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Gratzer, Karl
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Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2018). Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–2010. Small Business Economics, 1-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Destructive entrepreneurship in the small business sector: bankruptcy fraud in Sweden, 1830–2010
2018 (English)In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Entrepreneurship will not always productive: Baumol (1990, 1993) distinguishes between productive, unproductive, and destructive entrepreneurial activities, and in the last two cases, new values are not created. Setting of from the notion of destructive entrepreneurship and the bankruptcy institute as framework for the empirical analysis, we use long aggregate series on bankruptcies and bankruptcy frauds in Sweden, 1830–2010. We operationalize destructive entrepreneurship with bankruptcy frauds. The bankruptcy institute is not a pure cleansing mechanism; assets can be redistributed by criminal procedure. Thus, a form of destructive entrepreneurship can be conducted within this system. We link bankruptcy frauds to the selection mechanism—the aggregate bankruptcy volume—over time. We cannot establish any direct linkages between the bankruptcy volume and institutional changes. However, and in line with research on bankruptcy diffusion and diffusion of economic crimes, we find that bankruptcy frauds have significant, positive impacts on the bankruptcy volume. Therefore, our results indicate that increases in bankruptcy frauds, destructive entrepreneurship, would affect the economic system. © 2018 The Author(s)

Keywords
Bankruptcy, Bankruptcy fraud, Destructive entrepreneurship, Sweden
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34934 (URN)10.1007/s11187-018-0043-3 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045625168 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2018). Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder. Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, 3(1), 12-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Företagsnedläggningar: Olika perspektiv och forskningsmetoder
2018 (Swedish)In: Insolvensrättslig tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Uppsatsen redogör för förklaringar till företagsdödlighet i såväl offentliga utredningar som inom ekonomisk och sociologisk forskning och teoribildning. Två fundamentalt olika föreställningar om hur och varför företag beter sig på ett visst sätt har dominerat de flesta studier. Ett perspektiv förutsätter en central roll för företagsledningens beslutsfattande och kompetens. Ett andra och motsatt perspektiv ser företags beteenden bestämda av externa krafter över vilka företagsledningen saknar kontroll. De olika föreställningarna påverkar resultat och slutsatser inom forskningen och har också betydelse för utformningen av den ekonomiska politiken.

National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34763 (URN)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Local ID)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Archive number)2015/3.1.1/1322 (OAI)
Projects
Firm demography and entrepreneurship in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Baltic region
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2018). The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective. Journal of quantitative criminology, 1-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Asymmetric Effect of Bankruptcy Fraud in Sweden: A Long-Term Perspective
2018 (English)In: Journal of quantitative criminology, ISSN 0748-4518, E-ISSN 1573-7799, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Objectives: The knowledge of the effects of white-collar crimes is incomplete. In the article, we operationalize white-collar crimes as bankruptcy frauds. Economic models maintain that interlinkages between firms may give ‘domino effects’: bankruptcy events could lead to ‘bankruptcy chains’ in which a bankruptcy spreads to other firms. Analogously, criminologists assert that social and economic networks can be a major source of fraud diffusion, with the potential to drive other firms bankrupt. Recent empirical results show that crimes may have detrimental and even asymmetric (nonlinear) effects on economic activity. We analyze the diffusion and the aggregate development of bankruptcy frauds in Sweden over nearly two hundred years, specifically focusing on the relationship between bankruptcy frauds and the bankruptcy volume. We also consider linkages between bankruptcy frauds, bankruptcies, and the macroeconomic cycle. Methods: We use long, aggregate time series, collected from several different historical and contemporary sources. Applying the recently developed cointegrating nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model, we investigate whether the bankruptcy volume reacts asymmetrically to increases and decreases in bankruptcy frauds, both in the short and the long run. Results: Bankruptcy frauds reveal a causal effect on bankruptcies, showing an asymmetric (nonlinear) diffusion effect from economic frauds to the bankruptcy volume. Increases in bankruptcy frauds have a positive and significant effect on the bankruptcy volume. However, decreases in bankruptcy frauds show no significant effect. No causal relationship between the macroeconomic cycle and bankruptcy frauds is found. Conclusions: Our data and research approach demonstrate how previously generated hypotheses in both criminology and economic research on the relationship between (economic) crimes, economic activity, and the diffusion of white-collar crime can be tested at an aggregate level. © 2018 The Author(s)

