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Gustafsson Sendén, MarieORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5398-2894
Publications (10 of 30) Show all publications
Vergoossen, H. P., Renström, E. A., Lindqvist, A. & Gustafsson Sendén, M. (2020). Four Dimensions of Criticism Against Gender-Fair Language. Sex Roles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Four Dimensions of Criticism Against Gender-Fair Language
2020 (English)In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The gender-neutral third-person pronoun singular hen was recently introduced in Swedish as a complement to she (hon) and he (han). The initiative to add hen initially received strong criticism. In the present study, we analyzed 208 arguments from 168 participants with critical attitudes toward hen. We used Blaubergs’ (1980) and Parks and Roberton’s (1998) taxonomies of critical arguments against past gender-fair language reforms in English in the 1970s and 1990s as a basis for coding the arguments. A majority of arguments (80.7%) could be coded into existing categories, indicating that criticisms of gender-fair language initiatives are similar across different times and cultural contexts. Two categories of arguments did not fit existing categories (19.3%): gender-neutral pronouns are distracting in communication and gender information is important in communication. Furthermore, we established four overarching dimensions that capture assumptions and beliefs underlying gender-fair language criticism: (a) Defending the Linguistic Status Quo (39.4%), (b) Sexism and Cisgenderism (27.4%), (c) Diminishing the Issue and Its Proponents (26.9%), and (d) Distractor In Communication (6.3%). These dimensions of criticisms should be considered and addressed in different ways when implementing gender-fair language.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Gender, Gender identity, Gender-fair language, Gender-inclusive language, Gender-neutral pronouns, Hen, Language reforms, Pronouns, Sexism, adult, article, female, human, human experiment, language, major clinical study, male, nonhuman, taxonomy
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-40033 (URN)10.1007/s11199-019-01108-x (DOI)2-s2.0-85077598403 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1150
Available from: 2020-01-24 Created: 2020-01-24 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson Sendén, M. & Renström, E. A. (2019). Gender bias in assessment of future work ability among pain patients - an experimental vignette study of medical students' assessment. Scandinavian Journal of Pain, 19(2), 407-414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender bias in assessment of future work ability among pain patients - an experimental vignette study of medical students' assessment
2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Pain, ISSN 1877-8860, E-ISSN 1877-8879, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 407-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and aims Pain is a prevalent problem in many countries. Women are more often on sick-leave for pain than men. Such gender differences have been explained through biological factors, different demands for on the job market, and home conditions. Fewer studies have focused on how gender stereotypes may bias the medical assessment of pain patients. The aim of the present research was to investigate if a gender bias in medical students' evaluations of chronic pain patients can contribute to explaining the gender differences in sick-leave due to pain. Specifically, we investigated whether medical students' estimates of a patient's accuracy of their own work ability and amount of domestic work differed between female and male patients, and how such estimates influenced the medical students' judgments of the patient's work ability. Methods Medical students (n=137; 60 women; 74 men; three unspecified) read a vignette describing a patient with pain and filled out a questionnaire. The vignette was identical and gender neutral, except for the name of the patient signaling gender. A between-subjects experimental design was used in which participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition. Participants then judged the patient's work ability, the accuracy of the patient's self-assessed work ability, and the amount of domestic work they believed was performed by the patient. All ratings were made on seven-point items. Results The results showed that there was no main effect of gender on perceived future work ability of the patient, F (1,131)=0.867, p=0.353. However, male patients were considered to be more accurate in their self-assessed work ability than female patients F (1,131)=5.925 p=0.016 (Mfemale=4.87, SDfemale=1.22, and Mmale=5.33, SDmale=1.02). Moreover, female patients were thought to perform more domestic work, F (1,131)=25.56, p<0.001 (Mfemale=4.14, SDfemale=1.41, and Mmale=3.07, SDmale=1.16). Finally, perceived amount of domestic work moderated the effects of perceived future work ability for female but not for male patients, B=0.42, p=0.005. Hence, there was a positive effect of amount of domestic work performed on work ability judgments for women, such that the more domestic work they were assumed to perform, the more they were perceived to be able to work. Conclusions Gender stereotypes influenced assessments of future work ability in pain patients, mainly because women were assumed to perform more domestic work which had a positive effect on perceived work ability. Because domestic work should have a negative effect on recovery, expectations from the physician that domestic work is expected by female patients may in fact have the opposite effect prolonging sick-leave. Moreover, the students trusted the male patients' ability to assess their own work capacity more than women's. Implications It is important that medical students receive education about gender biases and how they may influence medical assessment during their training. Such education may alleviate the influence of gender stereotypes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter, 2019
Keywords
gender bias, medical assessment, pain patient, return to work, sick-leave
National Category
