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Gardeström, Elin
Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Gardeström, E. (2018). Propaganda as marketing: Conceptual meanings of propaganda and advertisementin Sweden in the 1930s. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, 10(4), 478-493
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Propaganda as marketing: Conceptual meanings of propaganda and advertisementin Sweden in the 1930s
2018 (English)In: Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, ISSN 1755-750X, E-ISSN 1755-7518, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 478-493Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This study aims to analyze the use of two concepts, propaganda and advertisement, in two areas of Swedish society during the 1930s; first, their use by the advertisement business, and second, their use by the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society.

Design/methodology/approach: By adopting a perspective of conceptual history, inspired by Reinhart Koselleck, the author is trying to pinpoint the meanings that were ascribed to these concepts in a 1930s context, the interdependency between these concepts and other keywords that were used in connection with them.

Findings: The study reveals how the ambiguous and synonymous use of these concepts served different purposes in the two fields of study. In the 1930s, propaganda was a key concept of communication and was used in manifold ways for selling goods and disseminating ideas. Propaganda was used to explain the newly introduced American marketing terminology. During the 1930s, the field of advertisement was trying to change what previously had been labeled as “idea propaganda” into “advertisement.” The ambiguous use of concepts made it possible for the Swedish Cooperative Union and Wholesale Society to combine advertisement for their produced goods with disseminating ideas of the cooperative ideology. The concepts of enlightenment (upplysning) and propaganda were crucial to hold together the ideological and commercial parts of the cooperative movement.

Originality/value: The interaction of meanings between commercial and political concepts is rarely researched in conceptual history or marketing history, which this article advocates to be an important field of study.

Keywords
Advertising history, History of Marketing ideas, Conceptual history
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36825 (URN)10.1108/JHRM-11-2017-0071 (DOI)2-s2.0-85056619661 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-11-27 Created: 2018-11-27 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2018). Reklam och propaganda under svenskt 1930-tal (1ed.). Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reklam och propaganda under svenskt 1930-tal
2018 (Swedish)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Vad var reklam?

Under 1930-talet var reklam ett nytt modernt fenomen som det fästes visionära förhoppningar vid. Reklamen skulle tjäna samhället och bygga framtiden, menade företrädare för den framväxande näringsgren som reklam var. Reklamen skulle skapa välstånd, men också lära människor trafikvett och den användes även för att lösa samhällsproblem som trångboddhet – även politik kunde det göras reklam för.