Keywords
Bankruptcy fraud, Diffusion of fraud, Sweden, White-collar crimes
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-34933 (URN)10.1007/s10940-018-9380-2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85045754876 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-04 Created: 2018-05-04 Last updated: 2018-05-04Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2017). New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results. International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship (4), 431-464, Article ID 1567.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New-Firm Survival in Sweden: New Methods and Results
2017 (English)In: International Reveiw of Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2009-2822, no 4, p. 431-464, article id 1567Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We analyse firm survival and focus on several levels of analysis (both firm level and macro-level). We employ a unique longitudinal data set, recorded at the firm-level and covering nine complete entry cohorts of Swedish companies. The companies were founded between 1899 and 1992, and each firm is followed over nearly a decade. We adopt the semi-parametric complementary log-log (cloglog) model. The main novelty of our approach is that, unlike extant studies so far, we are able to distinguish between the impact on the hazard rate of founding conditions and contemporaneous, post-entry conditions. Using our new approach we test several hypotheses derived from the Industrial Organization and Organizational Ecology literatures.

Keywords
firm entry; survival; founding conditions; contemporaneous conditions; Sweden JEL-codes: L25, L26, C14, C41
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-33893 (URN)000423944000003 ()2015/3.1.1/1322 (Local ID)2015/3.1.1/1322 (Archive number)2015/3.1.1/1322 (OAI)
Projects
Firm demography and entrepreneurship in Eastern and Central Europe and in the Baltic region
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2017-12-14 Created: 2017-12-14 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Gratzer, K. (2017). Verwegenes Unternehmertum: Die Einführung und Verbreitung von Gesundheitsresorts, Bäderkurorten und Medizintourismus im frühen modernen Schweden. In: Frank-Michael Kirsch, Jens Juszczak (Ed.), Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbransche (pp. 132-212). Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Verwegenes Unternehmertum: Die Einführung und Verbreitung von Gesundheitsresorts, Bäderkurorten und Medizintourismus im frühen modernen Schweden
2017 (German)In: Medizintourismus: Erfahrungen mit einer weltweiten Wachstumsbransche / [ed] Frank-Michael Kirsch, Jens Juszczak, Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache , 2017, p. 132-212Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Paderborn: IFB Verlag Deutsche Sprache, 2017
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31192 (URN)978-3-942409-63-6 (ISBN)
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Gratzer, K. & Lin, X. (2016). Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-2010. Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift (1), 20-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Konkurs och konjunktur i Sverige 1830-2010
2016 (Swedish)In: Insolvensrättslig Tidskrift, ISSN 2002-6315, no 1, p. 20-36Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [sv]

