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Konrad, M. T., Ørsted Nielsen, H., Branth Pedersen, A. & Elofsson, K. (2019). Drivers of Farmers' Investments in Nutrient Abatement Technologies in Five Baltic Sea Countries. Ecological Economics, 159, 91-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers of Farmers' Investments in Nutrient Abatement Technologies in Five Baltic Sea Countries
2019 (English)In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 159, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adoption of new manure and fertiliser technology is considered an effective tool to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution from agriculture, and policy instruments to encourage technology uptake are therefore widespread. But policy makers need to understand farmers' reasons for adoption of such technologies to design policies that actually work. Using data from a survey with responses from 2439 farmers in five countries around the Baltic Sea, we identify the drivers of technology adoption for three different abatement technologies: manure spreading equipment, slurry tanks, and precision technology for fertiliser application. We compare drivers for technology investments across technologies with a particular focus on the role of the scale of farm operations, neighbour relations, environmental concerns and innovation readiness. The results show that the scale of farm operation is important for the uptake of all three technologies, while we find no evidence that neighbour relations are important for technology investments. Environmental concerns for soil quality and other on-farm environmental qualities do drive investment; however, the impact of environmental concerns differs across technologies. Innovation readiness is a driver of investments in relation to some technologies, suggesting that the novelty or sophistication of the technology matters to the investing farmers.

Keywords
Baltic Sea, Farmer heterogeneity, Nutrient abatement, Technology adoption
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-37497 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.12.022 (DOI)000462105700010 ()2-s2.0-85060451296 (Scopus ID)
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Mensah, J. T., Persson, J., Kjellander, P. & Elofsson, K. (2019). Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 24th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE), Manchester, 26-29 June 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Carnivore Presence on Hunting Lease Pricing in South Sweden
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters’ harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We divide the impact of carnivores into two effects: one effect affects game harvests, and the other effect affects the hunters’ direct preferences for the presence of carnivores on hunting land. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

National Category
Economics Other Agricultural Sciences
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38564 (URN)
Conference
24th Annual Conference of the European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists (EAERE), Manchester, 26-29 June 2019
Projects
Carnivore costs - damage compensation and prevention
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 14/90
Available from: 2019-07-03 Created: 2019-07-03 Last updated: 2019-07-04Bibliographically approved
Mensah, J. T., Persson, J., Kjellander, P. & Elofsson, K. (2019). Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden. Forest Policy and Economics, 106, Article ID 101942.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of carnivore presence on hunting lease pricing in South Sweden
2019 (English)In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 106, article id 101942Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carnivore conservation is considered essential because the species offer significant benefits to biodiversity. However, their predation on ungulates reduces ungulate populations with subsequent effects on hunters' harvests and welfare. In this paper, we use the hedonic price method to estimate the effects of large carnivores on hunting lease prices. We disentangle the impact of carnivores through their effect on game harvest from their effect on hunters' preferences. Results reveal that lynx impose a significant economic cost to owners of hunting rights due to the predation of game. On average, the implicit cost of an additional lynx family is SEK 1.51 million (EUR 0.162 million) per year, and with 95% certainty, the cost per lynx family is at least SEK 340 thousand (EUR 36.6 thousand) per year.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
National Category
Economics Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38398 (URN)10.1016/j.forpol.2019.05.028 (DOI)000480344100004 ()2-s2.0-85067204388 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 802-0090-14
Available from: 2019-06-18 Created: 2019-06-18 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
diva2:1305887
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indirect Costs of Sheep Depredation by Large Carnivores in Sweden
2019 (English)In: Wildlife Society bulletin, ISSN 0091-7648, E-ISSN 1938-5463, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 53-61Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Carnivore depredation gives rise to direct costs for killed and injured animals as well as indirectcosts due to productivity losses and additional labor requirements. Our aim was to investigate indirect costs to sheep farmers in Sweden due to carnivore depredation and presence. We estimated these costs using surveydata describing conditions in 2013. Reproduction and time spent on fence maintenance and taking care of animals were analyzed to isolate effects of carnivore exposure from other factors that affect these variables. Results indicate that both high carnivore densities and attacks are associated with comparatively lower sheep reproduction. Farmers who experienced an attack spent much more on labor for maintaining fences, searching for lost animals, and bringing the animals in for the night. Results suggest that the indirect cost per adult female sheep is EUR23 for nonattacked herds in areas with high carnivore densities; EUR71 in herds that were attacked and where sheep are kept on fenced grazing land; and EUR100 on attacked summer-pasture farms, where free-range grazing is applied. A flat rate compensation per adult female sheep, differentiated between herds in areas with high carnivore density that have not been attacked and herds that have been attacked could be used to compensate sheep farmers for these costs.

