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Schwarzenegger, C., Falböck, G., Graf, H., Ellefson, M., Agirreazkuenaga, I., Ferrández Ferrer, A. & Yanglyaeva, M. (2019). Ethnic Minorities and the Media – A Struggle for Voice, Self and Community?. In: K. Arnold, P. Preston & S. Kinnebrock (Ed.), The Handbook of European Communication History: (pp. 437-452). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ethnic Minorities and the Media – A Struggle for Voice, Self and Community?
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2019 (English)In: The Handbook of European Communication History / [ed] K. Arnold, P. Preston & S. Kinnebrock, Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019, p. 437-452Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2019
Series
Handbooks in communication and media
Keywords
minority media, migrant media, history
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39862 (URN)9781119161622 (ISBN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, A035-2011
Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-01-14 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2019). Journalistiken, den etniska mångfalden och migrationen (2ed.). In: Michael Karlsson och Jesper Strömbäck (Ed.), Handbok i journalistikforskning: (pp. 311-323). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Journalistiken, den etniska mångfalden och migrationen
2019 (Swedish)In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Michael Karlsson och Jesper Strömbäck, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 2, p. 311-323Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det här kapitlet behandlar journalistik och etnisk mångfald ur ett medietext- och produktionsperspektiv. Kapitlet inkluderar inte etniska minoriteters reception av olika sorters medietexter.

Begreppet ”etnicitet” syftar på olika härkomst än den egna gruppen, som i detta kapitel är den nationella majoritetsgruppen. Som samlingsbegrepp används numera begreppet ”personer med utländsk bakgrund”, vilket avser personer som är utrikesfödda eller födda i Sverige med minst en utrikes född förälder (DS 2000:43). Framför allt i samband med forskningens historik inkluderas i kapitlet också nationella minoriteter, vilka fick officiellt erkännande i Sverige först 1999.

Fokus ligger på etnisk mångfald samt på nyhetsjournalistik i tv, radio och press. Därmed avgränsar sig kapitlet från frågor kring exempelvis kulturell mångfald, kön, funktionsnedsättning, sexuell läggning och ålder.

Efter en överblick över de mest relevanta teorierna och internationell forskning om journalistik och etnisk mångfald ges en mer detaljerad och kronologisk överblick över svensk forskning om ämnet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019 Edition: 2
Keywords
etnisk mångfald, medier
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39866 (URN)9789144124636 (ISBN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 31/2016
Available from: 2020-01-14 Created: 2020-01-14 Last updated: 2020-01-15Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2018). Media Practices an Forced Migration: Trust Online and Offline. Media and Communication, 6(2), 149-157
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media Practices an Forced Migration: Trust Online and Offline
2018 (English)In: Media and Communication, ISSN 2083-5701, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 149-157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article explores the relationship between online and offline practices in the special case of forced migration. By applying a central category in social relations, trust/distrust as developed by Niklas Luhmann, this article contributes to the understanding of forced migration in the digital age. It presupposes that, without a strategy of trust, it would be almost impossible to cope with situations of unfamiliarity and uncertainty. By interviewing refugees, the questionis in what contexts the refugee recognizes that they can trust (or not). The article concludes that through the combination of on- and offline communication practices, more varied mechanisms for the creation and stabilization of trust are provided. In contexts of unfamiliarity, interpersonal relations with the native inhabitants play an important role in bridging online and offline worlds.

Keywords
media technologies; migration; refugee; systems theory; trust
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-35776 (URN)10.17645/mac.v6i2.1281 (DOI)000444278100002 ()2-s2.0-85050493584 (Scopus ID)3366/3.1.1/2016 (Local ID)3366/3.1.1/2016 (Archive number)3366/3.1.1/2016 (OAI)
Projects
The (dis)connected refugee
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Note

This article is part of the issue “Media and Communication between the Local and the Global”, edited by Jessica Gustafsson (Södertörn University, Sweden) and Kinga Polynczuk-Alenius (University of Helsinki, Finland).

