jordbruk fram till mer nutida förändringar. Alla undersökningsplatser har påverkats av övergödning under de senaste århundradena. Den exakta starten för ökad näringstillförsel skiljer sig något mellan platserna. De första tecknen på övergödning är från slutet av 1700-talet, och i början av 1800-talet är artsammansättningen av kiselalger redan förändrad. Storskaliga förändringar i markanvändning skedde under 1800-talet och fortsatte in på 1900-talet. Våtmarker och sjöar dikades ut, jordbruk med ängar och traditionell träda av jordbruksmark fasades ut till förmån för vallodling, till det kom konstgödsel i slutet av 1800-talet. Växande städer, industrier och reningsverk är punktkällor som i varierande grad har påverkat dessa kustområden. De första tecknen på övergödning syns ca 100 år tidigare vid kusten än i öppna Östersjön, vilket belyser kustzonens roll som näringsfilter. I öppna Östersjön har både klimatet och näringstillförsel från land påverkat artsammansättningen av kiselalger de senaste 2 000 åren. I kustområdet däremot har de direkta effekterna av klimatet spelat en mindre roll, och artsammansättningen av kiselalger har främst varit påverkad av näringstillförsel från land. Övergödningen har resulterat i ökad pelagisk primärproduktion och därmed lägre siktdjup, vilket har begränsat utbredningen av bottenlevande arter.

I Östersjön finns inga opåverkade områden kvar, och därmed inga referensområden för att definiera referensvärden enligt EUs vattendirektiv. Resultaten som presenteras i denna avhandling visar att i flera av de undersökta kustområdena rådde ett miljötillstånd opåverkat av mänsklig aktivitet för mer än 200 år sedan. Maximal tillförsel av näring till Östersjön skedde under 1960–70-talet, vilket avspeglar sig i koncentrationen av kiselalger i sedimenten, något som kan användas som en proxy för primärproduktion. Lägre koncentrationer av kiselalger i sedimenten de senaste årtiondena indikerar en bättre vattenkvalité. Däremot syns ännu ingen förbättring i artsammansättning av kiselalger som indikerar en tillbakagång till referensvärden. Inte heller syns tecken på någon förbättring vad gäller siktdjup i undersökningsområdena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020. p. 181
Series
Södertörn Doctoral Dissertations, ISSN 1652-7399 ; 178
Keywords
Baltic Sea, paleoecology, diatom stratigraphy, stable nitrogen isotopes, hypoxia, nutrient discharge, eutrophication, Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-42061 (URN)978-91-89109-29-2 (ISBN)978-91-89109-30-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-11-06, MA624/via link, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Huddinge, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 34/2013
Available from: 2020-10-15 Created: 2020-10-08 Last updated: 2021-01-07Bibliographically approved
Norbäck Ivarsson, L., Andrén, T., Moros, M., Andersen, T. J., Lönn, M. & Andrén, E. (2019). Baltic Sea Coastal Eutrophication in a Thousand Year Perspective. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 7, Article ID 88.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baltic Sea Coastal Eutrophication in a Thousand Year Perspective
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 7, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sediment cores from three sites along the east-coast of Sweden, north-western Baltic Proper, have been studied with respect to lithologies, geochemistry and diatom assemblages to trace and date early human impact with emphasis on nutrient discharge. The three sites Bråviken, Himmerfjärden and Ådfjärden, have been impacted to various degree during the last millennia by multiple stressors like excessive nutrient discharge and hazardous substances, leading to coastal hypoxia, eutrophication and pollution. These stressors are mainly caused by drivers in the drainage area as increased human population, changed land use and point sources as industries and a sewage treatment plant. Even though their detailed history differs, the results show similar general patterns for all three sites. We find no evidence in our data from the coastal zone supporting the hypothesis that the extensive areal distribution of hypoxia in the open Baltic Sea during the Medieval Climate Anomaly was caused by human impact. Timing of the onset of man-made eutrophication, as identified from d15N and changes in diatom composition, differs between the three sites, reflecting the site specific geography and local environmental histories of these areas. The onset of eutrophication dates to 1800 CE in Bråviken and Himmerfjärden areas, and to 1900 CE in the less urban area of Ådfjärden. We conclude that the recorded environmental changes during the last centuries are unique in a thousand year perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
diatom stratigraphy, stable nitrogen isotopes, hypoxia, Medieval Climate Anomaly, NW Baltic proper, nutrient discharge
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38479 (URN)10.3389/fenvs.2019.00088 (DOI)000471701600001 ()2-s2.0-85068480167 (Scopus ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Local ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Archive number)1562/3.1.1/2013 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 34/2013Stockholm County CouncilThe Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 75/2014
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2022-03-02Bibliographically approved
van Wirdum, F., Andrén, E., Wienholz, D., Kotthoff, U., Moros, M., Fanget, A.-S. -., . . . Andrén, T. (2019). Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6, Article ID 51.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Middle to late holocene variations in salinity and primary productivity in the central Baltic Sea: A multiproxy study from the landsort deep
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 6, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Anthropogenic forcing has led to an increased extent of hypoxic bottom areas in the Baltic Sea during recent decades. The Baltic Sea ecosystem is naturally prone to the development of hypoxic conditions due to its geographical, hydrographical, geological, and climate features. Besides the current spreading of hypoxia, the Baltic Sea has experienced two extensive periods of hypoxic conditions during the Holocene, caused by changing climate conditions during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM; 8–4.8 cal ka BP) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; 1–0.7 cal ka BP). We studied the variations in surface and bottom water salinity and primary productivity and their relative importance for the development and termination of hypoxia by using microfossil and geochemical data from a sediment core retrieved from the Landsort Deep during IODP Expedition 347 (Site M0063). Our findings demonstrate that increased salinity was of major importance for the development of hypoxic conditions during the HTM. In contrast, we could not clearly relate the termination of this hypoxic period to salinity changes. The reconstructed high primary productivity associated with the hypoxic period during the MCA is not accompanied by considerable increases in salinity. Our proxies for salinity show a decreasing trend before, during and after the MCA. Therefore, we suggest that this period of hypoxia is primarily driven by increasing temperatures due to the warmer climate. These results highlight the importance of natural climate driven changes in salinity and primary productivity for the development of hypoxia during a warming climate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
Keywords
paleoceanography, hypoxia, geochemistry, diatoms, foraminifera, palynomorphs, IODP Expedition 347
National Category
Climate Research
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37781 (URN)10.3389/fmars.2019.00051 (DOI)000462668800001 ()2-s2.0-85061721558 (Scopus ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Local ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Archive number)1562/3.1.1/2013 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 34/2013The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 75/2014Swedish Research Council, 2012-5114
Note

