sh.sePublications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Gratzer, Karl
Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2017). New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results. International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship (4), Article ID 1567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results
2017 (English)In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, no 4, article id 1567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

Keyword
firm entry; survival; founding conditions; contemporaneous conditions; Sweden JEL-codes: L25, L26, C14, C41
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33893 (URN)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Local ID)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Archive number)2015/3.1.1/1322 (OAI)
Projects
Firm demography and entrepreneurship in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Baltic region
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-27Bibliographically approved
Gratzer, K. (2017). Verwegenes Unternehmertum: Die Einführung und Verbreitung von Gesundheitsresorts, Bäderkurorten und Medizintourismus im frühen modernen Schweden. In: Frank-Michael Kirsch, Jens Juszczak (Ed.), Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbransche (pp. 132-212). Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verwegenes Unternehmertum: Die Einführung und Verbreitung von Gesundheitsresorts, Bäderkurorten und Medizintourismus im frühen modernen Schweden
2017 (German)In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbransche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch, Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, p. 132-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache, 2017
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31192 (URN)978-3-942409-63-6 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-28Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2016). Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-2010. Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift (1), 20-36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-2010
2016 (Swedish)In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Handelshögskolan vid Karlstads universitet, 2016
Keyword
konkurs, insolvens, konjunktur, ekonomisk tillväxt
National Category
Law and Society Economic History Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30938 (URN)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Lin, X. & Gratzer, K. (2016). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000 (1ed.). In: Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema (Ed.), Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth (pp. 31-49). Cham: Springer.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000
2016 (English)In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Keyword
Entrepreneurship, Self-employment, Economic growth, Granger causality, Sweden
National Category
Economic History Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30319 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-28134-6_3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978199995 (Scopus ID)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)978-3-319-28132-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-28134-6 (ISBN)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
Gratzer, K., Lönnborg, M. & Olsson, M. (2016). State Ownership and Privatization in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Joint Workshop On Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Cooperatives, The Private Sector and Public Services: Lessons from Sweden and Tanzania, Moshi, June 28-29, 2016.. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>State Ownership and Privatization in Sweden
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30664 (URN)
Conference
Joint Workshop On Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Cooperatives, The Private Sector and Public Services: Lessons from Sweden and Tanzania, Moshi, June 28-29, 2016.
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2016-07-22 Created: 2016-07-22 Last updated: 2017-06-07Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Lin, X. & Gratzer, K. (2015). Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-2000. Klagenfurt: Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-2000
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Klagenfurt: Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, 2015. p. 27
Series
IfS Discussion Paper, ISSN 2306-7373 ; 2015:5
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28881 (URN)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
Borg, E., Gratzer, K. & Ljungbo, K. (2014). Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe. In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014): . Paper presented at 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour, Singapore, July 21-22, 2014. (pp. 47-50). Singapore: GSTF.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe
2014 (English)In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014), Singapore: GSTF , 2014, p. 47-50Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The health service industry is becoming increasingly internationalized. People are travelling increasingly longer distances for medical treatment. A new rapidly expanding medical tourism industry has emerged. For health service providers to compete they have to specialize and become more innovative. These innovative strategies are not limited to technical innovation, but also organizational- and service-related innovations. Treatment costs which influence the price paid for treatment are becoming a major factor influencing competition. We have looked at recent changes made within the European health care sector, to find evidence of a new innovative climate for the provision of medical treatment to patients. The emergence of Centers of Excellence is an example of responses to a new competitive climate in a global industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: GSTF, 2014
Series
International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy). Proceeding, ISSN 2251-1970
Keyword
Center of Excellence, Globalization, Innovation, Medical Tourism, Specialization, The European Union
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-24292 (URN)10.5176/2251-1970_BizStrategy14.06 (DOI)2394/42/2012 (Local ID)2394/42/2012 (Archive number)2394/42/2012 (OAI)
Conference
4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour, Singapore, July 21-22, 2014.
Projects
Sveriges utmaningar och möjligheter inom Medicinturism
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2014). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurship has gained increasing support from governments in recent decades. Entrepreneurship is considered to generate new jobs, innovations, and economic growth. In current research, a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth is maintained, where variations in entrepreneurship precede variations in economic output. Various models identify a positive effect entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades – a time when several Western countries transformed from ‘managed’ to ‘entrepreneurial’ economies.

Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship in both policy and research. The present study analyzes the relationship between growth in self-employment and economic growth in Sweden between 1850 and 2000. For the entire period (1851–2000), variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. Using Granger causality tests, the results in this study show that variations in self-employment did not granger-cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948, which gives two different periods: 1851–1948 and 1949–2000.

Between 1851 and 1948, Granger causality between self-employment and GDP in either (Granger) direction could not be established. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth granger-caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. Granger causality tests in the frequency domain show that for the period 1949–2000, but for no other periods, variations in self-employment lagged with GDP growth. Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth.

Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator for entrepreneurship, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream entrepreneurship research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2014. p. 43
Series
PESO Working Papers ; 2014:1
National Category
Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-24126 (URN)
Available from: 2014-06-18 Created: 2014-06-18 Last updated: 2017-09-22Bibliographically approved
Gratzer, K. (2013). Agents of change: inventors, entrepreneurs, financiers, and small business owners in the beginning of the Swedish fast food industry. In: Bögenhold, Dieter (Ed.), Soziologie des Wirtschaftlichen: Alte und neue Fragen (pp. 329-360). Wiesbaden: Springer.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agents of change: inventors, entrepreneurs, financiers, and small business owners in the beginning of the Swedish fast food industry
2013 (English)In: Soziologie des Wirtschaftlichen: Alte und neue Fragen / [ed] Bögenhold, Dieter, Wiesbaden: Springer, 2013, p. 329-360Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The study deals with an investigation of the introduction and evolution of the fast food industry in Sweden. After the turn of the 19th century, 121 small firms – all jointstock companies – originating from the same fast food business concept were founded. The companies studied, so-called “automated restaurants” (Automatrestauranger) were all established between 1899 and 1931. “Automat” was the Swedish name for a fast food restaurant in which the guests served themselves from purposely designed mechanical vending machines. Called “automatic” or “waiterless”, they first appeared in the 1890s and, though concentrated in Germany and Scandinavia, establishments of this sort spread some years later to the United States. Enormously popular at the beginning of the twentieth century, these restaurants featured bank upon bank of glass-fronted, coin-operated cells, each containing a single serving of dishes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiesbaden: Springer, 2013
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-20528 (URN)978-3-658-03544-0 (ISBN)978-3-658-03545-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-12-13 Created: 2013-12-13 Last updated: 2016-10-04Bibliographically approved
Borg, E. & Gratzer, K. (2013). Collective brand strategy, entrepreneurship, and regional growth: The role of a protected designation of origin (PDO). Journal of World Economic Research, 2(3), 26-38.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collective brand strategy, entrepreneurship, and regional growth: The role of a protected designation of origin (PDO)
2013 (English)In: Journal of World Economic Research, ISSN 2328-7748, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This research aims to interconnect entrepreneurship theories with brand theories. The study analyzes how this can be accomplished in the context of smaller agricultural firms, considering how intellectual property rights can be used strategically in entrepreneurial activities, ultimately creating regional growth. A firm has several options to protect its brands. Producers of similar products within a limited geographical area can protect the shared designated origin. Use of a collective brand, such as Champagne and Roquefort in France or Parmeggiano Reggiano in Italy, has been studied as a strategy to protect products from a given region. In the case analyzed here, a particular Austrian collective brand – Gailtaler Almkäse – was safeguarded within a protected designation of origin (PDO), providing producers a safe haven from which to enhance their collective brand in competitive markets. The PDO registration of the brand represents a central entrepreneurial strategy for manufacturers. To the region where the brands originate, the PDO has become a specific aspect of entrepreneurship that leads regional development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Science Publishing Group, 2013
Keyword
Brand, Entrepreneurship, Regional Growth, Strategy
National Category
Business Administration
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-19274 (URN)10.11648/j.jwer.20130203.11 (DOI)
Available from: 2013-06-25 Created: 2013-06-25 Last updated: 2014-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications