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Koenitz, H., Roth, C. & Mekler, E. (2024). Alternate realities in interactive digital narratives – understanding and improving design and prosocial effects through empirical methods. Multimedia tools and applications, 83, 46757-46778
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alternate realities in interactive digital narratives – understanding and improving design and prosocial effects through empirical methods
2024 (English)In: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 83, p. 46757-46778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interactive digital narratives (IDNs) create alternate realities using both fictional and non-fiction material. The interactive aspect of IDN turns audiences into participants and enables the exploration of alternative perspectives and actions within a single artifact. Such multifaceted representations make IDN a vehicle for representing complex issues, a crucial capability at a time when the limits of traditional narrative media to adequately represent complex issues such as climate change become apparent. Conversely, properly evaluated, generalized knowledge about how exactly IDNs engage and influence us and what this means for the design of such works is still scant and thus this topic needs scholarly attention. In this overview paper, we discuss the potential of IDN, but also the difficulties of realizing this potential in terms of design and of verifying the effectiveness through empirical research methods. The potential of IDN as dynamic, participatory, and encyclopedic artifacts can be clearly expressed, yet the same cannot be said when it comes to the design and especially the evaluation of intended prosocial effects, the topic this paper is focused on. We start by identifying the problem of IDN design resulting from a combination of the lack of generalized knowledge and formal professional training. Then, we discuss the challenge of measuring the effectiveness of IDN design for prosocial effects and report on several case studies. In this context, we discuss methodological issues and advocate for best practices. Finally, we consider future steps in addressing the continuing challenge of evaluating IDNs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Alternate realities, Design conventions, Design principles, Empirical methods, Evaluation method development, Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), Interactive digital narrative design, Ludonarrative, Narrative design, Prosocial effects, User studies
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-53834 (URN)10.1007/s11042-024-18884-8 (DOI)2-s2.0-85189332585 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2024-04-16 Created: 2024-04-16 Last updated: 2024-05-13Bibliographically approved
Reyes, M. C., Silva, C. & Koenitz, H. (2023). Decolonizing IDN Pedagogy From and with Global South: A Cross-Cultural Case Study. In: Lissa Holloway-Attaway & John Murray (Ed.), 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023. (pp. 138-158). Cham: Springer Nature, 14383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decolonizing IDN Pedagogy From and with Global South: A Cross-Cultural Case Study
2023 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway & John Murray, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, Vol. 14383, p. 138-158Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a pedagogical activity with 120 students from two higher education institutions, one in the Global South and the other in the Global North. The objective was to incorporate decolonial thinking into analysing IDN artifacts through cross-cultural dialogue and collaboration. To achieve this, students were randomly divided into 20 groups comprising individuals from both countries and were assigned to work together across different time zones and geography. Students were prepared with an introduction to decolonial thinking and interactive digital narratives (IDNs). For the cross-cultural analysis, students used a methodology that merges the SPP model, the transformation aspect of IDN user experience, and the decoding position to reflect on how the artifacts perpetuate coloniality. Our results indicate that cross-cultural dialogue enabled students to counter colonial norms of universalism and Eurocentrism in IDNs through collaboration and interaction across the globe.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 14383
Keywords
Decoloniality, Decolonial Framework, Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), Cross-culturality, Cross-cultural Dialogue, Decolonial Pedagogy
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52753 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-47655-6_9 (DOI)2-s2.0-85177479313 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023.
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Koenitz, H., Holloway-Attaway, L. & Perkis, A. (2023). Editorial: Interactive digital narratives representing complexity. Frontiers in Virtual Reality, 4, Article ID 1132785.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial: Interactive digital narratives representing complexity
2023 (English)In: Frontiers in Virtual Reality, ISSN 2673-4192, Vol. 4, article id 1132785Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2023
Keywords
comprehension of complexity, decolonialization, interactive digital narrative (IDN), narrative design, prosocial actions, representations of complexity, societal impact
National Category
Media Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-51211 (URN)10.3389/frvir.2023.1132785 (DOI)001023263200001 ()2-s2.0-85149411412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-10-31Bibliographically approved
Barbara, J., Koenitz, H., Pitt, B., Daiute, C., Sylla, C., Bouchardon, S. & Soltani, S. (2023). IDNs in Education: Skills for Future Generations. In: Lissa Holloway-Attaway & John Murray (Ed.), 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023. (pp. 57-72). Cham: Springer Nature, 14383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>IDNs in Education: Skills for Future Generations
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2023 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway & John Murray, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, Vol. 14383, p. 57-72Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN) literacy and authoring skills are being gained too late along a typical student’s educational journey and only by a niche subset of learners while such skills are crucial to consume modern day media communications reporting on complex phenomena from multiple perspectives. This paper acknowledges the impact of technology on teaching and learning methods as well as the current status of digital media in education and uses them to explain how IDN can be used to teach K-12 subjects with the aim of helping students attain IDN literacy skills. It also suggests ways to expand IDN literacy by adding authoring skills. The paper connects these overarching goals with current initiatives in establishing IDN literacy and authoring skills in the K-12 curriculum and presents short-, medium- and long-term objectives towards the above two aims.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 14383
Keywords
Interactive Digital Narratives, K-12 Education, literacy, authoring
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52752 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-47655-6_4 (DOI)2-s2.0-85177446114 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023.