General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37429 (URN)10.1515/sjpain-2018-0108 (DOI)30653471 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060395651 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson Sendén, M., Eagly, A. & Sczesny, S. (2019). Of Caring Nurses and Assertive Police Officers: Social Role Information Overrides Gender Stereotypes in Linguistic Behavior. Social Psychology and Personality Science
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Of Caring Nurses and Assertive Police Officers: Social Role Information Overrides Gender Stereotypes in Linguistic Behavior
2019 (English)In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Three studies demonstrated the expression of gender stereotypes in linguistic behavior. In Study 1, participants composed sentences describing a person by freely choosing from female- or male-dominated occupations, female or male pronouns, and communal or agentic traits. In Study 2a, participants chose traits to describe a person identified by a female- or male-dominated occupation and in Study 2b by a female or male pronoun and noun. In Study 3, participants chose traits for a person identified by both a female- or male-dominated occupation and a female or male pronoun. In general, participants chose more communal and fewer agentic traits for sentences containing a female- (vs. male-) dominated occupation and a female (vs. male) pronoun or noun. However, participants described women and men in the same occupation as similarly agentic or communal, demonstrating the primacy of role over sex information as predicted by social role theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2019
Keywords
social role theory, gender stereotypes, linguistic behavior, sentence-generating task, agency, communion
National Category
Psychology Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-39504 (URN)10.1177/1948550619876636 (DOI)000496681300001 ()2-s2.0-85075162163 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-2640
Available from: 2019-12-05 Created: 2019-12-05 Last updated: 2019-12-11Bibliographically approved
Komlenac, N., Gustafsson Sendén, M., Verdonk, P., Hochleitner, M. & Siller, H. (2019). Parenthood does not explain the gender difference in clinical position in academic medicine among Swedish, Dutch and Austrian physicians. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 24(3), 539-557
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parenthood does not explain the gender difference in clinical position in academic medicine among Swedish, Dutch and Austrian physicians
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2019 (English)In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 539-557Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies have continuously shown that fewer women than men achieve leadership positions in academic medicine. In the current study we explored gender differences in clinical position among academic physicians at three university hospitals, each in a different European country. These countries, Sweden, the Netherlands and Austria, differ in terms of gender equality. We analyzed whether the number of children, working hours or publications could explain gender differences in physicians' clinical position. In this cross-sectional questionnaire study 1333 (54% female) physicians participated. Physicians were asked about their gender, age, number of children, working hours and clinical position. We used structural equation models to explore the influence of gender on the physicians' clinical position in each of the three countries. We explored whether the association between gender and clinical position could be explained by number of children, working hours or publication activity. The analyses revealed that at all three university hospitals gender influenced clinical position. These gender differences in clinical position could be partly explained by gender differences in publication activity. Female physicians as compared to male physicians were likely to publish fewer articles, and in turn these lower publication numbers were associated with lower clinical positions. The number of children or working hours did not explain gender differences in publication activity or clinical position. Therefore, factors other than unequal allocation of household labor, such as the academic working environment, may still disproportionately disadvantage women's progress, even at universities in countries with high rates of gender equality such as Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Academic career, Austria, HOUPE II, Parenthood, Physicians, Publication activity, Sweden, The Netherlands
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37854 (URN)10.1007/s10459-019-09882-9 (DOI)000475903500010 ()30840215 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062778670 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2020-04-06Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, A., Renström, E. A. & Gustafsson Sendén, M. (2019). Reducing a Male Bias in Language?: Establishing the Efficiency of Three Different Gender-Fair Language Strategies. Sex Roles, 1(1-2), 109-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reducing a Male Bias in Language?: Establishing the Efficiency of Three Different Gender-Fair Language Strategies
2019 (English)In: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 1, no 1-2, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different strategies of gender-fair language have been applied to reduce a male bias, which means the implicit belief that a word describing an undefined person describes a man. This male bias might be caused by the words themselves in terms of generic masculine or masculine forms or by androcentrism (the conflation of men with humanity). In two experiments, we tested how different gender-fair strategies used as labels of an unknown social target (an applicant in a recruitment situation) could eliminate the male bias. The three types of gender-fair strategies tested were: (a) paired forms (he/she), (b) traditional neutral words (e.g., singular they, “the applicant”), or (c) gender-neutral third-person pronouns actively created to challenge the binary gender system (ze, Swedish hen). The two experiments were performed in Swedish with 417 undergraduates in Sweden and in English with 411 U.S. participants recruited online. In Swedish, the third-person gender-neutral pronoun singular (hen) was used. In English, several forms of such gender-neutral pronouns have been suggested (e.g., ze). In both experiments, results indicated that paired forms and actively created gender-neutral pronouns eliminated the male bias, whereas traditional neutral words contained a male bias. Thus, gender-fair language strategies should avoid using traditional words. Consequences of using paired forms and creating new gender-neutral words are discussed. We argue that an actively created gender-neutral pronoun is of highest value because it is more inclusive. © 2018, The Author(s).