Available from: 2018-07-02 Created: 2018-07-02 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2017). What Structures?: A communicative approach to ethnic diversity in German media companies. Journalism Practice, 11(5), 544-558
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Structures?: A communicative approach to ethnic diversity in German media companies
2017 (English)In: Journalism Practice, ISSN 1751-2786, E-ISSN 1751-2794, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 544-558Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article examines how the topic of an ethnically diverse workforce can become an organiz- ational problem (or not) in private media companies. The study is based on interviews with Human Resources managers and persons responsible for diversity issues at these companies. This article favors a communicative approach by relating structures to agency through the concept of expectation. This is in contrast to the bulk of media research, which considers structures as something fixed and objective in determining organizational action. By exploring the expec- tations structures we can see which expectation patterns condition organizational communication. As a result, the main pattern of migrant background as adding value to the organization (or not) could be revealed as a guiding distinction in organizational communication about diverse workforces. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2017
Keywords
ethnic diversity; expectation; media organizations; systems theory; workforce
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-29715 (URN)10.1080/17512786.2016.1155969 (DOI)000403809600002 ()2-s2.0-85019040856 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Hur Diversity Management gör skillnad. En jämförande studie om hur frågor om etnisk och nationell mångfald hanteras i massmedieorganisationer i Sverige och Tyskland
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-11 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2016). Introduction. In: Graf, Heike (Ed.), The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape (pp. 1-19). Open Book Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction
2016 (English)In: The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape / [ed] Graf, Heike, Open Book Publishers, 2016, p. 1-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Open Book Publishers, 2016
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30605 (URN)10.11647/OBP.0096.01 (DOI)9781783742431 (ISBN)9781783742448 (ISBN)9781783742455 (ISBN)9781783742462 (ISBN)9781783742479 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2016). The Culture of Nature: The Environmental Communication of Gardening Bloggers. In: Graf, Heike (Ed.), The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape (pp. 105-136). Open Book Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Culture of Nature: The Environmental Communication of Gardening Bloggers
2016 (English)In: The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape / [ed] Graf, Heike, Open Book Publishers, 2016, p. 105-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter examines ‘ordinary’ people’s media communication about environmental issues. I have chosen the example of garden blogs. They fall under the category of topic-centred blogs; themes concerning gardens/gardening are expected and communicated through narratives, comments, and images. Based on approximately 50 Swedish and German blogs and a qualitative, difference-theoretical analysis, I want to examine how they communicate ecological concerns from the angle of gardeners’ everyday ‘banalities’. To this end, I examine the communicative patterns which increase the likelihood of interconnected communication within the blogosphere, patterns which, in turn, create virtual collectives, and can support ecological roles in the garden. Blog entries relate to the blog’s own mode of operation and that of its network, meaning that the topics addressed are those that have the potential quality of ‘embracing’ all the people interested in the network. As a result, blog entries addressing ecological concerns focus on topics of consumption and production through the communication frames of pleasure, enthusiasm, and mutual agreement. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Open Book Publishers, 2016
Keywords
environmental communication, blogging, systems theory
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30604 (URN)10.11647/OBP.0096.05 (DOI)9781783742431 (ISBN)9781783742448 (ISBN)9781783742455 (ISBN)9781783742462 (ISBN)9781783742479 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (Ed.). (2016). The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape. Open Book Publishers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Environment in the Age of the Internet: Activists, Communication, and the Digital Landscape
2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

How do we talk about the environment? Does this communication reveal and construct meaning? Is the environment expressed and foregrounded in the new landscape of digital media?The Environment in the Age of the Internet is an interdisciplinary collection that draws together research and answers from media and communication studies, social sciences, modern history, and folklore studies. Edited by Heike Graf, its focus is on the communicative approaches taken by different groups to ecological issues, shedding light on how these groups tell their distinctive stories of "the environment". This book draws on case studies from around the world and focuses on activists of radically different kinds: protestors against pulp mills in South America, resistance to mining in the Sámi region of Sweden, the struggles of indigenous peoples from the Arctic to the Amazon, gardening bloggers in northern Europe, and neo-Nazi environmentalists in Germany. Each case is examined in relation to its multifaceted media coverage, mainstream and digital, professional and amateur.Stories are told within a context; examining the "what" and "how" of these environmental stories demonstrates how contexts determine communication, and how communication raises and shapes awareness. These issues have never been more urgent, this work never more timely. The Environment in the Age of the Internet is essential reading for everyone interested in how humans relate to their environment in the digital age.

