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Behtoui, A. & Strömberg, I. (2024). Descendant of Migrants in Swedish Segregated Schools. In: Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza Behtoui, Lore Van Praag (Ed.), Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education: (pp. 87-103). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Descendant of Migrants in Swedish Segregated Schools
2024 (English)In: Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education / [ed] Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza Behtoui, Lore Van Praag, London: Routledge, 2024, p. 87-103Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Given the increased segregation of students (based on their class and migration backgrounds) in the Swedish educational system during recent decades, this chapter tells two different school stories. More than 98% of pupils in both schools are descendants of lower-class immigrant families. The first school (South school) is among those Swedish schools identified as ‘failing’, a typical school in a socioeconomically marginalised and segregated immigrant neighborhood with poor educational results. The second school (East school) is also located in a high-poverty district with the same school composition, which has succeeded in improving pupils’ educational achievements. It has been done through the ‘empowerment’ of pupils – that is creating an inclusive and supportive pedagogical school environment for students with working-class and immigrant backgrounds. This chapter aims to explore how different types of ‘school culture’ may affect initial inequalities, academic achievement and well-being of students with migrant background in marginalized communities. The case of East school indicates that even schools in such areas are able to equalise educational opportunities through building an alliance between students, parents and community activists on the one hand and bi-class and bi-cultural brokers like teachers and social workers on the other. © 2024 selection and editorial matter, Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza Behtoui and Lore Van Praag; individual chapters, the contributors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2024
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-54429 (URN)10.4324/9781003263999-7 (DOI)2-s2.0-85196452234 (Scopus ID)9781003263999 (ISBN)9781032193045 (ISBN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2024-07-04 Created: 2024-07-04 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Downes, P., Van Praag, L., Anderson, J. & Behtoui, A. (2024). Editors’ Conclusion: Multidimensional Issues of Agency and Relational Space for Migrants for Inclusive Systems in Education and Beyond. In: Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza BehtouiLore Van Praag (Ed.), Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education: (pp. 195-218). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editors’ Conclusion: Multidimensional Issues of Agency and Relational Space for Migrants for Inclusive Systems in Education and Beyond
2024 (English)In: Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education / [ed] Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza BehtouiLore Van Praag, London: Routledge, 2024, p. 195-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Multiple dimensions of migrants’ agency were revealed across the volume. This included loss of agency, where young migrants were funnelled into educational levels that were below their capabilities, through decisions made by others, being unfamiliar with the new education system's credentialing processes. Constructivist agency as an opportunity to choose between alternatives highlighted the active role of the migrant young person in choosing to speak with parents in different languages in the home and a recurrent pattern of serendipity in system practices emerges offering choices for migrants and teachers, where for example some migrants may choose courses by accident. A major limitation of constructivist agency is that the criteria upon which a choice is made in selecting between alternatives is itself culturally conditioned. This critique resonant with critical theory's concern with false consciousness, internalised by those in weaker positions, to adopt the system-dominant logic, thereby raising concerns with forces of assimilation. Building on a cross-cultural, critical spatial theory framework, a range of examples emerged across the volume of the need for concentric relational spaces of assumed connection to challenge diametric oppositional spaces of exclusion and closure. Different relational spaces are embedded in material, symbolic and social systems. Concentric spaces of assumed connection offer a wider circle of identification between self and others, for a global identity to underpin active citizenship in education. This contrasts with the diametric oppositional us/them spatial identity underpinning the violence of dehumanisation experienced by migrant children and their families in some country contexts. A diametric spatial splitting systemic focus on the difficulties many migrants experience in ‘navigating the system’ scrutinises how the system itself is fragmented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2024
National Category