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Androcentrism, Gender, Gender identity, Gender-fair language, Gender-inequality, Gender-neutral pronouns, Gender-studies, Grammatical gender, Language & languages, Male bias, Masculinity, Non-sexist language, Sexism in language, adult, article, female, hen, human, human experiment, language, male, nonhuman, sexism, Sweden
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-36740 (URN)10.1007/s11199-018-0974-9 (DOI)000471202100009 ()2-s2.0-85055549391 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2017–00418Swedish Research Council, 2014–1150Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16–0058:1
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Pietraszkiewicz, A., Formanowicz, M., Gustafsson Sendén, M., Boyd, R. L., Sikström, S. & Sczesny, S. (2019). The Big Two Dictionaries:Capturing Agency and Communion in Natural Language. European Journal of Social Psychology, 49(5), 871-887
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Big Two Dictionaries:Capturing Agency and Communion in Natural Language
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2019 (English)In: European Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0046-2772, E-ISSN 1099-0992, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 871-887Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Four studies developed and validated two dictionaries to capture agentic and communal expressions in natural language. Their development followed the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) approach (Study 1) and we tested their validity with frequency-based analyses and semantic similarity measures. The newly developed Agency and Communion dictionaries were aligned with LIWC categories related to agency and communion (Study 2), and corresponded with subjective ratings (Study 3), confirming their convergent validity. Very low or absent correspondence between proposed dictionaries and unrelated LIWC categories demonstrated their discriminant validity (Study 2). Finally, we applied both dictionaries to language used in advertisements. In correspondence to gender stereotypes, male-dominated jobs were advertised with more agentic than communal words, and female-dominated jobs with more communal than agentic words (Study 4). Both dictionaries represent reliable tools for quantifying agentic and communal content in natural language, and will improve and facilitate future research on agency and communion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
agency, communion, Big Two, computerized text analysis, LIWC, Measurement
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37567 (URN)10.1002/ejsp.2561 (DOI)000474648500003 ()2-s2.0-85061908899 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-02941Swedish Research Council, 2015-01229Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2014-2640Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2017-00418
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson Sendén, M., Klysing, A., Lindqvist, A. & Renström, E. A. (2019). The (Not So) Changing Man: Dynamic Gender Stereotypes in Sweden. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 37.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The (Not So) Changing Man: Dynamic Gender Stereotypes in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

According to Social Role Theory gender stereotypes are dynamic constructs influenced by actual and perceived changes in which roles women and men occupy (Wood & Eagly, 2011). Sweden is ranked as one of the most gender equal countries in the world, with a strong national equality discourse, and a relatively high number of men engaging in traditionally communal roles such as parenting and domestic tasks. This would imply a change towards higher communion among men. Therefore, we investigated the dynamics of gender stereotype content in Sweden with a primary interest in the male stereotype and perceptions of gender equality. In Study 1, participants (N = 323) estimated descriptive stereotype content of women and men in Sweden in the past, present or future. They also estimated gender distribution in occupations and domestic roles for each time-point. Results showed that the female stereotype increased in agentic traits from the past to the present, while the male stereotype had not changed. Furthermore, participants estimated no change for the future, and they overestimated how often women and men occupy gender nontraditional roles at present times. In Study 2, we controlled for participants’ actual knowledge about role change by either describing women’s change in agentic roles, or men’s change in communal roles (and a control). Participants (N = 648) were randomised to the three different conditions. Overall, the female stereotype increased in masculine traits, and this change was mediated by perceptions of social role occupation. The male stereotype did not change in femininity but decreased in masculinity when change focused on women’s role change in agentic roles. These results indicate that role change among women also influence perceptions of the male stereotype. Altogether, the results indicate that positive femininity is harder for men to gain, in that the only difference in gender stereotypes at present times occurred for this dimension.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019
National Category
Gender Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37566 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00037 (DOI)000457269300001 ()30761034 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061046589 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2020-03-30Bibliographically approved