The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies has generously contributed towards the publication of this volume.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Open Book Publishers, 2016
National Category
Media and Communications Other Humanities
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30603 (URN)10.11647/OBP.0096 (DOI)9781783742431 (ISBN)9781783742448 (ISBN)9781783742455 (ISBN)9781783742462 (ISBN)9781783742479 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2015). Journalistiken och den etniska mångfalden. In: Karlsson, Michael ; Strömbäck, Jesper (Ed.), Handbok i journalistikforskning: (pp. 335-352). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Journalistiken och den etniska mångfalden
2015 (Swedish)In: Handbok i journalistikforskning / [ed] Karlsson, Michael ; Strömbäck, Jesper, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, p. 335-352Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Det här kapitlet behandlar journalistik och etnisk mångfald ur ett medietext-och produktionsperspektiv. Kapitlet inkluderar inte  receptionen av olika sorters medietexter som adresserar mångfaldsperspektivet, det vill säga studier som behandlar invandrarnas och de nationella minoriteternas medieanvändning. Dessa studier nämns bara i samband med att de är viktiga för att förstå framförallt historiken kring den svenska forskningen om journalistik och etnisk mångfald. Begreppet ”etnicitet” syftar på olika härkomst än den egna gruppen, som i detta kapitel är den nationella majoritetsgruppen. Som samlingsbegrepp används numera begreppet ”personer med utländsk bakgrund”som är utrikesfödda eller födda i Sverige med minst en utrikesfödd förälder (DS 2000:43). Framför allt i samband med forskningens historik inkluderas i kapitlet också nationella minoriteter som först 1999 fick officiellt erkännande i Sverige. Fokus ligger på etnisk mångfald (och inte på kulturell mångfald i sig) samt på nyhetsjournalistik i tv, radio och press. Därmed avgränsar sig kapitlet från frågor kring kön, funktionsnedsättning, sexuell läggning och ålder. Efter en överblick över de mest relevanta teorierna och internationell forskning om journalistik och etnisk mångfald ges en mer detaljerad och kronologisk överblick över svensk forskning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015
Keywords
Journalistik, etnisk mångfald, forskning
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28630 (URN)9789144100777 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2015). Journalist’s fear production: Consequences for society. In: : . Paper presented at Consuming the environment. International conference, Gävle, 26-27 November 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Journalist’s fear production: Consequences for society
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We know from research that news media create their preferred meanings of environmental issues, from the angle of problems and dangers (e.g. Roll-Hansen 2014, Foust, C. R. & O'Shannon Murphy, W., 2009). While some environmental events are associated with drama such as earthquakes, most of environmental phenomena are rather invisible such as the thinning of Earth’s protective ozone layer (Hansen 2010, 95). Also the time scale of most environmental issues does not fit to 24-hours news making such as climate change. It needs a great deal of journalistic work to make such phenomena visible. Hence, to fit in to conventional news format, mainstream media “over-report the risks generating by acute crises” (Allan de. 2000, in Cox 2013, 167).This paper discusses the consequences of news media’s coverage of environmental issues as threats and dangers. Fear has emerged as a framework for engaging in ecological issues. Danger and fear are perceived as a central feature of our environment. We take it for granted that our physical environment is in danger, something we are afraid of. Fear cannot be forbidden or scholarly falsified, and is therefore not contested in social communication (Luhmann 1989). Fear is just there.The constant concern about risks and dangers leads to the impression that nothing is harmless and all is contaminated. It promotes a sense of disorder and a belief that things are out of control (Luhmann, 1989, 189). It reproduces itself and becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy (Altheide, 2002, 189. The problem lies less in the psychical reality of fear and anxiety but in the communicative actuality in society. “If anxiety is communicated but not contested in the communication, it acquires a moral existence” (Luhmann, 1989, 130). Those who  uses this frame is morally in the right.  “It becomes a duty to worry, and a right to expect participation in fears and to require standards for defense against danger. Those who worries… become warner with all risks that it implies” (Luhmann, 1989, 130). It implies, for instance, for scientific arguments that they are in a difficult position when arguing against anxiety-related issues. It implies also that the fear frame does not allow for the arguing of any progress that possibly has been made concerning environmental issues. In this way, environmental communication is infused with morality, based on fear and/or anxiety frame and, hence, it makes it difficult for controversies. However, only the future can show whether the fear has been justified.