Educational Sciences Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-54427 (URN)10.4324/9781003263999-13 (DOI)2-s2.0-85196475652 (Scopus ID)9781003860549 (ISBN)9781032193045 (ISBN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2024-07-04 Created: 2024-07-04 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Downes, P., Behtoui, A., Van Praag, L. & Anderson, J. (2024). Editors’ Introduction: Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education. In: Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza Behtoui, Lore Van Praag (Ed.), Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education: (pp. 3-20). London: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editors’ Introduction: Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education
2024 (English)In: Promoting Inclusive Systems for Migrants in Education / [ed] Paul Downes, Jim Anderson, Alireza Behtoui, Lore Van Praag, London: Routledge, 2024, p. 3-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The book's framework of promoting inclusive systems in and around schools is outlined as a synthesis of systems theory, critical education theory, critical space theory and superdiversity, while committing to a range of key principles to underpin inclusive systems building also on a human rights-based approach. These key principles include equality and non-discrimination children's rights to expression of voices and participation, active participation of parents in school and the broader community, including representation and participation of marginalised groups. Inclusive systems in and around schools particularly focus on the holistic and differentiated needs of migrants. In doing so, it challenges the ‘heroic’, individualistic discourse of resilience, of resilient individuals, and the problematising and homogenising of migrants. Critical Education Studies try to see the world through the eyes of the oppressed and dispossessed and act against the institutional processes that reproduce oppressive conditions. A critical theory of spatial systems of exclusion and inclusion highlights a spatial turn in education, the humanities and the social sciences and invites a questioning of the shift from diametric spatial system blockages of assumed separation, closure, mirror image othering and hierarchy. It recognises inclusion and exclusion are spatial concepts, while superdiversity highlights the need to address complexities and specificities at system levels for migrants.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Routledge, 2024
National Category
Educational Sciences Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-54431 (URN)10.4324/9781003263999-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85196449972 (Scopus ID)9781003263999 (ISBN)9781032193045 (ISBN)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare
Available from: 2024-07-04 Created: 2024-07-04 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2024). Kan skolan göra skillnad?: En kort genomgång av teorier om skolans roll för ökad jämlikhet inom utbildning (1ed.). In: Lovisa Bergdahl; Elisabet Langmann (Ed.), Synliggjord skolkultur: Att forma en inkluderande och formbar skolvardag för ungdomar i socialt utsatta områden (pp. 19-38). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kan skolan göra skillnad?: En kort genomgång av teorier om skolans roll för ökad jämlikhet inom utbildning
2024 (Swedish)In: Synliggjord skolkultur: Att forma en inkluderande och formbar skolvardag för ungdomar i socialt utsatta områden / [ed] Lovisa Bergdahl; Elisabet Langmann, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2024, 1, p. 19-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2024 Edition: 1
Series
Södertörn Studies in Education ; 4
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-53940 (URN)978-91-89504-79-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-05-06 Created: 2024-05-06 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2024). Skolkulturer, empowerment och förhoppningar i segregerade skolor (1ed.). In: Lovisa Bergdahl; Elisabet Langmann (Ed.), Synliggjord skolkultur: Att forma en inkluderande och formbar skolvardag för ungdomar i socialt utsatta områden (pp. 107-129). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Skolkulturer, empowerment och förhoppningar i segregerade skolor
2024 (Swedish)In: Synliggjord skolkultur: Att forma en inkluderande och formbar skolvardag för ungdomar i socialt utsatta områden / [ed] Lovisa Bergdahl; Elisabet Langmann, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2024, 1, p. 107-129Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2024 Edition: 1
Series
Södertörn Studies in Education ; 4
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-53941 (URN)978-91-89504-79-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2024-05-06 Created: 2024-05-06 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2023). Empowerment not racialised segregation. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 44(5), 912-926
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empowerment not racialised segregation