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Eladhari, M. P. & Koenitz, H. (2023). Mind Stories: A Story Making Game - From Narrative Therapy to Interactive Narrative Therapy. In: Lissa Holloway-Attaway & John Murray (Ed.), 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023. (pp. 155-167). Cham: Springer Nature, 14384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mind Stories: A Story Making Game - From Narrative Therapy to Interactive Narrative Therapy
2023 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway & John Murray, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, Vol. 14384, p. 155-167Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Narrative has been central to psychoanalysis from its inception. What has been explored less is the relationship between psychotherapy and interactive narrative. In particular, narrative therapy is a wellestablished practice in psychotherapy which shares central concerns with interactive narrative research and practice. In this paper, we explore the foundational role of narrative in psychotherapy and consider its interactive aspect. Then, we identify the overlap between interactive narratives and narrative therapy, and identify interactive narrative works which use this potential for therapeutic purposes. We also describe a concrete implementation, the board game Mind Stories, and introduce the concept of interactive narrative therapy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 14383
Keywords
psychotherapy, narrative therapy, interactive narrative therapy, Mind Stories, story games, board games
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52754 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-47658-7_14 (DOI)2-s2.0-85177450916 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023.
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Koenitz, H. (2023). Understanding Interactive Digital Narrative: Immersive Expressions for a Complex Time. London and New York: Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Interactive Digital Narrative: Immersive Expressions for a Complex Time
2023 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This remarkably clearly written and timely critical evaluation of core issues in the study and application of interactive digital narrative (IDN) untangles the range of theories and arguments that have developed around IDN over the past three decades.

Looking back over the past 30 years of theorizing around interactivity, storytelling, and the digital across the fields of game design/game studies, media studies, and narratology, as well as interactive documentary and other emerging forms, this text offers important and insightful correctives to common misunderstandings that pervade the field. This book also changes the perspective on IDN by introducing a comprehensive conceptual framework influenced by cybernetics and cognitive narratology, addressing limitations of perspectives originally developed for legacy media forms. Applying its framework, the book analyzes successful works and lays out concrete design advice, providing instructors, students, and practitioners with a more precise and specific understanding of IDN.

This will be essential reading for courses in interactive narrative, interactive storytelling, and game writing, as well as digital media more generally.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London and New York: Routledge, 2023. p. 202
Keywords
Interactive Digital Narrative, IDN, IDN, Narrative Design, Interactive Narrative Design, Complexity Representations
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52750 (URN)10.4324/9781003106425 (DOI)9781003106425 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-11-20 Created: 2023-11-20 Last updated: 2023-11-22Bibliographically approved
Koenitz, H. & Eladhari, M. P. (2023). When Has Theory Ever Failed Us?: Identifying Issues with the Application of Theory in Interactive Digital Narrative Analysis and Design. In: Lissa Holloway-Attaway; John Murray (Ed.), 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling: . Paper presented at 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023. (pp. 21-37). Cham: Springer Nature, 14383
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When Has Theory Ever Failed Us?: Identifying Issues with the Application of Theory in Interactive Digital Narrative Analysis and Design
2023 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling / [ed] Lissa Holloway-Attaway; John Murray, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, Vol. 14383, p. 21-37Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we discuss how theories can fail us in analysis and design of interactive digital narrative (IDN) works. We demonstrate a range of theoretical failures using the milestone IDN work Façade. To this end, we demonstrate the effect of different theoretical lenses, treating Façade as an interactive drama, as a game, as a work of hypertext fiction, and as general IDN work. We identify different types of theory failures with regards to analysis, creation and audience reception: miscatogorization, blind transfer, bogus theory, semantic creep, analytical blur, out of date, lack of problematization, fallacy of universality, analysis-productive mistakes, inappropriate conventions, out of context, over-pragmatization, and setting the wrong expectations for audiences. Finally we propose a way to prevent theoretical failures and call for more work in this respective area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 14383
Keywords
interactive digital narrative theory, interactive digital narrative design, interactive digital narrative authoring, interactive storytelling theory and design, theoretical failures, application areas of theory
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52751 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-47655-6_2 (DOI)2-s2.0-85177435666 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling, ICIDS 2023, Kobe, Japan, November 11–15, 2023.