Ekonomer betraktar vanligtvis konkursutvecklingen som en konjunkturindikator och därmed beroende av förändringar på ekonomins efterfrågesida: konkurserna förväntas öka i tider av ekonomisk nedgång och minska under högkonjunkturer. Flertalet analyser är emellertid kortsiktiga. I denna uppsats presenterar vi ny och unik empiri där vi ana­lyserar det långsiktiga sambandet mellan konjunkturväxlingar och konkurser i Sverige mellan år 1830 och år 2010. I uppsatsen diskuteras också problem som kan uppstå i tolk­ningen av konkursstatistiken, både historiskt och i vår samtid. Den statistiska analysen visar att det delvis går att fastställa ett samband mellan makroekonomiska svängningar och förändringar i konkursmängden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Karlstad: Handelshögskolan vid Karlstads universitet, 2016
Keywords
konkurs, insolvens, konjunktur, ekonomisk tillväxt
National Category
Law and Society Economic History Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30938 (URN)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2016-10-04 Created: 2016-10-04 Last updated: 2017-05-17Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Lin, X. & Gratzer, K. (2016). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000 (1ed.). In: Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema (Ed.), Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth (pp. 31-49). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Sweden, 1850–2000
2016 (English)In: Contemporary Entrepreneurship: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Innovation and Growth / [ed] Dieter Bögenhold, Jean Bonnet, Marcus Dejardin, Domingo Garcia Pérez de Lema, Cham: Springer, 2016, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Recent developments in entrepreneurship suggest a causal link between entrepreneurial activity and economic growth: entrepreneurship precedes economic growth. A positive effect from entrepreneurship on economic development in advanced, innovation-driven economies in the most recent decades is often maintained. Self-employment is one of the most common indicators of entrepreneurship. The present study uses very long series of non-interrupted data on self-employment in Sweden (1850–2000). It analyzes the relationship between variations in self-employment and economic growth. For the entire period, variations in self-employment had a significant, instantaneous positive correlation with GDP growth. However, no causal relationship could be discovered: variations in self-employment did not (Granger) cause GDP growth. We discovered a structural break in GDP growth as early as in the year of 1948. Up until 1948, (Granger) causality between self-employment and GDP could not be established for any direction. For the other segment (1949–2000), GDP growth (Granger) caused self-employment growth, but not the other way around. For the period 1949–2000, but not for the previous period, selfemployment lagged with respect to GDP growth.  Consequently, GDP growth preceded self-employment growth, but self-employment growth did not precede GDP growth. Given that self-employment is a suitable indicator, the empirical results in this study are, in several respects, in disagreement with dominating assumptions in mainstream research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2016 Edition: 1
Keywords
Entrepreneurship, Self-employment, Economic growth, Granger causality, Sweden
National Category
Economic History Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30319 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-28134-6_3 (DOI)2-s2.0-84978199995 (Scopus ID)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)978-3-319-28132-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-28134-6 (ISBN)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2016-06-14 Created: 2016-06-14 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
Gratzer, K., Lönnborg, M. & Olsson, M. (2016). State Ownership and Privatization in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Joint Workshop On Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Cooperatives, The Private Sector and Public Services: Lessons from Sweden and Tanzania, Moshi, June 28-29, 2016..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>State Ownership and Privatization in Sweden
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Economics and Business
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30664 (URN)
Conference
Joint Workshop On Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Cooperatives, The Private Sector and Public Services: Lessons from Sweden and Tanzania, Moshi, June 28-29, 2016.
Funder
The Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies
Available from: 2016-07-22 Created: 2016-07-22 Last updated: 2017-06-07Bibliographically approved
Box, M., Lin, X. & Gratzer, K. (2015). Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-2000. Klagenfurt: Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is There a Relationship Between Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-2000
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Klagenfurt: Alpen-Adria-Universität Klagenfurt, 2015. p. 27
Series
IfS Discussion Paper, ISSN 2306-7373 ; 2015:5
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28881 (URN)1390/42/2012 (Local ID)1390/42/2012 (Archive number)1390/42/2012 (OAI)
Projects
Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and the Demography of Firms and Industries in Sweden over Two Centuries
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P12-1122:1
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-10 Last updated: 2017-05-10Bibliographically approved
Borg, E., Gratzer, K. & Ljungbo, K. (2014). Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe. In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014): . Paper presented at 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour, Singapore, July 21-22, 2014. (pp. 47-50). Singapore: GSTF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innovation and Specialization Strategies in Medical Tourism: Evidences from Europe
2014 (English)In: 4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy 2014), Singapore: GSTF , 2014, p. 47-50Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The health service industry is becoming increasingly internationalized. People are travelling increasingly longer distances for medical treatment. A new rapidly expanding medical tourism industry has emerged. For health service providers to compete they have to specialize and become more innovative. These innovative strategies are not limited to technical innovation, but also organizational- and service-related innovations. Treatment costs which influence the price paid for treatment are becoming a major factor influencing competition. We have looked at recent changes made within the European health care sector, to find evidence of a new innovative climate for the provision of medical treatment to patients. The emergence of Centers of Excellence is an example of responses to a new competitive climate in a global industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Singapore: GSTF, 2014
Series
International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour (BizStrategy). Proceeding, ISSN 2251-1970
Keywords
Center of Excellence, Globalization, Innovation, Medical Tourism, Specialization, The European Union
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-24292 (URN)10.5176/2251-1970_BizStrategy14.06 (DOI)2394/42/2012 (Local ID)2394/42/2012 (Archive number)2394/42/2012 (OAI)
Conference
4th Annual International Conference on Business Strategy and Organizational Behaviour, Singapore, July 21-22, 2014.
Projects
Sveriges utmaningar och möjligheter inom Medicinturism
Available from: 2014-07-21 Created: 2014-07-21 Last updated: 2016-12-20Bibliographically approved
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