Keywords
brown bear, direct and indirect costs, lynx, sheep, wildlife compensation, wolf
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38017 (URN)10.1002/wsb.951 (DOI)000461863500006 ()
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 802‐0090‐14
Available from: 2019-04-18 Created: 2019-04-18 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Menichetti, L., Touzot, L., Elofsson, K., Hyvönen, R., Kätterer, T. & Kjellander, P. (2019). Interactions between a population of fallow deer (Dama dama), humans and crops in a managed composite temperate landscape in southern Sweden: Conflict or opportunity?. PLoS ONE, 14(4), Article ID e0215594.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactions between a population of fallow deer (Dama dama), humans and crops in a managed composite temperate landscape in southern Sweden: Conflict or opportunity?
Show others...
2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0215594Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landscapes composed of agricultural land mixed with forest are desirable since they provide a wide range of diversified ecosystem services, unlike specialized agricultural landscapes, but that creates a trade-off between these land uses since wildlife usually feed on crops and reduce yields. In Nordic countries, where human population density is low and game hunting can be a viable economic alternative, mixed landscape systems are particularly interesting. To evaluate the economic sustainability of such systems we need to quantify wildlife damage to crops. One important species, being popular among Swedish hunters and therefore economically valuable, is fallow deer (Dama dama). Our objective was to evaluate the economic sustainability of mixed landscape systems including cultivated fields and commercial hunting of fallow deer. We studied the effects of excluding fallow deer by using 86 exclosures and adjacent plots in winter wheat and oat fields in south-west Sweden. We analyzed yield losses and interactions between spatial and temporal grazing patterns, anthropogenic landscape features, and topological characteristics of the landscape. We found that animals avoided exposed spots, irrespective of distance from human activity. We also found a seasonal grazing pattern related to the different growing periods of winter wheat (more grazed, emerging in autumn) and spring oat (less grazed, emerging in spring). We then compared the costs of crop damage against the commercial value of fallow deer hunting. The damage amounted to 375 ±196 € ha-1 for wheat and 152 ±138 € ha-1 for oat, corresponding to a total cost per animal of 82.7 ±81.0 €, while each animal had an estimated market value of approximately 100 €. Therefore the value of fallow deer presence compensated for the associated cost of crop damage. Profit could be further improved in this case by adopting additional management strategies. In general our study confirmed the economic feasibility of this particular mixed land management.

Keywords
Grazing, wildife damage, fallow deer, Sweden, costs, prevention
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society; Environmental Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38073 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0215594 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 11/96
Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved
Kiessling, A., Futter, M., Elofsson, K. & Vidakovic, A. (2019). Musselodling i Östersjön som miljöåtgärd: nya positiva data från tre pågående EU-projekt. Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Musselodling i Östersjön som miljöåtgärd: nya positiva data från tre pågående EU-projekt
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Nya resultat visar att musselodlingar i Östersjön har en betydande potential att bidra till att minska övergödningen samtidigt som förutsättningar skapas för en cirkulär ekonomi/produktion. För att ta musselodling till nästa nivå krävs dels ytterligare förfining av den nya tekniken, men framförallt fler och i förlängningen också större odlingar samtidigt som vi måste vidareutveckla alla de initiativ som nu pågår hur näringen kan återanvändas i livsmedelssystemet på ett effektivt och ekonomiskt lönsamt sätt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, 2019. p. 5
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38190 (URN)
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Elofsson, K. (2019). Shoot, fence or feed? Managing agricultural crop damages by twoecologically interdependent deer species. In: : . Paper presented at Third Nordic Annual Environmental and Resource Economics (NAERE) Workshop, Institute of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, April 11-12, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shoot, fence or feed? Managing agricultural crop damages by twoecologically interdependent deer species
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wildlife such as large grazers are associated with positive hunting values, but also with negative effects in terms of browsing damage to agricultural and forest crops. Hunters’ and land owners’ decisions on wildlife management and land use therefore affects the total gains from the management of the resources. Several tools are available to these decision-makers, such as population control, crop choice, diversion feeding and fencing. The issue is further complicated by the presence of multiple deer species that differ with respect to hunting values and crop damages, while also being ecologically interdependent, i.e. through interspecific competition for food. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the economically optimal management of land use and wildlife, in a situation with two ecologically interdependent deer species causing browsing damage to agricultural crops. Using a numerical optimization model, the Nash equilibrium for two separate agents is compared with the socially optimal outcome. Conditions are identified for diversion feeding and fencing being included in the solutions. Results suggest that fencing is included in the socially optimal solution for fencing investment costs being up to 3.5 times reference values obtained from business calculations. For diversion feeding to be included, the diversion effect needs to be 500 to 600 times the reference value, which was calculated based on species energy intake. The Nash equilibrium implies minor deviations from the socially optimal solution as long as fencing is reasonably cheap. If fencing is expensive, and therefore not applicable, the Nash equilibrium scenario implies an 8 percent reduction in the joint net present value, together with a 38 percent reduction in yield, and a doubling of fallow deer harvests and population.