Available from: 2023-11-21 Created: 2023-11-21 Last updated: 2023-11-28Bibliographically approved
Koenitz, H., Barbara, J. & Bakk, A. K. (2022). An Ethics Framework for Interactive Digital Narrative Authoring. In: Hargood, Charlie; Millard, David E.; Mitchell, Alex; Spierling, Ulrike (Ed.), The Authoring Problem: Challenges in Supporting Authoring for Interactive Digital Narratives (pp. 335-351). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Ethics Framework for Interactive Digital Narrative Authoring
2022 (English)In: The Authoring Problem: Challenges in Supporting Authoring for Interactive Digital Narratives / [ed] Hargood, Charlie; Millard, David E.; Mitchell, Alex; Spierling, Ulrike, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 335-351Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN) provides expressive opportunities that can be applied to many serious and non-fiction topics. Such applications, in particular, but also fictional IDN, have an ethicalEthics (ethical) dimension, an aspect in need of increased attention as IDN matures and is more widely deployed. In this chapter, we identify aspects of IDN ethicsEthics (ethical) with a particular concern for IDN authoring, taking into account earlier efforts in related areas, such as more generalized perspectivesPerspective on ethicsEthics (ethical) in computer sciences and considerations pertaining to video games. We use IDN for cultural heritage as a frame for discussing ethical aspects in IDN, since this application area is particularly prone to issues in this regard. Furthermore, we put a focus on VRVirtual Reality (VR), as a topic that most fully divorces audiences from the outside world during the IDN experience and thus poses particular ethicalEthics (ethical) challenges for authoring. Throughout the discussion, we identify questions that an IDN ethics framework needs to address. Then, we introduce such a framework with 12 rulesRules and briefly discuss their application. The IDN ethics framework is meant to be as a first edition, to be further developed by the community.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2022
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-52398 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-05214-9_21 (DOI)978-3-031-05213-2 (ISBN)978-3-031-05214-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2023-09-26 Created: 2023-09-26 Last updated: 2023-09-26Bibliographically approved
Koenitz, H., Barbara, J. & Eladhari, M. P. (2022). Interactive digital narrative (IDN): new ways to represent complexity and facilitate digitally empowered citizens. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 28(3-4), 76-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive digital narrative (IDN): new ways to represent complexity and facilitate digitally empowered citizens
2022 (English)In: New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, ISSN 1361-4568, E-ISSN 1740-7842, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 76-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this overview paper, we consider interactive digital narratives (IDN) as a means to represent and enable understanding of complex topics both at the public level (e.g. global warming, the COVID-19 pandemic, migration, or e-mobility) and at the personal level (trauma and other mental health issues, interpersonal relationships). We discuss scholarly, artistic, and non-fiction approaches to complexity, point out limitations of traditional media to represent complex issues, and describe the foundational advantages of IDN in this regard, using the SPP model as a conceptual lens. Then, we describe the problem space of IDN for complexity, and what aspects need further work in order to more fully realise the potential of IDN to represent complex topic in education and public communication. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
business models, education, evaluation, IDN design, interactive digital narratives (IDN), journalism, Representation of complexity, SPP model
National Category
Information Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-51249 (URN)10.1080/13614568.2023.2181503 (DOI)000950144000001 ()2-s2.0-85150750098 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-03-31 Created: 2023-03-31 Last updated: 2024-05-17Bibliographically approved
Barbara, J., Bellini, M., Makai, P. K., Sampatakou, D., Irshad, S. & Koenitz, H. (2022). The Sacra Infermeria — a focus group evaluation of an augmented reality cultural heritage experience. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 28(3-4), 143-171
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Sacra Infermeria — a focus group evaluation of an augmented reality cultural heritage experience
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2022 (English)In: New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, ISSN 1361-4568, E-ISSN 1740-7842, Vol. 28, no 3-4, p. 143-171Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The digital representation of our past has long been an important tool in the interpretation of cultural heritage in museums. The recent rise in the use of Augmented Reality (AR) has seen various approaches to adding dynamic information to existent artefacts. The challenge is even greater when uncertainty further complexifies the represented history. This paper presents a critical analysis of an AR installation in the Sacra Infermeria museum in Valletta, Malta. After a description of the AR configuration of the installation, we present a thematic analysis carried out from a multidisciplinary focus group of 11 researchers in the field of Interactive Digital Narratives (IDN), from three perspectives: the technological implementation of the AR experience, the historical accuracy, gamification and the influence of social media-centred design, and the representation of the complexity arising from the uncertainty of history. In the light of the results of the multidisciplinary focus group, we provide a list of recommendations and heuristics at the end of the article. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2022
Keywords
augmented reality, complexity, Cultural heritage, design, uncertainty
National Category
Human Computer Interaction Cultural Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-51013 (URN)10.1080/13614568.2022.2150324 (DOI)000913547700001 ()2-s2.0-85147036441 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2023-02-14 Created: 2023-02-14 Last updated: 2023-06-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3390-831x

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