This research was supported by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies (Grants 1562/3.1.1/2013 and 2207/3.1.1/2014), the Swedish Research Council (Grant 826- 2012-5114), the Carlsberg Foundation (IVAR-347 project) and Geocenter Denmark (DAN-IODP-SEIS project), the Independent Research Fund Denmark (Grant 7014-00113B, G-Ice), and the German Research Foundation (DFG, projects Ko3944/6-1 and Ko3944/8–1).

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2022-03-02Bibliographically approved
Ning, W., Nielsen, A., Norbäck Ivarsson, L., Jilber, T., Åkesson, C., Slomp, C., . . . Filipsson, H. (2018). Anthropogenic and climatic impacts on a coastal environment in the Baltic Sea over the last 1000 years. Anthropocene, 21, 66-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anthropogenic and climatic impacts on a coastal environment in the Baltic Sea over the last 1000 years
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2018 (English)In: Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2213-3054, Vol. 21, p. 66-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Coastal environments have experienced large ecological changes as a result of human activities over the last 100−200 years. To understand the severity and potential consequences of such changes, paleoenvironmental records provide important contextual information. The Baltic Sea coastal zone is naturally a vulnerable system and subject to significant human-induced impacts. To put the recent environmental degradation in the Baltic coastal zone into a long-term perspective, and to assess the natural and anthropogenic drivers of environmental change, we present sedimentary records covering the last 1000 years obtained from a coastal inlet (Gåsfjärden) and a nearby lake (Lake Storsjön) in Sweden. We investigate the links between a pollen-based land cover reconstruction from Lake Storsjön and paleoenvironmental variables from Gåsfjärden itself, including diatom assemblages,organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents, stable C and N isotopic ratios, and biogenic silica contents. The Lake Storsjön record shows that regional land use was characterized by small-scale agricultural activity between 900 and 1400 CE, which slightly intensified between 1400 and 1800 CE. Substantial expansion of cropland was observed between 1800 and 1950 CE, before afforestation between 1950 and 2010 CE. From the Gåsfjärden record, prior to 1800 CE, relatively minor changes in the diatom and geochemical proxies were found. The onset of cultural eutrophication in Gåsfjärden can be traced to the 1800s and intensified land use is identified as the main driver. Anthropogenic activities in the 20th century have caused unprecedented ecosystem changes in the coastal inlet, as reflected in the diatom composition and geochemical proxies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
land use, eutrophication, mining, hypoxia, coastal area, Baltic Sea
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34716 (URN)10.1016/j.ancene.2018.02.003 (DOI)000429091500006 ()2-s2.0-85043469367 (Scopus ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Local ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Archive number)1562/3.1.1/2013 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 217-2010-126The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1562/3.1.1/2013The Crafoord FoundationEU, European Research Council, 278364
Note

Funder

Royal Physiographic Society in Lund

Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO Vidi 86405.004)

Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2022-05-03Bibliographically approved
Kotthoff, U., Groeneveld, J., Ash, J., Fanget, A.-S., Krupinski, N., Peyron, O., . . . Bauersachs, T. (2017). Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059). Biogeosciences, 14, 5607-5632
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstructing Holocene temperature and salinity variations in the western Baltic Sea region: a multi-proxy comparison from the Little Belt (IODP Expedition 347, Site M0059)
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2017 (English)In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 14, p. 5607-5632Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sediment records recovered from the Baltic Sea during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 347 provide a unique opportunity to study paleoenvironmental and climate change in central and northern Europe. Such studies contribute to a better understanding of how environmental parameters change in continental shelf seas and enclosed basins. Here we present a multi-proxy-based reconstruction of paleotemperature (both marine and terrestrial), paleosalinity, and paleoecosystem changes from the Little Belt (Site M0059) over the past  ∼  8000 years and evaluate the applicability of inorganic- and organic-based proxies in this particular setting. All salinity proxies (diatoms, aquatic palynomorphs, ostracods, diol index) show that lacustrine conditions occurred in the Little Belt until  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. A connection to the Kattegat at this time can thus be excluded, but a direct connection to the Baltic Proper may have existed. The transition to the brackish–marine conditions of the Littorina Sea stage (more saline and warmer) occurred within  ∼  200 years when the connection to the Kattegat became established after  ∼  7400 cal yr BP. The different salinity proxies used here generally show similar trends in relative changes in salinity, but often do not allow quantitative estimates of salinity. The reconstruction of water temperatures is associated with particularly large uncertainties and variations in absolute values by up to 8 °C for bottom waters and up to 16 °C for surface waters. Concerning the reconstruction of temperature using foraminiferal Mg  /  Ca ratios, contamination by authigenic coatings in the deeper intervals may have led to an overestimation of temperatures. Differences in results based on the lipid paleothermometers (long chain diol index and TEXL86) can partly be explained by the application of modern-day proxy calibrations to intervals that experienced significant changes in depositional settings: in the case of our study, the change from freshwater to marine conditions. Our study shows that particular caution has to be taken when applying and interpreting proxies in coastal environments and marginal seas, where water mass conditions can experience more rapid and larger changes than in open ocean settings. Approaches using a multitude of independent proxies may thus allow a more robust paleoenvironmental assessment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus GmbH, 2017
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33885 (URN)10.5194/bg-14-5607-2017 (DOI)000417849900001 ()2-s2.0-85038405810 (Scopus ID)2207/3.1.1/2014 (Local ID)2207/3.1.1/2014 (Archive number)2207/3.1.1/2014 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 34/2013The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 75/2014
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2022-03-02Bibliographically approved
Andrén, E., Telford, R. J. & Jonsson, P. (2017). Reconstructing the history of eutrophication and quantifying total nitrogen reference conditions in Bothnian Sea coastal waters. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 198, 320-328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reconstructing the history of eutrophication and quantifying total nitrogen reference conditions in Bothnian Sea coastal waters
2017 (English)In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 198, p. 320-328Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reference total nitrogen (TN) concentrations for the Gårdsfjärden estuary in the central Bothnian Sea, which receives discharge from an industrial point-source, have been estimated from diatom assemblages using a transfer function. Sedimentological and diatom evidence imply a good ecological status before 1920 with an assemblage dominated by benthic taxa indicating excellent water transparency, high diatom species richness and less organic sedimentation resulting in homogeneous well oxygenated sediments. A change in the diatom assemblage starts between 1920 and 1935 when the species richness declines and the proportion of planktic taxa increases. Increased organic carbon sedimentation after 1920 led to hypoxic bottom waters, and the preservation of laminae in the sediments. The trend in the reconstructed TN-values agrees with the history of the discharge from the mill, reaching maximum impact during the high discharge between 1945 and 1990. The background condition for TN in Gårdsfjärden is 260-300 μg L-1, reconstructed until 1920.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2017
Keywords
Baltic Sea, Nitrogen reconstruction, Diatoms, Transfer function, Water framework directive, BSAP
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30837 (URN)10.1016/j.ecss.2016.07.015 (DOI)000416187500002 ()2-s2.0-84996525916 (Scopus ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Local ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Archive number)1562/3.1.1/2013 (OAI)
Projects
DEFINE
Funder
Nordic Council of Ministers, 04NUT9EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, EVK3-CT-2000-00031The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 34/2013Stockholm County Council
Available from: 2016-09-08 Created: 2016-09-08 Last updated: 2022-07-06Bibliographically approved
Andrén, E. & Andrén, T. (2014). Syrefria bottnar - orsakade av klimat, människa eller både och?. Havsutsikt (2), 12-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syrefria bottnar - orsakade av klimat, människa eller både och?
2014 (Swedish)In: Havsutsikt, ISSN 1104-0513, no 2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Stockholm University, 2014
Keywords
Östersjöns miljö, syrefria bottnar, laminerade sediment
National Category
Biological Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-25488 (URN)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Local ID)1562/3.1.1/2013 (Archive number)1562/3.1.1/2013 (OAI)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1562/3.1.1/2013
Available from: 2014-12-15 Created: 2014-12-15 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Co-InvestigatorAndrén, Thomas
Principal InvestigatorAndrén, Elinor
Co-InvestigatorNorbäck Ivarsson, Lena
Co-InvestigatorTelford, Richard
Coordinating organisation
Södertörn University
Funder
Period
2014-01-01 - 2016-12-31
Keywords [sv]
Östersjö- och Östeuropaforskning
Keywords [en]
Baltic and East European studies
National Category
Environmental SciencesPhysical Geography
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:1764Project, id: 34/2013_OSS

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