I denna bok undersöks reklamen som påverkansform och hur den relaterade till andra former av påverkan under 1930-talet; ett decennium under mellankrigstiden, klämt mellan depression och krigshot, men också en tid av utveckling av näringsliv och reklam. Studiens perspektiv är att nå historien om reklamens utveckling från två håll: För det första genom att empiriskt undersöka hur reklamen förstods och brukades. För det andra hur denna utveckling språkliggjordes. Här undersöks relationen mellan reklam och fyra andra kommunikativa begrepp; propaganda, upplysning, agitation och information. Undersökningen har fokuserat på tre olika aktörer; den framväxande reklambranschen, Kooperativa förbundet och det socialdemokratiska partiet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2018. p. 234 Edition: 1
Series
Södertörn Academic Studies, ISSN 1650-433X ; 74
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34890 (URN)978-91-88663-40-5 (ISBN)978-91-88663-41-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-07-18Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2017). Losing Control: The emergence of journalism education as an interplay of forces. Journalism Studies, 18(4), 511-524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Losing Control: The emergence of journalism education as an interplay of forces
2017 (English)In: Journalism Studies, ISSN 1461-670X, E-ISSN 1469-9699, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 511-524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Journalism education in Sweden emerged in the late 1950s after more than 50 years of discussions. This historical process is analyzed in this article as an interplay of forces, where different interest groups tried to shape how journalists were to be educated once the existing apprenticeship system was replaced by journalism schools. Using the work of sociologists Pierre Bourdieu and Margaret Archer, this study closely follows the struggle inside the journalistic field, and between the journalistic field and the academic field and other interest groups, about how journalists were to be trained and by whom. This study reveals how conflicts over journalism education tended to migrate; from who would run a journalism school in the postwar years to the governmental investigations of the 1960s and the prevailing internal conflict between theory and practice at the two national Journalist Institutes in the 1970s. This article discusses what is commonly understood to be the professionalization of journalism. However, from another perspective, it can also be viewed as a trade losing control over its education.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2017
Keywords
academic field, apprenticeship, journalism education, journalism history, journalism training, journalistic field, professionalization
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31847 (URN)10.1080/1461670X.2015.1073117 (DOI)000395695300007 ()2-s2.0-84939436851 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2018-04-05Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2016). Educating Journalists: The Who, When, How, and Why of Early Journalism Programmes in the Nordic Countries. In: Nygren, Hovden & Zilliacus-Tikkanen (Ed.), Becoming a Journalist: Journalism Education in the Nordic Countries (pp. 25-37). Göteborg: Nordicom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Educating Journalists: The Who, When, How, and Why of Early Journalism Programmes in the Nordic Countries
2016 (English)In: Becoming a Journalist: Journalism Education in the Nordic Countries / [ed] Nygren, Hovden & Zilliacus-Tikkanen, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2016, p. 25-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This article compares systems of journalism education in the Nordic countries, focusing on how education programmes for journalists first emerged. The theoretical perspectiveof the sociology of journalism education used by sociologist Margaret Archer, who viewsnational educational systems as always being shaped through a struggle between interest groups. The questions are when education programmes for journalists were founded, who initiated them and how the process of founding schools and programmes progressed. In addition to these questions, the article discusses the emergence of journalism educationin relation to the party press system and to the process of professionalisation. Theres pective developments of journalism education in the Nordic countries emerged in similar patterns. The apprentice system was, at first, combined with short courses arranged by press organisations, and then step-by-step replaced by journalism schools. In this process, the press organisations lost control over journalism education, even if theytried to maintain control through independent schools or through cooperation with universities. The mix of subjects in the journalist training curriculum has been discussedin all countries, centred on the balance between theoretical and vocational subjects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Nordicom, 2016
Keywords
journalism education, apprentice system, sociology of journalism education, national educational systems, theory versus practice, history of education
National Category
Media and Communications History of Ideas
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31676 (URN)978-91-87957-34-5 (ISBN)978-91-87957-35-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-01-12 Created: 2017-01-12 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2015). Journalistutbildningens historia. In: Karlsson, Michael & Strömbäck, Jesper (Ed.), Handbok i journalistikforskning: (pp. 81-96). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Journalistutbildningens historia
2015 (Swedish)In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Karlsson, Michael & Strömbäck, Jesper, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 81-96Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-27026 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2015-10-01Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2012). Den'rätta' kunskapen. Journalistutbildningens dilemma. Nordicom Information (1), 65-72
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Den'rätta' kunskapen. Journalistutbildningens dilemma
2012 (Swedish)In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, no 1, p. 65-72Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Nordicom, 2012
Keywords
Journalistubildning
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21251 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2011). Att fostra journalister : Journalistutbildningens formering i Sverige 1944 -1970. (Doctoral dissertation). Göteborg: Daidalos
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att fostra journalister : Journalistutbildningens formering i Sverige 1944 -1970
2011 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The thesis analyses the interaction between various interests in Swedish society when the existing apprenticeship system for the journalism profession was to be replaced by a formal journalism education programme. The press organisations had a difficult time agreeing on a programme, and the issue was discussed for over 50 years. The profession was seen as a talent, an aptitude that some people had, and there was opposition to formal education. The first part analyses discussions about journalism education in a post-war context, both in Sweden and internationally. Part two considers extensive investigatory processes in Sweden, in which the structure of journalism programmes was arrived at through negotiations. The third part studies the development of and discussions about the newly founded national journalism schools. The thesis demonstrates that journalism education was often presented as a solution to other perceived problems than the press needing more professionally trained labour. Journalism education was proposed as a solution to problems associated with commercialisation, sensational journalism, politicised journalism and war propaganda. The question of influencing the shaping of opinion both in Sweden and internationally was linked to journalism education to the extent that education was seen as a method of affecting the way the "free" press worked. For the same reason, the education of journalists was sometimes considered dangerous, that journalism students were streamlined in a separate education programme based on homogeneous values, which could be a threat to the freedom of expression.Using Bourdieu, the difficult relationship between the journalistic field and the academic field on education is interpreted as a struggle between two forms of capital over which kind of knowledge is to be valued. On a higher level, the struggle between academe and the press was formulated as a battle of symbolic royalty over what values were to be regarded as true in public discourse.