National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28765 (URN)
Conference
Consuming the environment. International conference, Gävle, 26-27 November 2015
Available from: 2015-11-18 Created: 2015-11-18 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Graf, H. (2015). Possibilities and limitations of managing ethnic diversity: The example of German private media companies. In: : . Paper presented at Nordmedia 2015. Media Presence - Mobile Modernities, Copenhagen August, 13-15, 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Possibilities and limitations of managing ethnic diversity: The example of German private media companies
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In contrast to other branches, media companies are criticized as ‘lagging behind’ in becoming ethnically diverse, and they are too slow in making progress of diversity efforts (e.g. Horsti & Hultén, 2011; Graf, 2011; Markova & McKay, 2013, Horsti et al 2014). For example, when it comes to media professionals with migrant backgrounds, the numbers are very low: Only three percent of journalists have a migrant background according to a survey of the German Journalist Association in 2007 (Poettker 2013). Especially, black television journalists in Germany are rare. There are no news anchors of African origin, and there are only a few isolated cases of entertainment programs, where black journalists are in front of a camera.

This paper examines how media companies assess the importance of this issue of diverse workforce. As I am especially interested in the workforce (and not in programming), I have mainly interviewed 10 HR managers and staff who are responsible for personnel development and diversity issues within German media organizations during the fall of 2013 and the spring of 2014, and looked at their documented policies and diversity programs. In this paper, I focus on how HR managers, mainly from private media companies, observe the communication climate for diversity issues in their organization, and how they address recruitment obstacles.  More concretely, I want to explore, first, how the topic of a diverse workforce becomes an organizational problem (or not), and, second, which solutions appear and on the basis of which expectations.

Keywords
diversity, ethnicity, media companies
National Category
Media and Communications
Research subject
Critical and Cultural Theory; Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28769 (URN)1554/42/2011 (Local ID)1554/42/2011 (Archive number)1554/42/2011 (OAI)
Conference
Nordmedia 2015. Media Presence - Mobile Modernities, Copenhagen August, 13-15, 2015
Projects
Does Diversity Management Make A Difference? A comparative study on issues of ethnic and national diversity in mass media organizations in Sweden and Germany
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies, 1554/42/2011
Available from: 2015-11-19 Created: 2015-11-19 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Projects
Media, Communication, and the Social Performance of Environmentalism: Comparing Ecological Collectives on Two Sides of the Baltic Sea. [A037-2009_OSS]; Södertörn UniversityHur diversity management gör skillnad. En jämförande studie om hur frågor om etnisk och nationell mångfald hanteras i massmedieorganisationer i Sverige och Tyskland [A035-2011_OSS]; Södertörn University; Publications
Schwarzenegger, C., Falböck, G., Graf, H., Ellefson, M., Agirreazkuenaga, I., Ferrández Ferrer, A. & Yanglyaeva, M. (2019). Ethnic Minorities and the Media – A Struggle for Voice, Self and Community?. In: K. Arnold, P. Preston & S. Kinnebrock (Ed.), The Handbook of European Communication History: (pp. 437-452). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell
The (dis)connected refugee: The role of communication technologies in trust-building in Sweden and Germany [31/2016_OSS]; Södertörn University; Publications
Graf, H. (2019). Journalistiken, den etniska mångfalden och migrationen (2ed.). In: Michael Karlsson och Jesper Strömbäck (Ed.), Handbok i journalistikforskning: (pp. 311-323). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1443-6537

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