2023 (English)In: British Journal of Sociology of Education, ISSN 0142-5692, E-ISSN 1465-3346, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 912-926Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to investigate the ‘equalising effect of schools’ in general and two concrete interventions that have been carried out recently in Sweden in particular. The first of these interventions is the closing down of schools in deprived neighbourhoods and moving pupils to other schools. The second is ‘empowerment’–i.e., creating an inclusive and supportive pedagogical school environment for students with working-class and immigrant backgrounds. As findings from previous Swedish studies regarding the first intervention show, an equalising effect will not be achieved without considering the ‘school climate’ of mixed schools. The findings from this case study of a school located in a deprived suburb of Stockholm County indicate that even schools in these areas are able to equalise educational opportunities through building an alliance between students, parents and community activists on the one hand and bi-class and bi-cultural brokers like teachers and social workers on the other. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2023
Keywords
empowerment, Equalising effect of schooling, failing schools
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology)
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-51549 (URN)10.1080/01425692.2023.2211232 (DOI)000987107200001 ()2-s2.0-85159342487 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2019-0435Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2022-00620
Available from: 2023-05-26 Created: 2023-05-26 Last updated: 2023-07-14Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2022). Självkategoriseringarnas problematik och den officiella mätningen av ”ras” och ”etnicitet”. In: Edda Manga; Mattias Gardell (Ed.), Att mäta rasism: (pp. 86-105). Norsborg: Mångkulturellt Centrum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Självkategoriseringarnas problematik och den officiella mätningen av ”ras” och ”etnicitet”
2022 (Swedish)In: Att mäta rasism / [ed] Edda Manga; Mattias Gardell, Norsborg: Mångkulturellt Centrum , 2022, p. 86-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Norsborg: Mångkulturellt Centrum, 2022
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-51560 (URN)978-91-86429-61-4 (ISBN)
Projects
Metodologiska laboratorier – hur skapa etiskt och vetenskapligt hållbara metoder att mäta diskriminering på grund av etnicitet, hudfärg och religion?
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03663
Available from: 2023-05-29 Created: 2023-05-29 Last updated: 2023-05-29Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2022). Social Capital, Immigrants and Their Descendants – The Case of Sweden. In: Elif Keskiner; Michael Eve; Louise Ryan (Ed.), Revisiting Migrant Networks: Migrants and their Descendants in Labour Markets (pp. 121-138). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Capital, Immigrants and Their Descendants – The Case of Sweden
2022 (English)In: Revisiting Migrant Networks: Migrants and their Descendants in Labour Markets / [ed] Elif Keskiner; Michael Eve; Louise Ryan, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 121-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter is about the access to networks with valuable resources (social capital) of individuals with a migrant background. Findings from the empirical studies in this field that I have conducted in Sweden over the last 20 years are the main basis for my arguments here: (i) it is not an individual’s social networks per se but the resources embedded in these social networks which define a person’s social capital; (ii) immigrants have different social and economic backgrounds and positions. An intersectional perspective challenges studies on the social capital of immigrants that lump all immigrants together as one homogenous group; (iii) social capital is a significant device for reproducing the existing hierarchical structure of society and the distinct power positions of various social groups; (iv) although the stratification effect of social capital is the predominant pattern, some groups or individuals from the unprivileged strata of society and other low-status people (like immigrants) have been able to gain access to resources beyond their immediate social networks, through institutional mediation or via membership in civil-society organisations (the “counter stratification” effect of social capital); finally (iv) the outcomes of social capital may differ due to context specificity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2022
Series
IMISCOE Research Series, ISSN 2364-4087, E-ISSN 2364-4095
Keywords
Descendants of immigrants, Immigrants, Social capital, Stratification, Sweden
National Category
Social Work
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-48769 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-94972-3_6 (DOI)2-s2.0-85127155242 (Scopus ID)978-3-030-94971-6 (ISBN)978-3-030-94974-7 (ISBN)978-3-030-94972-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2022-04-19 Created: 2022-04-19 Last updated: 2022-04-19Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2022). Upward Mobility, Despite a Stigmatised Identity: Immigrants of Iranian Origin in Sweden. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 12(1), 54-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upward Mobility, Despite a Stigmatised Identity: Immigrants of Iranian Origin in Sweden
