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Marklund, C. (2020). Soft Power. In: International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Second Edition): (pp. 291-296). Oxford: Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soft Power
2020 (English)In: International Encyclopedia of Human Geography (Second Edition), Oxford: Elsevier, 2020, p. 291-296Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The concept of soft power, as introduced by Joseph S. Nye in the early 1990s has become popular in academia and media since the end of the Cold War. It addresses the influence of attraction through culture, policies, and values—as in “getting others to want what you want” and as distinct from hard power through coercion by means of economic strength and/or military force. As such, the concept reflects the growing significance of immaterial factors for exercising power under conditions of globalization, financialization, and mediatization, when physical control of territory, trade, and transport is increasingly supplanted by the significance of controlling digital infrastructures, ideational languages, and norm systems, allowing nonstate actors more influence, diffusing the power of the state and affecting coupled human–environment systems in diverse ways. While soft power has sometimes been reduced to imply an idealist outlook on global affairs, its main contribution lies in nuancing the concept of power in international relations, illustrating the significance of the whole spectrum of power, ranging from coercive hard power to attractive soft power. As such, it’s usage in human geography and other social sciences also requires attention to the complexity of the concept as introduced by Nye to avoid the risk of reproducing the binary separation between nature and humanity, material and immaterial factors implied by the dichotomy between hard and soft forms of power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Biopolitics, Geopolitics, Hard power, Idealism, Nation branding, Public diplomacy, Realism, Soft power
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39581 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-08-102295-5.10706-1 (DOI)978-0-08-102296-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-01-03 Created: 2020-01-03 Last updated: 2020-01-03Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2019). Double Loyalties?: Small-State Solidarity and the Debates on New International Economic Order in Sweden During the Long 1970s. Scandinavian Journal of History
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double Loyalties?: Small-State Solidarity and the Debates on New International Economic Order in Sweden During the Long 1970s
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

As North-South conflict appeared to overshadow Cold War tensions in the early 1970s, minor powers as well as non-aligned states across the world faced new challenges. The oil crisis, the rise of environmentalism, and the calls for a New International Economic Order (NIEO) propelled a wide-ranging debate within the Nordic countries regarding their complex position vis-a-vis international development and global environment. In Sweden, these debates reflect the emergence of (inter)national knowledge production about economic inequalities, ecological imbalances, and sustainable development. While these debates can be followed in both media and public debate, they also resulted in a specific body of governmental reports, research projects, and future long-term planning for the 1980s. By analysing a series of such studies from Sweden, this article problematizes the fusing of ecology and economy, the grand strategy of small states, and the local intellectual history of global solidarity during a key moment in the global Cold War. It is argued that the NIEO agenda/ideology played a significant but understudied role in shaping the debate on the balance between development and environment as well as the idea of Sweden's 'double loyalties' as a solidaristic small state and as a competitive advanced economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
North-South international relations, New International Economic Order (NIEO), Sweden
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38652 (URN)10.1080/03468755.2019.1624606 (DOI)000472323400001 ()2-s2.0-85068026273 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-07Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2017). Vår fasas bygd, vårt hem på jorden. Dagens Nyheter (22 februari), pp. 6-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vår fasas bygd, vårt hem på jorden
2017 (Swedish)In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 22 februari, p. 6-7Article in journal, News item (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32571 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2016). From ‘False’ Neutrality to ‘True’Socialism: Unofficial US ‘Sweden-bashing’ During the Later Palme Years, 1973–1986. Journal of Transnational American Studies, 7(1), 1-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From ‘False’ Neutrality to ‘True’Socialism: Unofficial US ‘Sweden-bashing’ During the Later Palme Years, 1973–1986
2016 (English)In: Journal of Transnational American Studies, ISSN 1940-0764, E-ISSN 1940-0764, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Historical Studies; Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32567 (URN)
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Arnberg, K. & Marklund, C. (2016). Illegally Blonde: ‘Swedish Sin’ and Pornography in American and Swedish Imaginations, 1950–1971. In: Mariah Larsson, Elisabet Björklund (Ed.), Swedish Cinema and the Sexual Revolution: Critical Essays (pp. 185-200). Jefferson: McFarland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Illegally Blonde: ‘Swedish Sin’ and Pornography in American and Swedish Imaginations, 1950–1971
2016 (English)In: Swedish Cinema and the Sexual Revolution: Critical Essays / [ed] Mariah Larsson, Elisabet Björklund, Jefferson: McFarland, 2016, p. 185-200Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Jefferson: McFarland, 2016
National Category
History
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-32569 (URN)978-1-4766-6544-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2016). Neutrality and solidarity in Nordic humanitarian action. London: Overseas Development Institute