National Category
Economics
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38189 (URN)
Conference
Third Nordic Annual Environmental and Resource Economics (NAERE) Workshop, Institute of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, April 11-12, 2019
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 14/90
Available from: 2019-05-24 Created: 2019-05-24 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Häggmark Svensson, T. & Elofsson, K. (2019). The Ex-Post Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Load Reductions From Nine Countries to the Baltic Sea Between 1996 and 2010. Water resources research, 55(6), 5119-5134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Ex-Post Cost-Effectiveness of Nitrogen Load Reductions From Nine Countries to the Baltic Sea Between 1996 and 2010
2019 (English)In: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 5119-5134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Policy efforts to improve Baltic Sea water quality will be expensive if the ambitious targets agreed are to be achieved. The aim of this study is to evaluate the ex-post cost-effectiveness of nitrogen load reductions to the Baltic Sea made between 1996 and 2010. We first calculate the counterfactual change in nitrogen load to the Baltic Sea and compare to observed loads. The costs of the net reductions are evaluated using a Baltic-wide cost-effectiveness model, which includes a wide set of nitrogen abatement measures in the littoral countries. Results show that the net nitrogen reductions achieved through environmental policy, about 145,000 tons total nitrogen, could have been obtained at 12% of the realized cost, through reallocation of abatement between countries. The total budget spent on abatement could, if used in a cost-effective manner, be sufficient for a doubling of the net nitrogen load reduction. Milestone targets, in combination with a compensation scheme between countries, could help to reduce policy costs. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
Keywords
cost-efficiency, eutrophication, ex-post analysis, Budget control, Cost effectiveness, Cost reduction, Environmental protection, Nitrogen, Seawater, Water quality, Compensation scheme, Cost effective, Cost efficiency, Effectiveness models, Environmental policy, Ex post analysis, Nitrogen reduction, Total nitrogen, Cost benefit analysis
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38670 (URN)10.1029/2018WR023978 (DOI)000477616900034 ()2-s2.0-85068205088 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Go4Baltic
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region, 2014-12
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Elofsson, K. & Häggmark Svensson, T. (2019). The impact of lynx and wolf on roe deer huntingvalue in Sweden 2002-2012. In: : . Paper presented at WONV 2019,7th Workshop on Non-Market Valuation, Marseille, 1-2 July.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of lynx and wolf on roe deer huntingvalue in Sweden 2002-2012
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Large carnivores provide ecosystem and cultural benefits but also impose costs on livestock owners, due to predation, and on hunters, due to the competition for game. The benefits as well as the costs that accrue to livestock owners have been studied, but this is not the case for the costs that accrue to hunters. The aim of this paper was to identify the impact of lynx (Lynx lynx) and wolf (Canis lupus) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) hunting value. We applied a production function approach, using a bioeconomic model where the number of roe deer harvested was assumed to be jointly determined by hunting effort, abundance of predators, availability of other game, and climatic conditions. The impact of the predators on the roe deer harvests was estimated econometrically, and carnivore impacts for a constant and adjusted, steady state hunting effort were derived. The results showed that the marginal cost in terms of hunting values foregone varied between the counties and ranged between 18,000 and 58,000 EUR for lynx and 79,000 and 336,000 EUR for wolf. Larger costs were found in counties where the hunting effort was high, mainly located in south Sweden. The regional variation in costs has implications for decisions on policies affecting the regional distribution of wolf and lynx.

National Category
Economics Other Agricultural Sciences
Research subject
Politics, Economy and the Organization of Society
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38565 (URN)
Conference
WONV 2019,7th Workshop on Non-Market Valuation, Marseille, 1-2 July
Projects
Carnivore costs - damage compensation and prevention
Funder
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 14/90
Available from: 2019-07-03 Created: 2019-07-03 Last updated: 2019-07-04Bibliographically approved
Brockwell, E. & Elofsson, K. (2019). The role of water quality for local environmental policy implementation. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of water quality for local environmental policy implementation
2019 (English)In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The objective of this study is to examine the role of surface water quality for the decisions by Swedish municipalities to adopt environmental targets and action plans, as well as allocating these decisions to a responsible authority. To this end, we assess how environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, as well as the availability of environmental expertise, affect these municipal decisions. Questionnaire data from the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, in combination with environmental monitoring data and official statistics, are used for the econometric analysis. Results show that: (i) municipalities with bad water quality, greater coastal length, and higher income are more inclined to adopt local policies; (ii) collaboration with interest groups increases the likelihood of adopting local policies; and (iii) municipalities with high Center Party representation tend to set responsibility for environmental policy with the municipal council board.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
environmental expertise, local environmental policy, logistic regression, stakeholder participation, Water Framework Directive
National Category
Public Administration Studies Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Research subject
Baltic and East European studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:sh:diva-38651 (URN)10.1080/09640568.2019.1627187 (DOI)000475254000001 ()2-s2.0-85068227030 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Go4Baltic
Funder
BONUS - Science for a better future of the Baltic Sea region
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-06Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1653-3437

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