2022 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 54-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study is about a relatively recent immigrant group - those with an Iranian background - and their pathways to advanced positions in the three fields of economics, politics and academia in Swedish society, despite the general processes of stigmatisation and subordination aimed at migrants from the global South. As the results of this study show, compared with other immigrant groups from the global South, individuals with an Iranian background, to a greater extent, were able to attain high-ranking positions in the fields of power investigated. These outcomes, as the results show, emerge from the resources that this group brought with them - their cultural and social capital - in interaction with external factors in their new country of residence (Sweden) over a specific time period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki University Press, 2022
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-48691 (URN)10.33134/njmr.419 (DOI)000766654200005 ()2-s2.0-85127095360 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2022-03-31 Created: 2022-03-31 Last updated: 2024-01-17Bibliographically approved
Behtoui, A. (2021). Constructions of self-identification: children of immigrants in Sweden. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 28(3), 341-360
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constructions of self-identification: children of immigrants in Sweden
2021 (English)In: Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, ISSN 1070-289X, E-ISSN 1547-3384, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 341-360Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper is about self-identification by a sample of young people with various migrant backgrounds in Sweden. In a survey we asked them how they present themselves to others in different contexts (in their schools and neighbourhoods or when they are out of Sweden). Our findings suggest that young people’s identification is not fixed. The paths to these various forms of identification are shaped by a variety of individual (class background, parents’ country of origin) and social factors (friendship networks and school composition). The results indicate that those who identified themselves as Swedish or hyphenated tended to be quite similar as regards their other characteristics, while those who presented themselves with the parents’ birth country or religious affiliation have very little in common.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2021
Keywords
children of immigrants, context, Self-identification, Sweden
National Category
Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39054 (URN)10.1080/1070289X.2019.1658396 (DOI)000485425900001 ()2-s2.0-85072025343 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 1603663The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 42/14
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2021-06-08Bibliographically approved
Projects
Civil Societies Organisations and Educational Achievements of Young People in Marginalised Urban Areas [2014-01795_VR]; Södertörn University; Publications
Behtoui, A., Hertzberg, F. & Neergaard, A. (2020). Inledning. In: Alireza Behtoui; Fredrik Hertzberg; Anders Neergaard (Ed.), Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser (pp. 13-36). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
The impact of civil society organisations on the educational achievements of young people in marginalised urban areas of Stockholm and St. Petersburg [42/2014_OSS]; Södertörn University; Publications
Kravchenko, Z. & Nygård, O. (2023). Extracurricular activities and educational ouctomes: evidence from high-performing schools in St Petersburg, Russia. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 32(4), 1106-1125Behtoui, A. (2021). Constructions of self-identification: children of immigrants in Sweden. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power, 28(3), 341-360Emami, A. (2020). Engagemangets positiva kraft. In: Alireza Behtoui; Fredrik Hertzberg; Anders Neergaard (Ed.), Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser (pp. 131-160). Lund: Studentlitteratur ABNygård, O. & Kravchenko, Z. (2020). Fritid och betyg. In: Alireza Behtoui; Fredrik Hertzberg; Anders Neergaard (Ed.), Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser (pp. 205-226). Lund: Studentlitteratur ABBehtoui, A. (2020). Fritidsaktiviteter och utbildningsresultat. In: Alireza Behtoui; Fredrik Hertzberg; Anders Neergaard (Ed.), Ungdomars fritidsaktiviteter: deltagande, möjligheter och konsekvenser (pp. 161-184). Lund: Studentlitteratur ABBehtoui, A. (2019). Swedish young people’s after-school extra-curricular activities: attendance, opportunities and consequences. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 40(3), 340-356
How can schools reduce inequalities in educational opportunities? [2019-00737_Forte]; Södertörn UniversityHow can schools reduce inequalities in educational opportunities? [2019-04357_VR]; Södertörn University; Publications
Bergdahl, L. & Langmann, E. (2024). Att synliggöra skolkultur (1ed.). In: Lovisa Bergdahl; Elisabet Langmann (Ed.), Synliggjord skolkultur: Att forma en inkluderande och formbar skolvardag för ungdomar i socialt utsatta områden (pp. 9-17). Huddinge: Södertörns högskolaBehtoui, A. & Strömberg, I. (2020). Compensatory school effects and social capital. Social Sciences, 9(11), Article ID 193.
Improvement of educational outcomes in segregated schools, but how? [2022-00620_Forte]; Södertörn UniversitySchool Dropout and the Post-Dropout Trajectories of Young People in Sweden and Finland: A Longitudinal, Multi-Method Comparative Study [22-PR2-0004_OS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8227-3659

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