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neutrality and solidarity in Nordic humanitarian action
2016 (English)Report (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Overseas Development Institute, 2016. p. 29
Series
HPG Working Paper ; January 2016
Keywords
humanitarianism, emergency relief, refugee reception, crisis management, development aid
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29394 (URN)
Available from: 2016-01-28 Created: 2016-01-28 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2016). The Nordic Model on the Global Market of Ideas: The Welfare State as Scandinavia’s Best Brand. Geopolitics, 2(3), 623-639
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Nordic Model on the Global Market of Ideas: The Welfare State as Scandinavia’s Best Brand
2016 (English)In: Geopolitics, ISSN 1465-0045, E-ISSN 1557-3028, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 623-639Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyses the contemporary deployment of the Nordic welfare state model as a centrepiece of Nordic competitive identity and strategic communication on the global market of ideas. First, it looks at the interrelated phenomena of global competition, competitive identity and region branding. Second, it studies the interplay between Nordic transnational public diplomacy and national public diplomacy of individual Nordic countries, in particular Sweden, on the one hand and international media outlets’ reporting on the Nordic countries on the other. In analysing this cross-fertilizing genre, the paper identifies how the welfare state is being repackaged for export along with a set of “progressive values” which are coded as specifically “Nordic.” The paper discusses (1) the interaction between outer images and inner visions; (2) the place and significance of the Nordic model, progressive values and the welfare state in today’s Nordic branding; and (3) the possible function of outward competitive identity as a kind of “compensatory imagination” directed inward as well as outward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31226 (URN)10.1080/14650045.2016.1251906 (DOI)000407082700007 ()2-s2.0-84994876899 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-25 Created: 2016-11-25 Last updated: 2020-03-31Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2015). A Swedish Drang nach Osten?: Baltic-Nordic pendulum swings and Swedish conservative geopolitics. Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal, 153(3), 223-248
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Swedish Drang nach Osten?: Baltic-Nordic pendulum swings and Swedish conservative geopolitics
2015 (English)In: Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal, ISSN 1406-3859, Vol. 153, no 3, p. 223-248Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyzes Swedish political scientist and conservative politician Rudolf Kjellén’s advocacy in favour of a Swedish "Baltic program" directed at the Baltic Sea region and Russia in the decades preceding the First World War. These Baltic ambitions as well as their legacy in the interwar period are studied as a series of exercises in "para-diplomacy" on three different levels: 1) as a geopolitical reconstruction of a Baltic-Nordic "space of expectation;" 2) as a kind of Baltic-Nordic regionalism based upon early notions of "soft power;" and 3) as an inspiration to the geopolitical outlook of the Swedish military elite, business circles and trade policy-makers in the time period from the First World War up to the Second World War. This "region-work in the margins" contributed to modernizing Swedish conservative elites’ geopolitical outlook into an ostensibly less aggressive vision of Swedish international influence through cultural, economic, and technological prowess.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tartu: University of Tartu Press, 2015
National Category
History
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28634 (URN)10.12697/AA.2015.3.02 (DOI)000378726700002 ()2-s2.0-84961707851 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-10-24 Created: 2015-10-24 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Marklund, C. (2015). American Mirrors and Swedish Self-Portraits: US Images of Sweden and Swedish Public Diplomacy in the USA in the 1970s and 1980s. In: Louis Clerc, Nikolas Glover, Paul Jordan (Ed.), Histories of Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding in the Nordic and Baltic Countries: Representing the Periphery (pp. 172-194). Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>American Mirrors and Swedish Self-Portraits: US Images of Sweden and Swedish Public Diplomacy in the USA in the 1970s and 1980s
2015 (English)In: Histories of Public Diplomacy and Nation Branding in the Nordic and Baltic Countries: Representing the Periphery / [ed] Louis Clerc, Nikolas Glover, Paul Jordan, Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2015, p. 172-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2015
Series
Diplomatic studies, ISSN 1872-8863 ; 12
National Category
Political Science
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies; Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28635 (URN)10.1163/9789004305496_010 (DOI)2-s2.0-85021181114 (Scopus ID)9789004305489 (ISBN)9789004305496 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-10-24 Created: 2015-10-24 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Kuldkepp, M. & Marklund, C. (Eds.). (2015). Baltic-Nordic Regionalism. Tartu: University of Tartu Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Baltic-Nordic Regionalism
2015 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Alternative title[et]
Balti-Põhjamaade regionalism
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tartu: University of Tartu Press, 2015
Series
Ajalooline Ajakiri. The Estonian Historical Journal, ISSN 1406-3859 ; 3 (153)
National Category
History
Research subject
Historical Studies; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28632 (URN)10.12697/issn1406-3859 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-10-24 Created: 2015-10-24 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Projects
Transnational Art and Heritage Transfer and the Formation of Value: Objects, Agents, and Institutions [11/2016_OSS]; Södertörn University
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0832-3993

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