Liuzza, M. T., Lindholm, T., Hawley, C. B., Gustafsson Sendén, M., Ekström, I., Olsson, M. J. & Olofsson, J. K. (2018). Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes. Royal Society Open Science, 5(2), Article ID 171091.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body odour disgust sensitivity predicts authoritarian attitudes
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2018 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 171091Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Authoritarianism has resurfaced as a research topic in political psychology, as it appears relevant to explain current political trends. Authoritarian attitudes have been consistently linked to feelings of disgust, an emotion that is thought to have evolved to protect the organism from contamination. We hypothesized that body odour disgust sensitivity (BODS) might be associated with authoritarianism, as chemo-signalling is a primitive system for regulating interpersonal contact and disease avoidance, which are key features also in authoritarianism. We used well-validated scales for measuring BODS, authoritarianism and related constructs. Across two studies, we found that BODS is positively related to authoritarianism. In a third study, we showed a positive association between BODS scores and support for Donald Trump, who, at the time of data collection, was a presidential candidate with an agenda described as resonating with authoritarian attitudes. Authoritarianism fully explained the positive association between BODS and support for Donald Trump. Our findings highlight body odour disgust as a new and promising domain in political psychology research. Authoritarianism and BODS might be part of the same disease avoidance framework, and our results contribute to the growing evidence that contemporary social attitudes might be rooted in basic sensory functions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society Publishing, 2018
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37601 (URN)10.1098/rsos.171091 (DOI)000426465700018 ()29515834 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85043498719 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Bäck, E. A., Bäck, H., Gustafsson Sendén, M. & Sikström, S. (2018). From I to we: Group formation and linguistic adaption in an online xenophobic forum. The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 6(1), 76-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>From I to we: Group formation and linguistic adaption in an online xenophobic forum
2018 (English)In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 76-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Much of identity formation processes nowadays takes place online, indicating that intergroup differentiation may be found in online communities. This paper focuses on identity formation processes in an open online xenophobic, anti-immigrant, discussion forum. Open discussion forums provide an excellent opportunity to investigate open interactions that may reveal how identity is formed and how individual users are influenced by other users. Using computational text analysis and Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC), our results show that new users change from an individual identification to a group identification over time as indicated by a decrease in the use of “I” and increase in the use of “we”. The analyses also show increased use of “they” indicating intergroup differentiation. Moreover, the linguistic style of new users became more similar to that of the overall forum over time. Further, the emotional content decreased over time. The results indicate that new users on a forum create a collective identity with the other users and adapt to them linguistically.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PsychOpen, 2018
Keywords
Group formation, Identity formation, Linguistic analysis, Online material, Social adaption
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37641 (URN)10.5964/jspp.v6i1.741 (DOI)000514924700005 ()2-s2.0-85045961874 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2020-03-24Bibliographically approved
Bäck, E. A., Lindqvist, A. & Gustafsson Sendén, M. (2018). Hen. Bakgrund, attityder och användande. Lund: Lunds universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hen. Bakgrund, attityder och användande
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

År 2015 infördes det könsneutrala pronomenet hen i Svenska akademins ordlista efter en känslomässig allmän debatt om ordet, dess innebörd och möjliga konsekvenser. Hösten 2015 genomförde vi en större enkätundersökning som besvarades av 1308 personer registrerade i Enkätfabrikens deltagarpanel. Enkäten presenterades som en studie om attityder i aktuella frågor, till exempel attityder till jämställdhet och det svenska språket. Enkäten innehöll frågor om attityder till och användande av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen. Till exempel ställdes frågor om hur ofta och i vilka situationer hen används, och vad deltagaren tycker om ordet. I enkäten fanns också mer generella frågor om jämställdhet och språk.I den här rapporten beskrivs först hur språk och jämställdhet är relaterade till varandra och hur språk antas kunna påverka uppfattningar om kön. Vi beskriver också specifikt hur införandet av hen gick till. Efter det följer resultat från enkäten.Studien är en del av ett större projekt vars huvudsakliga syfte är att studera attityder till och kognitiva effekter av det könsneutrala pronomenet hen. Andra studier i projektet inkluderar experimentella laboratoriestudier med ögonrörelsemätningar, enkät-experiment samt en uppföljande enkät till denna, för att studera förändringar över tid. Projektet är ett samarbete mellan de psykologiska institutionerna vid Stockholms, Lunds och Göteborgs universitet och har sin hemvist vid Stockholms universitet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Lund: Lunds universitet, 2018. p. 34
Series
Psykologiska rapporter från Lund, ISSN 1404-8124 ; Vol.8, nr 1
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37660 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1150
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5398-2894

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