Abstract [sv]

Avhandlingen analyserar spelet mellan olika intressen i det svenska samhället när den tidigare lärlingsvägen till journalistyrket skulle ersättas av en formaliserad journalistutbildning. I Sverige hade pressens organisationer svårt att enas om en utbildning och frågan diskuterades i över 50 år. Yrket sågs som en talang, en förmåga som vissa människor hade och det fanns ett motstånd mot en formaliserad utbildning. Den första delen av avhandlingen analyserar diskussionerna om en journalistutbildning ur en efterkrigskontext, såväl i Sverige som internationellt. Del två behandlar utredningsprocesser i Sverige när journalistutbildningens form förhandlades fram. Den tredje delen beskriver utvecklingen av och diskussionerna om de nystartade statliga journalistinstituten.

Avhandlingen visar att utbildning av journalister ofta presenterades som en lösning på andra upplevda problem än att pressen behövde mer yrkesutbildad arbetskraft. En journalistutbildning föreslogs som en lösning på problem förknippade med kommersialisering och sensationsjournalistik, politiserad journalistik och krigspropaganda. Frågan om inflytande över opinionsbildningen i såväl Sverige som internationellt är kopplad till utbildning av journalister så till vida att utbildning sågs som en metod att påverka den ”fria” pressens funktionssätt. Av samma skäl ansågs en utbildning av journalister ibland som farlig, att journalisteleverna strömlinjeformades i en särskild utbildning efter enhetliga värderingar, vilket ansågs vara ett hot mot yttrandefriheten.

Med hjälp av Bourdieu tolkas den problematiska relationen mellan pressens fält och det akademiska fältet över utbildningen som en strid mellan två olika kapitalformer för vilken kunskap som ska värderas – en strid som utspelades när betyg och formella examina mötte en erfarenhetsbaserad självbildande tradition. På ett högre plan formuleras striden mellan akademi och press som en kamp om ett symboliskt herravälde över vilka värden som ska gälla för sanna i det offentliga samtalet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: Daidalos, 2011. p. 296
Series
Skeptronserien
Keywords
journalism education, journalism training, journalistutbildning
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21243 (URN)978-91-7173-351-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-10-14, MA 624, Södertörn högskola, Alfred Nobels allé 7, Huddinge, 13:18 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-01-22 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2011). Då journalisterna tog makten. In: Anders Burman & Lena Lennerhed (Ed.), Sekelslut: Idéhistoriska perspektiv på 1980- och 1990-talen (pp. 175-192). Stockholm: Atlas Akademi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Då journalisterna tog makten
2011 (Swedish)In: Sekelslut: Idéhistoriska perspektiv på 1980- och 1990-talen / [ed] Anders Burman & Lena Lennerhed, Stockholm: Atlas Akademi , 2011, p. 175-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Atlas Akademi, 2011
Keywords
journalist, journalistik, makt, 1980-tal
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21254 (URN)978-91-7389-928-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2015-01-12Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2011). Journalistelevernas 1968. Praktiske grunde. Tidsskrift for kultur og samfunnsvitenskab (4), 67-76
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Journalistelevernas 1968
2011 (Swedish)In: Praktiske grunde. Tidsskrift for kultur og samfunnsvitenskab, ISSN 1902-2271, E-ISSN 1902-2271, no 4, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
radikalism, 1960-tal, journalistutbildning
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21255 (URN)
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Gardeström, E. (2010). Journalistutbildningensdilemma: Praktik eller teori. In: Esbjörn Larsson & Johannes Westberg (Ed.), Utbildningens sociala och kulturella historia : (pp. 103-116). Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings och kultursociologi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Journalistutbildningensdilemma: Praktik eller teori
2010 (Swedish)In: Utbildningens sociala och kulturella historia / [ed] Esbjörn Larsson & Johannes Westberg, Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings och kultursociologi , 2010, p. 103-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Forskningsgruppen för utbildnings och kultursociologi, 2010
Series
Utbildningshistoriska meddelanden, ISSN 2000-4168 ; 1
Keywords
journalistutbildning
National Category
History of Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-21253 (URN)978-91-86701-00-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-01-10 Created: 2014-01-10 Last updated: 2015-01-12Bibliographically approved
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