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Aare, C. (2018). A Narratological Investigation Of Eyewitness Reporting: how a journalistic mission affects narrative structures of the text. Brazilian Journalism Research, 14(3), 676-699
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Narratological Investigation Of Eyewitness Reporting: how a journalistic mission affects narrative structures of the text
2018 (English)In: Brazilian Journalism Research, E-ISSN 1981-9854, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 676-699Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Drawing upon the tenets of discourse narratology, this essay identifies and discusses the various narrative and rhetorical features typical of literary journalism/reportage that have evolved from the classical tradition of first-hand observation/eyewitness reporting. I give examples of narrative patterns that have influenced literary journalism throughout the 20th century and up until today, and argue that they differ from structures found in comparable ways of narrating in fiction as well as in autobiographies. I highlight four consequences of a rhetorical “position of witnessing”: a narrative perspective directed from the outside and inward, and an illusion of simultaneity of a reporter being present on the spot and seemingly witnessing and narrating at the same time. Furthermore, the essay explores how realism, in terms of mimetic (scenic) form and scrutinized details, works differently in literary journalism than in realistic fiction. In this article, I attempt to demonstrate how narratology can open new doors to our understanding how literary journalism works in its single structures and how these structures in turn affect the reader’s experience.

Abstract [pt]

Com base nos princípios da narratologia do discurso, este ensaio identifica e discute as várias características narrativas e retóricas típicas do jornalismo literário/ reportagem que evoluíram a partir da tradição clássica de observação em primeira mão/ relato de testemunhas oculares. Dou exemplos de padrões narrativos que influenciaram o jornalismo literário ao longo do século XX e até hoje, e argumento que eles diferem das estruturas encontradas em formas comparáveis de narrar na ficção, bem como nas autobiografias. Destaco quatro consequências de uma “posição de testemunho” retórica: uma perspectiva narrativa dirigida de fora para dentro e uma ilusão de simultaneidade de um repórter estando presente no local e aparentemente testemunhando e narrandoao mesmo tempo. Além disso, o ensaio explora como o realismo, em termos de forma mimética (cênica) e detalhes minuciosos, funciona de maneira diferente no jornalismo literário do que na ficção realista. Neste artigo, tento demonstrar como a narratologia pode abrir novas portas para nossa compreensão de como o jornalismo literário funciona em suas estruturas únicas e como estas, por sua vez, afetam a experiência do leitor.

Abstract [es]

Con base en los principios de la narratología del discurso, este ensayo identifica y discute las diversas características narrativas y retóricas típicas del periodismo literario/ reportaje que evolucionaron a partir de la tradición clásica de observación de primera mano/ relato de testigos oculares. En el siglo XX y hasta el presente, se dan ejemplos de patrones narrativos que influenciaron el periodismo literario a lo largo del siglo XX y que se diferencian de las estructuras encontradas en formas comparables de narrar en la ficción, así como en las autobiografías. Destaco cuatro consecuencias de una “posición de testimonio” retórica: una perspectiva narrativa dirigida de fuera hacia dentro y una ilusión de simultaneidad de un reportero estando presente en el lugar y aparentemente testificando y narrando al mismo tiempo. Además, el ensayo explora cómo el realismo, en términos de forma mimética (escénica) y detalles minuciosos, funciona de manera diferente en el periodismo literario que en la ficción realista. En este artículo, intento demostrar cómo la narratología puede abrir nuevas puertas para nuestra comprensión de cómo el periodismo literario funciona en sus estructuras únicas y cómo esas estructuras, a su vez, afectan la experiencia del lector.

Keywords
Discourse narratology, Eyewitness reporting, Mimetic representation, Afferent narrative perspective, Illusion of simultaneity, Narratologia do discurso, Relato de testemunha ocular, Representação mimética, Perspectiva narrativa aferente, Ilusão de simultaneidade, Narratología del discurso, Relato de testigo ocular, Representación mimética, Perspectiva narrativa aferente, Ilusión de simultaneidad
National Category
General Literature Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37421 (URN)10.25200/BJR.v14n3.2018.1125 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060585538 (Scopus ID)
Note

Publicerad på två språk. Portugisisk titel: Uma Investigação Narratológica Do Relato De Testemunhas Oculares: como o papel de um repórter profissional pode afetar as estruturas narrativas do texto

Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-08Bibliographically approved
Aare, C. (2016). A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other. Literary Journalism Studies, 8(1), 106-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other
2016 (English)In: Literary Journalism Studies, ISSN 1944-897X, E-ISSN 1944-8988, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 106-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this essay is to present a model for analyzing the in- terplay between voice and point of view in literary journalism/reportage. The model can be used to nuance previous researchers’ discussions about “subjective” and “objective” journalism. It also problematizes the reporter’s special role as an eyewitness by highlighting how narrative techniques can create empathy with the Other and move the reader’s gaze away from the reporter, away from the one who is witnessing. Using tools from classical narratology, I focus on the form of the texts. The tools help me investigate the narrator’s as well as the characters’ subjectivity and interpret the narra- tive’s construction as an expression of a journalistic mission. I systematize variables such as the narrator’s visibility, the relation between an experienc- ing reporter and a narrating reporter, the interplay between the experienc- ing reporter and other characters in the text, and in what way a level with a director (an implied author) can facilitate a comparison between vari- ous kinds of literary journalism. I also examine whether it might be time to abandon the theory that a first-person reportage is more subjective in general than a third-person reportage. I explore whether it is instead the narrator’s visibility that determines the position of the text on a scale be- tween “subjective” and “objective” forms. (Note: I have provided a glossary of terms at the end of the essay.)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Evanstone, United States: , 2016
Keywords
literary journalism, reportage, eyewitness, emapthy with the other, a narratological model, focalization, consonance, dissonance, the narrator's visibility
National Category
General Literature Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-30307 (URN)000382852100007 ()
Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-13 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Aare, C. (2016). Narratologia a dziennikarstwo literackie: W jaki sposób wzajemne oddziaływanie głosu oraz punktu widzenia może służyć wytworzeniu zrozumienia dla Innego. Tekstualia (4), 5-28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Narratologia a dziennikarstwo literackie: W jaki sposób wzajemne oddziaływanie głosu oraz punktu widzenia może służyć wytworzeniu zrozumienia dla Innego
2016 (Polish)In: Tekstualia, ISSN 1734-6029, no 4, p. 5-28Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Keywords
narratology, reportage, point of view, focalisation
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-31880 (URN)
Note

Translated and shorted version of:

Aare, C. (2016). A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other. Literary Journalism Studies, 8(1), 106-139.

Available from: 2017-01-27 Created: 2017-01-27 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Aare, C. (2015). Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen. Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap (1), 5-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen
2015 (Swedish)In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A reportage is the reporter's story about reality. Even though it details real events, it always presentsa personal interpretation of these events. In contrast to the news article, which primarilyinforms readers, a reportage involves a pronounced degree of personal narration. Normally it is based on the reporter's role as an eyewitness. This essay discusses how the position of the eyewitness establishes narratological structures inthe text, which seem to differ from the structures present in other kinds of non-fiction narrativestold in the first person. For instance, in reading an autobiography, a reader's empathy willbe drawn toward the main character. By contrast, a reportage will direct the reader's empathyaway from the reporter and towards the other. The narratological construction of a reportage may be studied as an interplay between threeinstances: the experiencing reporter, the narrating reporter and the director (the implied reporter).Thus, a three-part model may be utilised in order to help explain, for example, how ahomodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how a character otherthan the experiencing reporter can be internally focalised. It can also illuminate how the textmay employ a form of dissonance between the experiencing and the narrating reporter to serve ajournalistic purpose (displacing the perspective from person – the reporter – to subject-matter).

Keywords
reportage, eyewitness, empathy with the other, narratology
National Category
General Literature Studies
Research subject
Other research area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-28195 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-01 Created: 2015-09-03 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Aare, C. (2014). Att se genom andras ögon: narrativa stretegier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage. Huddinge: Södertörns högskola
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att se genom andras ögon: narrativa stretegier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2014. p. 121
Series
Journalistikstudier vid Södertörns högskola ; 8
Keywords
journalistik, reportage, narrativa strategier
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-25192 (URN)978-91-979140-7-9 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2016-07-21Bibliographically approved
Aare, C. (2011). Det tidlösa reportaget. Lund: Studentlitteratur
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Det tidlösa reportaget
2011 (Swedish)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011. p. 272
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-14781 (URN)978-91-44-05886-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-01-17 Created: 2012-01-17 Last updated: 2012-01-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8376-7877

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